Abstract

Deep shadowing of a normally incident plane wave by an opaque circular disk is partially negated by the formation of a region of strong intensity surrounding the axis passing normally through the disk center. This local intensity enhancement, historically referred to as the Poisson Spot (also known as the Spot of Arago), has been the principal source of difficulties in applications where a significant reduction of the incident intensity is essential. In particular, the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder’s (TPF) mission requires suppression of direct starlight by at least 10 orders of magnitude over the entire visible spectral range. One technique that has been proposed for blocking the direct starlight is to use a rotationally symmetric disk with petallike segments along its boundary. We find that, even though such configurations could, indeed, theoretically provide the desired intensity reduction, they would require unreasonably small radii of curvature at the petals’ tips (in the range of micrometers). When the radii of curvature are increased to 3mm, the intensity reduction drops to a modest 5 to 6 orders of magnitude. Given that for the NASA’s TPF mission the proposed occulter radius would be on the order of 25m, even the 3mm radius of curvature would be too small for any practical implementation. Further increases of the radius of curvature result in progressively poorer intensity suppression. As an alternative solution we propose an apodized circular disk. We show that with an optimized apodization function, intensity reductions of at least 10 orders of magnitude can be achieved over the entire visible spectral range. Numerical results are presented for parameters appropriate to the NASA TPF mission.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (1)

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. J. Vanderbei, E. Cady, and N. J. Kasdin, “Optimal occulter design for finding extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 665, 794–798(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

W. Cash, “Detection of Earthlike planets around nearby stars using a petal-shaped occulter,” Nature 442, 51–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. C. Carson, “Graded coronagraphic masks for high-contrast near-infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051D–59051D-12(2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570, 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Nisenson and C. Papaliolios, “Detection of Earthlike planets using apodized telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 548, L201–L205(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. J. Copi and G. D. Starkman, “The Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS),” Astrophys. J. 532, 581–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bally, J.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benson, S.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cady, E.

R. J. Vanderbei, E. Cady, and N. J. Kasdin, “Optimal occulter design for finding extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 665, 794–798(2007).
[CrossRef]

Carson, J. C.

J. C. Carson, “Graded coronagraphic masks for high-contrast near-infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051D–59051D-12(2005).
[CrossRef]

Cash, W.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Cash, “Detection of Earthlike planets around nearby stars using a petal-shaped occulter,” Nature 442, 51–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Content, D.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Copi, C. J.

C. J. Copi and G. D. Starkman, “The Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS),” Astrophys. J. 532, 581–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dailey, D.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Decker, K.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dehmohseni, R.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeMarines, J.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dorland, B.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dudik, R.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Folta, D.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garrison, S.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gaugh, B.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gaume, R.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gendreau, K.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glassman, T.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, J.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haney, M.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, K.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hejal, R.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Howard, J.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, T.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasdin, N. J.

R. J. Vanderbei, E. Cady, and N. J. Kasdin, “Optimal occulter design for finding extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 665, 794–798(2007).
[CrossRef]

Kendrick, S.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuchner, M. J.

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570, 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lakins, D.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, J.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leviton, D.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lillie, C.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, A.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luquette, R.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mason, B.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nisenson, P.

P. Nisenson and C. Papaliolios, “Detection of Earthlike planets using apodized telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 548, L201–L205(2001).
[CrossRef]

Noecker, C.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Conner, D.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oakley, P.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oegerley, B.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oleas, G.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oleson, S.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Papaliolios, C.

P. Nisenson and C. Papaliolios, “Detection of Earthlike planets using apodized telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 548, L201–L205(2001).
[CrossRef]

Polidan, R.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Richon, K.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roberge, A.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Samuele, R.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shields, S.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shipley, A.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shirvanian, J.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

G. Smith, An Introduction to Classical Electromagnetic Radiation (Cambridge University, 1997).

SooHoo, D.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Starkman, G. D.

C. J. Copi and G. D. Starkman, “The Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS),” Astrophys. J. 532, 581–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tinetti, G.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tompkins, S.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570, 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, M.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tveekrem, J.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbei, R. J.

R. J. Vanderbei, E. Cady, and N. J. Kasdin, “Optimal occulter design for finding extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 665, 794–798(2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Vanderbei, “Eliminating Poisson’s spot with linear programming,” in Operations Research and Cyber-Infrastructure, J.W.Chinneck, B.Kristjansson, and M.J.Saltzman, eds. (2009). pp. 455–467.
[CrossRef]

Woodgate, B.

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (4)

C. J. Copi and G. D. Starkman, “The Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS),” Astrophys. J. 532, 581–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson and C. Papaliolios, “Detection of Earthlike planets using apodized telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 548, L201–L205(2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570, 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Vanderbei, E. Cady, and N. J. Kasdin, “Optimal occulter design for finding extrasolar planets,” Astrophys. J. 665, 794–798(2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. Cash, “Detection of Earthlike planets around nearby stars using a petal-shaped occulter,” Nature 442, 51–53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

W. Cash, S. Kendrick, C. Noecker, J. Bally, J. DeMarines, J. Green, P. Oakley, A. Shipley, S. Benson, S. Oleson, D. Content, D. Folta, S. Garrison, K. Gendreau, K. Hartman, J. Howard, T. Hyde, D. Lakins, J. Leitner, D. Leviton, R. Luquette, B. Oegerley, K. Richon, A. Roberge, S. Tompkins, J. Tveekrem, B. Woodgate, M. Turnbull, D. Dailey, K. Decker, R. Dehmohseni, B. Gaugh, T. Glassman, M. Haney, R. Hejal, C. Lillie, A. Lo, D. O’Conner, G. Oleas, R. Polidan, R. Samuele, S. Shields, J. Shirvanian, D. SooHoo, G. Tinetti, B. Dorland, R. Dudik, R. Gaume, and B. Mason, “The New Worlds Observer: the astrophysics strategic mission concept study,” Proc. SPIE 7436, 743606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Carson, “Graded coronagraphic masks for high-contrast near-infrared imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 59051D–59051D-12(2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. J. Vanderbei, “Eliminating Poisson’s spot with linear programming,” in Operations Research and Cyber-Infrastructure, J.W.Chinneck, B.Kristjansson, and M.J.Saltzman, eds. (2009). pp. 455–467.
[CrossRef]

G. Smith, An Introduction to Classical Electromagnetic Radiation (Cambridge University, 1997).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Space-based optical occulter for detection of Earthlike planets.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of planar occulter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

16-petal occulter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity reduction with 6-petal occulter ( R = 25 m , r 0 = 0.045 , m = 8 ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optimized transparency function for polynomial of fourth, eighth, and tenth order.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Truncated transparency function for polynomials of fourth, tenth, and fortieth order.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity reduction along optical axis for scaled apodized circular disk.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intensity reduction along optical axis using a transparency function with fortieth order of polynomials.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Intensity reduction off the central axis.

Equations (69)

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E y ( 0 , z ) = A 1 2 π 0 2 π z e i k 0 z 2 + ρ 2 ( φ ) z 2 + ρ 2 ( φ ) d φ ,
I ( 0 , r f ) = 1 ( 2 π ) 2 | 0 2 π e i π [ ρ ( φ ) / R ] 2 / r f d φ | 2 .
ρ ( φ ) R = r 0 + 1 r 0 f max f ( φ ) ,
f ( φ ) = [ ln ( 1 + p ) ( π / N ) 2 ( φ π / N ) 2 + p ( π / N ) 2 ] 1 / m
f max = f ( π / N ) = [ ln ( 1 + p ) p ] 1 / m .
r c = R m ( π / N ) 2 p ln ( 1 + p p ) 2 ( 1 r 0 ) + m ( π / N ) 2 p ln ( 1 + p p ) .
E y ( 0 , z ) = A 0 R z e i k 0 z 2 + ρ 2 z 2 + ρ 2 d T ( ρ ) d ρ d ρ .
E y ( 0 , z ) = A z e i k 0 z 2 + R 2 z 2 + R 2 ,
E y ( 0 , r f ) = A r f ( R / λ ) 0 1 e i 2 π ( R / λ ) r f 2 ( R / λ ) 2 + ρ ^ 2 r f 2 ( R / λ ) 2 + ρ ^ 2 d T ( ρ ^ ) d ρ ^ d ρ ^ .
E y ( 0 , r f ) = A e i k 0 z 0 1 e i π ρ ^ 2 / r f d T ( ρ ^ ) d ρ ^ d ρ ^
I ( 0 , r f ) = | 0 1 e i π ρ ^ 2 / r f d T ( ρ ^ ) d ρ ^ d ρ ^ | 2 .
E ( r ) = 1 ( 2 π ) 2 e i k t . ρ i k z z E t ( k t ) d 2 k t ,
E t ( k t ) = y 0 E y + z 0 E z .
E z = E y k y k z .
E ( ρ , 0 ) = { y 0 A ; ρ S y 0 A T ( ρ ) ; ρ S ,
E y ( k t ) = A ρ S T ( ρ ) e i k t . ρ d 2 ρ + A ρ S e i k t . ρ d 2 ρ .
E y ( k t ) = A ( 2 π ) 2 δ ( k t ) A ρ S [ 1 T ( ρ ) ] e i k t · ρ d 2 ρ .
E ( k t ) = y 0 E y ( k t ) z 0 E y ( k t ) k y k z ,
E ( r ) = y 0 A e i k 0 z E ( S ) ( r ) ,
E y ( S ) ( ρ , z ) = A ρ S [ 1 T ( ρ ) ] d 2 ρ 1 ( 2 π ) 2 e i k t . ( ρ ρ ) e i k z z d 2 k t .
E y ( S ) ( 0 , z ) = A ρ S [ 1 T ( ρ ) ] d 2 ρ 1 ( 2 π ) 2 e i k t . ρ e i k z z d 2 k t = A ( 2 π ) 2 0 2 π d φ 0 R ( φ ) ρ [ 1 T ( ρ , φ ) ] d ρ 0 k t d k t e i k 0 2 k t 2 z 0 2 π e i k t ρ cos ( β φ ) d β ,
J 0 ( k t ρ ) = 1 2 π 0 2 π e i k t ρ cos ( β φ ) d β
k t ρ J 0 ( k t ρ ) = d d ρ [ ρ J 1 ( k t ρ ) ] ,
E y ( S ) ( 0 , z ) = A 2 π 0 2 π d φ { 1 T [ R ( φ ) , φ ] } 0 R ( φ ) J 1 [ k t R ( φ ) ] e i k 0 2 k t 2 z d k t + A 2 π 0 2 π d φ 0 R ( φ ) T ( ρ , φ ) ρ d ρ 0 ρ J 1 ( k t ρ ) e i k 0 2 k t 2 z d k t .
d d k t J 0 ( k t R ) = R J 1 ( k t R ) , d d k t J 1 ( k t ρ ) = ρ J 0 ( k t ρ ) ,
0 d k t R ( φ ) J 1 [ k t R ( φ ) ] e i k 0 2 k t 2 z = 0 d k t { d d k t J 0 [ k t R ( φ ) ] } e i k 0 2 k t 2 z = e i k 0 z + i 0 J 0 [ k t R ( φ ) ] k t d k t z e i k 0 2 k t 2 z k 0 2 k t 2 ,
0 d k t ρ ( φ ) J 1 [ k t ρ ( φ ) ] e i k 0 2 k t 2 z = 0 d k t { d d k t J 0 [ k t ρ ( φ ) ] } e i k 0 2 k t 2 z = e i k 0 z + i 0 J 0 [ k t ρ ( φ ) ] k t d k t z e i k 0 2 k t 2 z k 0 2 k t 2 .
1 4 π z 2 + ρ 2 e i k 0 z 2 + ρ 2 = 1 2 π 0 k t d k t J 0 ( k t ρ ) e i k 0 2 k t 2 z 2 i k 0 2 k t 2 .
E y ( S ) ( 0 , z ) = A 2 π 0 2 π d φ { 1 T [ R ( φ ) , φ ] } [ e i k 0 z z e i k 0 z 2 + R ( φ ) 2 z 2 + R ( φ ) 2 ] + A 2 π 0 2 π d φ 0 R ( φ ) d ρ T ( ρ , φ ) ρ [ e i k 0 z z e i k 0 z 2 + ρ 2 z 2 + ρ 2 ] .
E y ( 0 , z ) = A 2 π 0 2 π d φ { 1 T [ R ( φ ) , φ ] } z e i k 0 z 2 + R ( φ ) 2 z 2 + R ( φ ) 2 + A 2 π 0 2 π d φ 0 R ( φ ) d ρ T ( ρ , φ ) ρ z e i k 0 z 2 + ρ 2 z 2 + ρ 2 .
E y ( 0 , z ) = A 2 π 0 2 π d φ z e i k 0 z 2 + ρ ( φ ) 2 z 2 + ρ ( φ ) 2 ,
E y ( 0 , z ) = A z e i k 0 z 2 + R 2 z 2 + R 2 ,
r f = 2 π z k 0 R 2 .
E y ( 0 , z ) = A r f 2 π 0 2 π e i 2 π ( R / λ ) 2 r f 2 + ( λ / R ) 2 [ ρ ( φ ) / R ] 2 r f 2 + ( λ / R ) 2 [ ρ ( φ ) / R ] 2 d φ .
I ( R / λ , r f ) = ( r f 2 π ) 2 | 0 2 π e i 2 π ( R / λ ) 2 r f 2 + ( λ / R ) 2 [ ρ ( φ ) / R ] 2 r f 2 + ( λ / R ) 2 [ ρ ( φ ) / R ] 2 d φ | 2 .
I ( 0 , r f ) = 1 ( 2 π ) 2 | 0 2 π e i π [ ρ ( φ ) / R ] 2 / r f d φ | .
ρ ( φ ) R = r 0 + 1 r 0 f 1 max f ( φ ) ,
f ( φ ) = [ ln ( 1 + p ) ( π / N ) 2 ( φ π / N ) 2 + p ( π / N ) 2 ] 1 / m ,
f max = f ( π / N ) = [ ln ( 1 + p ) p ] 1 / m ,
r c = R m p ( π / N ) 2 ln ( 1 + p p ) 2 ( 1 r 0 ) + m p ( π / N ) 2 ln ( 1 + p p ) .
E y ( S ) ( ρ , z ) = A 0 R [ 1 T ( ρ ) ] ρ d ρ 1 ( 2 π ) 2 0 2 π d φ e i k t . ( ρ ρ ) e i k z z d 2 k t .
E y ( S ) ( ρ , z ) = A 0 R [ 1 T ( ρ ) ] ρ d ρ 1 ( 2 π ) 2 0 k t d k t e i k 0 2 k t 2 z 0 2 π d φ 0 2 π d β e i k t ρ cos ( β φ ) e i k t ρ cos ( β φ ) .
E y ( S ) ( ρ , z ) = A 0 d k t e i k 0 2 k t 2 z J 0 ( k t ρ ) 0 R [ 1 T ( ρ ) ] k t ρ J 0 ( k t ρ ) d ρ .
0 R [ 1 T ( ρ ) ] d d ρ [ ρ J 1 ( k t ρ ) ] d ρ = [ 1 T ( ρ ) ] ρ J 1 ( k t ρ ) | 0 R + 0 R ρ J 1 ( k t ρ ) d T ( ρ ) d ρ d ρ .
E y ( S ) ( ρ , z ) = A 0 R d T ( ρ ) d ρ d ρ 0 d k t e i k 0 2 k t 2 z J 0 ( k t ρ ) ρ J 1 ( k t ρ ) .
E y ( S ) ( ρ , z ) = A 0 R d T ( ρ ) d ρ d ρ [ 0 d k t e i k 0 2 k t 2 z J 0 ( k t ρ ) ( d d k t J 0 ( k t ρ ) ) ] = A 0 R d T ( ρ ) d ρ d ρ [ e i k 0 2 k t 2 z J 0 ( k t ρ ) J 0 ( k t ρ ) | 0 + 0 J 0 ( k t ρ ) d d k t ( e i k 0 2 k t 2 z J 0 ( k t ρ ) ) d k t ] = A e i k 0 z + A 0 R d T ( ρ ) d ρ d ρ 0 J 0 ( k t ρ ) d d k t ( e i k 0 2 k t 2 z J 0 ( k t ρ ) ) d k t .
E y ( ρ , z ) = A 0 R d T ( ρ ) d ρ d ρ 0 J 0 ( k t ρ ) d d k t ( e i k 0 2 k t 2 z J 0 ( k t ρ ) ) d k t = A 0 R d T ( ρ ) d ρ d ρ 0 d k t J 0 ( k t ρ ) e i k 0 2 k t 2 z [ i k t z J 0 ( k t ρ ) k 0 2 k t 2 + ρ J 1 ( k t ρ ) ] ,
I ( ρ , φ ) = E y ( ρ , φ ) A 2 .
E y ( 0 , z ) = A 0 R d T ( ρ ) d ρ d ρ 0 i k t z J 0 ( k t ρ ) e i k 0 2 k t 2 z k 0 2 k t 2 d k t
E y ( 0 , z ) = A 0 R z e i k 0 z 2 + ρ 2 z 2 + ρ 2 d T ( ρ ) d ρ d ρ
ρ ^ = ρ / R , ρ ^ = ρ / R , κ = k t R , r f = 2 π z / k 0 R 2 ,
E y ( 0 , r f ) = A r f ( R / λ ) 0 1 e i 2 π ( R / λ ) r f 2 ( R / λ ) 2 + ρ ^ 2 r f 2 ( R / λ ) 2 + ρ ^ 2 d T ( ρ ^ ) d ρ ^ d ρ ^ .
I ( 0 , r f ) = r f 2 ( R / λ ) 2 | 0 1 e i 2 π ( R / λ ) r f 2 ( R / λ ) 2 + ρ ^ 2 r f 2 ( R / λ ) 2 + ρ ^ 2 d T ( ρ ^ ) d ρ ^ d ρ ^ | 2 .
I ( 0 , r f ) = | 0 1 e i π ρ ^ 2 r f d T ( ρ ^ ) d ρ ^ d ρ ^ | 2 .
I ( ρ ^ , r f ) = | 0 1 d T ( ρ ^ ) d ρ ^ g ( r f , ρ ^ , ρ ^ ) d ρ ^ | 2 ,
g ( ρ ^ , ρ ^ , r f ) = 0 e i r f 4 π κ 2 J 0 ( κ ρ ^ ) [ i r f κ J 0 ( κ ρ ^ ) 2 π + ρ ^ J 1 ( κ ρ ^ ) ] d κ .
T ( ρ ^ ) = { T ( ρ ^ a / R 1 a / R ) ; a / R ρ ^ 1 0 ; 0 ρ ^ a / R .
T ( ρ ^ ) = = 1 M c ρ ^
I [ 0 , r f ( m ) ] = | 0 1 e i π ρ ^ 2 / r f ( m ) d ρ ^ = 1 M c ρ ^ 1 | 2 = | = 1 M ψ m | ,
I a v N = 1 N m = 1 N I [ r f ( m ) , 0 ] = 1 N m = 1 N | = 1 M ψ m c | 2 = 1 N = 1 M k = 1 M c c k ( m = 1 N ψ m ψ k m * ) .
I a v N = 1 N = 1 M k = 1 M c c k A l k = 1 N c T Ac 0 ,
c = [ c 1 c 2 c 3 c M ] T .
δ [ c T Ac + q ( 1 c T 1 ) ] = 0 ,
c = q ( A + A T ) 1 1.
q = 1 1 T ( A + A T ) 1 1 ,
c opt = ( A + A T ) 1 1 1 T ( A + A T ) 1 1 .
T ( ρ ^ ) = { 0 ; 0 ρ ^ a / R = 0 N c ρ ^ ; a / R ρ ^ 1 .
I [ 0 , r f ( m ) ] = | a / R 1 e i π ρ ^ 2 / r f ( m ) d ρ ^ = 1 M c ( ρ ^ a / r 1 a / R ) 1 | 2 = | = 1 M ψ m |
ψ m = a / R 1 e i π ρ ^ 2 / r f ( m ) ( ρ ^ a / R 1 a / R ) 1 d ρ ^ .

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