Abstract

The study related in this paper is the design of a ship-mounted LED of high brightness and distant spot. The freeform lens design obeying the edge ray principle and Snell’s law is presented first. Then, to fit the illumination requirement of the searchlight, we designed a freeform lens to collimate all the light rays coming from the LED. However, theoretical analysis proves that there is a critical angle for incident rays beyond which the rays cannot be collimated, and 55% is the light-efficiency limit for polymethyl methacrylate freeform lens. We then designed a combination of a freeform lens–coupled parabolic reflector that improved light efficiency to 70%. In this paper, the design of the freeform lens–coupled parabolic reflector is given in detail. In addition, tolerance analysis and the effect of manufacturing defect are presented.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

1997 (1)

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “New TIR lens applications for light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3139, 135–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “TIR lenses for fluorescent lamps,” Proc. SPIE 2538, 93–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1972 (1)

Chen, F.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical design for LED lighting,” presented at the 5th China International Exhibition and Forum on Solid State Lighting, Shenzhen, China, 24–26 July 2008.

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, and Z. Y. Liu, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Effect of manufacturing defects on optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses,” Opt. Express 17, 5457–5465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chi, W.

Craford, M. G.

Ding, Y.

George, N.

Gu, P. F.

Hao, X.

Harbers, G.

Krames, M. R.

Liu, S.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical design for LED lighting,” presented at the 5th China International Exhibition and Forum on Solid State Lighting, Shenzhen, China, 24–26 July 2008.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Effect of manufacturing defects on optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses,” Opt. Express 17, 5457–5465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, and Z. Y. Liu, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, Z. Y.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical design for LED lighting,” presented at the 5th China International Exhibition and Forum on Solid State Lighting, Shenzhen, China, 24–26 July 2008.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Effect of manufacturing defects on optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses,” Opt. Express 17, 5457–5465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, and Z. Y. Liu, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. B.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical design for LED lighting,” presented at the 5th China International Exhibition and Forum on Solid State Lighting, Shenzhen, China, 24–26 July 2008.

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, and Z. Y. Liu, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Effect of manufacturing defects on optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses,” Opt. Express 17, 5457–5465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mach, R. M.

Mueller, G. O.

Parkyn, W. A.

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “New TIR lens applications for light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3139, 135–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “TIR lenses for fluorescent lamps,” Proc. SPIE 2538, 93–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pelka, D. G.

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “New TIR lens applications for light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3139, 135–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “TIR lenses for fluorescent lamps,” Proc. SPIE 2538, 93–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rabl, A.

Ries, H.

Schruben, J. S.

Shchekin, O. B.

Wang, K.

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical design for LED lighting,” presented at the 5th China International Exhibition and Forum on Solid State Lighting, Shenzhen, China, 24–26 July 2008.

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, and Z. Y. Liu, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Effect of manufacturing defects on optical performance of discontinuous freeform lenses,” Opt. Express 17, 5457–5465 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhen, Z. R.

Zheng, Z. R.

Zhou, L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, and Z. Y. Liu, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality light-emitting diode MR16 lamps” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “New TIR lens applications for light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3139, 135–140 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “TIR lenses for fluorescent lamps,” Proc. SPIE 2538, 93–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Wang, S. Liu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Optical design for LED lighting,” presented at the 5th China International Exhibition and Forum on Solid State Lighting, Shenzhen, China, 24–26 July 2008.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculating the discrete points of the seed curve of the freeform lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Construction of a center symmetry freeform lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light distribution of LED and the searchlight.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ray trace of a freeform lens at the cross section.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Critical circumstance of a freeform lens for collimation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illumination distribution on the target plane of three different-sized freeform lenses: (a)  h = 10 mm , (b)  h = 15 mm , and (c)  h = 20 mm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Curve of light efficiency versus the height of the freeform lens.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of parabolic reflectors with an LED located on the focus.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Freeform lens–coupled parabolic reflector.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Illumination distribution on target plane and (b) light distribution curve of the combination.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Searchlight constructed from 56 optical units.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Installation errors of (a) horizontal deviation, (b) vertical deviation, and (c) rotational error.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Curves of light efficiency versus d v and d h when they range from 0 to 0.5 mm . (b) Curve of light efficiency versus d θ as it changes from 0 ° to 10 ° .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Light rays refracted by a (a) smooth lens surface, (b) rough lens surface.

Equations (3)

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[ 1 + n 2 2 n ( O I ) ] 1 2 N = O n I .
0 2 π 0 0.5 π I 0 cos θ sin θ d θ d φ
0 2 π 0 0.27 π I 0 cos θ sin θ d θ d φ .

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