Abstract

Hue-discrimination functions were derived from hue-naming data (480620nm, 20nm steps) obtained in 4min intervals from 4min to 28min postbleach at 10° temporal retinal eccentricity. Hue-naming data were also obtained in the fovea. Hue-discrimination functions derived at the 4, 8, and 12min intervals were very similar to those derived in the fovea. As time postbleach exceeded 12min and rod sensitivity increased, the shape of the hue- discrimination functions changed. Most notably, the minimum between 560580nm disappeared and the just noticeable differences (JNDs) for the longer wavelength stimuli increased. The long-wavelength suppression in hue discrimination may be due to rod input in the magnocellular pathway interacting and affecting the long- wavelength sensitivity of the parvocellular pathway.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. O. Stendler, “Die Farbenempfindlichkeit des normalen und farbebinden Auges,” Sitz. Math-Nat. Schaft. Klass 115, 39–62(1906).
  2. L. A. Jones, “The fundamental scale of the pure hue and retinal sensibility to hue differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1, 63–77 (1917).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Lauren and W. F. Hamilton, “The sensibility of the eye to differences in wave-length,” Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547–568(1923).
  4. W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “Hue-discrimination in normal colour-vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. E. Bedford and G. W. Wyszecki, “Wavelength discrimination for point sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 129–135 (1958).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Gilbert, “Colour perception in parafoveal vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 63, 83–89 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Weale, “Hue discrimination in para-central parts of the human retina measured at different luminance levels,” J. Physiol. 113, 115–122 (1951).
    [PubMed]
  8. R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. 119, 170–190 (1953).
    [PubMed]
  9. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. A. van Esch, E. E. Kodenhof, A. J. van Doorn, and J. J. Koenderink, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443–450 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. P. Smith, “Derivation of wavelength discrimination from colour-naming data,” Vision Res. 11, 739–742 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. V. Graham, M. E. Turner, Jr., and D. C. Hurst, “Derivation of wavelength discrimination from color naming,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 109–111 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. V. Graham, M. E. Turner, Jr., R. Holland, E. L. Bradley, and J. A. Burdeshaw, “Wavelength discrimination derived from color naming,” Vision Res. 16, 559–562 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences,” Proc. SPIE 1250, 40–51 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Chan, I. Abramov, and J. Gordon, “Large and small color difference: Predicting them from hue scaling,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 381–389 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and K. A. Haase, “The influence of rods on colour naming during dark adaptation,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J.D.Mollon, J.Pokorny, and K.Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 173–178.
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137–2142 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. J. Volbrecht, C. L. Clark, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Randell, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10° along the horizontal and vertical meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1167–1177 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vision Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. 217, 447–471.
    [PubMed]
  26. W. A. H. Rushton and D. Spitzer Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. C. Thomson and P. Trezona, “The variations of hue discrimination with change of luminance level,” J. Physiol. 114, 98–106(1951).
    [PubMed]
  29. I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. Birch and W. D. Wright, “Colour discrimination,” Phys. Med. Biol. 6, 3–24 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. A. Jameson, S. M. Highnote, and L. M. Wasserman, “Richer color experience in observers with multiple opsin genes,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 244–261 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–433 (1967).
  34. H. v. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, Vol.  II, J.P. C.Southall, trans. (Dover, 1962); originally published in 1866.
  35. J. H. Nelson, “Anomalous trichromatism and its relation to normal trichromatism,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 50, 661–702(1938).
    [CrossRef]
  36. N. J. Coletta and A. J. Adams, “Rod-cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: Evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182(1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, and T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  39. G. Lange, N. Denny, and T. E. Frumkes, “Suppressive rod-cone interactions: Evidence for separate retinal (temporal) and extraretinal (spatial) mechanisms in achromatic vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2487–2498 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. Gur, “The physiological basis of wavelength discrimination: Evidence from dichoptic and Ganzfeld viewing,” Vision Res. 26, 1257–1262 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  42. V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeld, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkingje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vision Res. 27, 191–200(1987).
    [CrossRef]
  43. K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Volbrecht, C. L. Clark, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Randell, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10° along the horizontal and vertical meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1167–1177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137–2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. A. Jameson, S. M. Highnote, and L. M. Wasserman, “Richer color experience in observers with multiple opsin genes,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 244–261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

H. Chan, I. Abramov, and J. Gordon, “Large and small color difference: Predicting them from hue scaling,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 381–389 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences,” Proc. SPIE 1250, 40–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, and T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. Gur, “The physiological basis of wavelength discrimination: Evidence from dichoptic and Ganzfeld viewing,” Vision Res. 26, 1257–1262 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (3)

J. A. van Esch, E. E. Kodenhof, A. J. van Doorn, and J. J. Koenderink, “Spectral sensitivity and wavelength discrimination of the human peripheral visual field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 443–450 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Coletta and A. J. Adams, “Rod-cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: Evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182(1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).
[PubMed]

1979 (1)

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

B. V. Graham, M. E. Turner, Jr., R. Holland, E. L. Bradley, and J. A. Burdeshaw, “Wavelength discrimination derived from color naming,” Vision Res. 16, 559–562 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

W. A. H. Rushton and D. Spitzer Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

D. P. Smith, “Derivation of wavelength discrimination from colour-naming data,” Vision Res. 11, 739–742 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (2)

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vision Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–433 (1967).

1961 (1)

J. Birch and W. D. Wright, “Colour discrimination,” Phys. Med. Biol. 6, 3–24 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

1953 (1)

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. 119, 170–190 (1953).
[PubMed]

1951 (2)

R. A. Weale, “Hue discrimination in para-central parts of the human retina measured at different luminance levels,” J. Physiol. 113, 115–122 (1951).
[PubMed]

L. C. Thomson and P. Trezona, “The variations of hue discrimination with change of luminance level,” J. Physiol. 114, 98–106(1951).
[PubMed]

1950 (1)

M. Gilbert, “Colour perception in parafoveal vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 63, 83–89 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

J. H. Nelson, “Anomalous trichromatism and its relation to normal trichromatism,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 50, 661–702(1938).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “Hue-discrimination in normal colour-vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1923 (1)

H. Lauren and W. F. Hamilton, “The sensibility of the eye to differences in wave-length,” Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547–568(1923).

1917 (1)

1906 (1)

O. Stendler, “Die Farbenempfindlichkeit des normalen und farbebinden Auges,” Sitz. Math-Nat. Schaft. Klass 115, 39–62(1906).

Abramov, I.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chan, I. Abramov, and J. Gordon, “Large and small color difference: Predicting them from hue scaling,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 381–389 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences,” Proc. SPIE 1250, 40–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–433 (1967).

Adams, A. J.

N. J. Coletta and A. J. Adams, “Rod-cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. 217, 447–471.
[PubMed]

Baker, L. S.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedford, R. E.

Birch, J.

J. Birch and W. D. Wright, “Colour discrimination,” Phys. Med. Biol. 6, 3–24 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, E. L.

B. V. Graham, M. E. Turner, Jr., R. Holland, E. L. Bradley, and J. A. Burdeshaw, “Wavelength discrimination derived from color naming,” Vision Res. 16, 559–562 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burdeshaw, J. A.

B. V. Graham, M. E. Turner, Jr., R. Holland, E. L. Bradley, and J. A. Burdeshaw, “Wavelength discrimination derived from color naming,” Vision Res. 16, 559–562 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, H.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chan, I. Abramov, and J. Gordon, “Large and small color difference: Predicting them from hue scaling,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 381–389 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences,” Proc. SPIE 1250, 40–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Clark, C. L.

Coletta, N. J.

N. J. Coletta and A. J. Adams, “Rod-cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creutzfeld, D.

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeld, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkingje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vision Res. 27, 191–200(1987).
[CrossRef]

Denny, N.

DeValois, R. L.

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–433 (1967).

Frumkes, T. E.

G. Lange, N. Denny, and T. E. Frumkes, “Suppressive rod-cone interactions: Evidence for separate retinal (temporal) and extraretinal (spatial) mechanisms in achromatic vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2487–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, and T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[PubMed]

S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: Evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182(1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbert, M.

M. Gilbert, “Colour perception in parafoveal vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 63, 83–89 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, S. H.

S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: Evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182(1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J.

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404–414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chan, I. Abramov, and J. Gordon, “Large and small color difference: Predicting them from hue scaling,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 381–389 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences,” Proc. SPIE 1250, 40–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Graham, B. V.

B. V. Graham, M. E. Turner, Jr., R. Holland, E. L. Bradley, and J. A. Burdeshaw, “Wavelength discrimination derived from color naming,” Vision Res. 16, 559–562 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Graham, M. E. Turner, Jr., and D. C. Hurst, “Derivation of wavelength discrimination from color naming,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 109–111 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gur, M.

M. Gur, “The physiological basis of wavelength discrimination: Evidence from dichoptic and Ganzfeld viewing,” Vision Res. 26, 1257–1262 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haase, K. A.

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and K. A. Haase, “The influence of rods on colour naming during dark adaptation,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J.D.Mollon, J.Pokorny, and K.Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 173–178.
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, W. F.

H. Lauren and W. F. Hamilton, “The sensibility of the eye to differences in wave-length,” Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547–568(1923).

Helmholtz, H. v.

H. v. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, Vol.  II, J.P. C.Southall, trans. (Dover, 1962); originally published in 1866.

Highnote, S. M.

K. A. Jameson, S. M. Highnote, and L. M. Wasserman, “Richer color experience in observers with multiple opsin genes,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 244–261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holland, R.

B. V. Graham, M. E. Turner, Jr., R. Holland, E. L. Bradley, and J. A. Burdeshaw, “Wavelength discrimination derived from color naming,” Vision Res. 16, 559–562 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurst, D. C.

Hurvich, L. M.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vision Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jameson, D.

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vision Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jameson, K. A.

K. A. Jameson, S. M. Highnote, and L. M. Wasserman, “Richer color experience in observers with multiple opsin genes,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 244–261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, L. A.

Kaplan, E.

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodenhof, E. E.

Koenderink, J. J.

Kremers, J.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).
[CrossRef]

Lange, G.

Lauren, H.

H. Lauren and W. F. Hamilton, “The sensibility of the eye to differences in wave-length,” Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547–568(1923).

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).
[PubMed]

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeld, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkingje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vision Res. 27, 191–200(1987).
[CrossRef]

Mead, W. R.

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–433 (1967).

Naarendorp, F.

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, and T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[PubMed]

Nelson, J. H.

J. H. Nelson, “Anomalous trichromatism and its relation to normal trichromatism,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 50, 661–702(1938).
[CrossRef]

Nerger, J. L.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Volbrecht, C. L. Clark, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Randell, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10° along the horizontal and vertical meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1167–1177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005)
[CrossRef]

L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137–2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and K. A. Haase, “The influence of rods on colour naming during dark adaptation,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J.D.Mollon, J.Pokorny, and K.Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 173–178.
[CrossRef]

Nygaard, R. W.

S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: Evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182(1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitt, F. H. G.

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “Hue-discrimination in normal colour-vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, M. A.

L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137–2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).
[CrossRef]

Powell, D. Spitzer

W. A. H. Rushton and D. Spitzer Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purpura, K.

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randell, C. E.

Rovamo, J.

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rushton, W. A. H.

W. A. H. Rushton and D. Spitzer Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapley, R. M.

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. P.

D. P. Smith, “Derivation of wavelength discrimination from colour-naming data,” Vision Res. 11, 739–742 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V. C.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).
[CrossRef]

Stabell, B.

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stabell, U.

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stendler, O.

O. Stendler, “Die Farbenempfindlichkeit des normalen und farbebinden Auges,” Sitz. Math-Nat. Schaft. Klass 115, 39–62(1906).

Thomson, L. C.

L. C. Thomson and P. Trezona, “The variations of hue discrimination with change of luminance level,” J. Physiol. 114, 98–106(1951).
[PubMed]

Trezona, P.

L. C. Thomson and P. Trezona, “The variations of hue discrimination with change of luminance level,” J. Physiol. 114, 98–106(1951).
[PubMed]

Troup, L. J.

L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137–2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Trujillo, A. R.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, M. E.

B. V. Graham, M. E. Turner, Jr., R. Holland, E. L. Bradley, and J. A. Burdeshaw, “Wavelength discrimination derived from color naming,” Vision Res. 16, 559–562 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Graham, M. E. Turner, Jr., and D. C. Hurst, “Derivation of wavelength discrimination from color naming,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 109–111 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Doorn, A. J.

van Esch, J. A.

Virsu, V.

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).
[PubMed]

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeld, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkingje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vision Res. 27, 191–200(1987).
[CrossRef]

Volbrecht, V. J.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Volbrecht, C. L. Clark, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Randell, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes measured at 10° along the horizontal and vertical meridians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1167–1177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005)
[CrossRef]

L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137–2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and K. A. Haase, “The influence of rods on colour naming during dark adaptation,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J.D.Mollon, J.Pokorny, and K.Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 173–178.
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, L. M.

K. A. Jameson, S. M. Highnote, and L. M. Wasserman, “Richer color experience in observers with multiple opsin genes,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 244–261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. 119, 170–190 (1953).
[PubMed]

R. A. Weale, “Hue discrimination in para-central parts of the human retina measured at different luminance levels,” J. Physiol. 113, 115–122 (1951).
[PubMed]

Wright, W. D.

J. Birch and W. D. Wright, “Colour discrimination,” Phys. Med. Biol. 6, 3–24 (1961).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “Hue-discrimination in normal colour-vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Wyszecki, G. W.

Youngpeter, K.

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

H. Lauren and W. F. Hamilton, “The sensibility of the eye to differences in wave-length,” Am. J. Physiol. 65, 547–568(1923).

Atten. Percept. Psychophys. (1)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance: Properties of the uniform appearance diagram derived from hue and saturation scaling,” Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 632–643(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Brain Res. (1)

J. Rovamo and V. Virsu, “An estimation and application of the human cortical magnification factor,” Exp. Brain Res. 37, 495–510 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (2)

R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and W. R. Mead, “Single cell analysis of wavelength discrimination at the lateral geniculate nucleus in the macaque,” J. Neurophysiol. 30, 415–433 (1967).

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864–878 (1983).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

J. Physiol. (4)

L. C. Thomson and P. Trezona, “The variations of hue discrimination with change of luminance level,” J. Physiol. 114, 98–106(1951).
[PubMed]

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. 217, 447–471.
[PubMed]

R. A. Weale, “Hue discrimination in para-central parts of the human retina measured at different luminance levels,” J. Physiol. 113, 115–122 (1951).
[PubMed]

R. A. Weale, “Spectral sensitivity and wave-length discrimination of the peripheral retina,” J. Physiol. 119, 170–190 (1953).
[PubMed]

J. Vision (1)

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435–443 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, L. S. Baker, A. R. Trujillo, and K. Youngpeter, “Unique hue loci differ with methodology,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30, 545–552 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

J. Gordon, I. Abramov, and H. Chan, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27–41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. Birch and W. D. Wright, “Colour discrimination,” Phys. Med. Biol. 6, 3–24 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534–4537 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (2)

J. H. Nelson, “Anomalous trichromatism and its relation to normal trichromatism,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 50, 661–702(1938).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Wright and F. H. G. Pitt, “Hue-discrimination in normal colour-vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 46, 459–473 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B (1)

M. Gilbert, “Colour perception in parafoveal vision,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 63, 83–89 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Using hue scaling to specify color appearance and to derive color differences,” Proc. SPIE 1250, 40–51 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Chan, I. Abramov, and J. Gordon, “Large and small color difference: Predicting them from hue scaling,” Proc. SPIE 1453, 381–389 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Psychon. Bull. Rev. (1)

K. A. Jameson, S. M. Highnote, and L. M. Wasserman, “Richer color experience in observers with multiple opsin genes,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 8, 244–261 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. H. Goldberg, T. E. Frumkes, and R. W. Nygaard, “Inhibitory influence of unstimulated rods in the human retina: Evidence provided by examining cone flicker,” Science 221, 180–182(1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sitz. Math-Nat. Schaft. Klass (1)

O. Stendler, “Die Farbenempfindlichkeit des normalen und farbebinden Auges,” Sitz. Math-Nat. Schaft. Klass 115, 39–62(1906).

Vision Res. (12)

D. P. Smith, “Derivation of wavelength discrimination from colour-naming data,” Vision Res. 11, 739–742 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407–3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Color-vision mechanisms of the extrafoveal retina,” Vision Res. 24, 1969–1975 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Stabell and B. Stabell, “Wavelength discrimination of peripheral cones and its change with rod intrusion,” Vision Res. 17, 423–426 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Graham, M. E. Turner, Jr., R. Holland, E. L. Bradley, and J. A. Burdeshaw, “Wavelength discrimination derived from color naming,” Vision Res. 16, 559–562 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Naarendorp, N. Denny, and T. E. Frumkes, “Rod light and dark adaptation influence cone-mediated spatial acuity,” Vision Res. 28, 67–74 (1988).
[PubMed]

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vision Res. 7, 805–809 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. H. Rushton and D. Spitzer Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073–1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Coletta and A. J. Adams, “Rod-cone interaction in flicker detection,” Vision Res. 24, 1333–1340 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813–2828(1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Gur, “The physiological basis of wavelength discrimination: Evidence from dichoptic and Ganzfeld viewing,” Vision Res. 26, 1257–1262 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeld, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkingje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vision Res. 27, 191–200(1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. v. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics, Vol.  II, J.P. C.Southall, trans. (Dover, 1962); originally published in 1866.

J. L. Nerger, V. J. Volbrecht, and K. A. Haase, “The influence of rods on colour naming during dark adaptation,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J.D.Mollon, J.Pokorny, and K.Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 173–178.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of three-channel Maxwellian-view optical system. Key: S, xenon light source; HF, heat absorbing filter; L, lens; MN, monochromator; W, neutral density wedge; FS, field stop; M, mirror; F, neutral density filters; SH, shutter; BS, beamsplitter; A, aperture; AP, artificial pupil. The upper right inset presents a schematic of the test stimulus and fixation point arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

JNDs derived from foveal and peripheral ( 8 min , 16 min , 28 min postbleach) hue-naming data are plotted as a function of wavelength. Different dashed lines represent each of the four observers. The bold solid line is the mean hue-discrimination function across observers. The error bars are ± 1 standard error of the mean (SEM).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean JNDs derived from peripheral hue-naming data are plotted as a function of wavelength. The top panel compares foveal and peripheral functions from the 4 min , 8 min , and 12 min postbleach times; the middle panel fovea and 12 min , 16 min , and 20 min postbleach times; and the bottom panel fovea and 20 min , 24 min , and 28 min postbleach times. Solid symbols within each panel denote the fovea and open symbols the different postbleach times. Error bars represent ± 1 SEM.

Metrics