Abstract

Flash radiography of large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives is a venerable diagnostic technique in use at many laboratories. The size of the radiographic source spot is often quoted as an indication of the resolving power of a particular flash-radiography machine. A variety of techniques for measuring spot size have evolved at the different laboratories, as well as different definitions of spot size. Some definitions are highly dependent on the source spot intensity distributions, and not necessarily well correlated with resolution. The concept of limiting resolution based on bar target measurements is introduced, and shown to be equivalent to the spatial wavenumber at a modulation transfer function value of 5%. This resolution is shown to be better correlated with the full width at half-maximum of the spot intensity distribution than it is with other definitions of spot size.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. J. Boyd, Jr., B. T. Rogers, R. R. Tesche, and Douglas Venable, “PHERMEX—A high-current electron accelerator for use in dynamic radiography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1401–1408(1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Ekdahl, “Modern electron accelerators for radiography,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 254–261 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Mueller, “Measurement and characterization of x-ray spot size,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-UR-89-1886 (August 1989).
  4. D. W. Forster, “Radiographic spot size definitions,” AWE Report HWH/9201/R8 (January 1992).
  5. “Modulation transfer function of screen-film systems,” ICRU Report 41 (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, 1986).
  6. “Military standard photographic lenses,” MIL-STD-150A (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1959), p. 21.
  7. E. Rose and T. Beery, Los Alamos National Laboratory (personal communication, 2006).
  8. T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002

C. Ekdahl, “Modern electron accelerators for radiography,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 254–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1965

T. J. Boyd, Jr., B. T. Rogers, R. R. Tesche, and Douglas Venable, “PHERMEX—A high-current electron accelerator for use in dynamic radiography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1401–1408(1965).
[CrossRef]

Beech, P. F.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beery, T.

E. Rose and T. Beery, Los Alamos National Laboratory (personal communication, 2006).

Boyd, T. J.

T. J. Boyd, Jr., B. T. Rogers, R. R. Tesche, and Douglas Venable, “PHERMEX—A high-current electron accelerator for use in dynamic radiography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1401–1408(1965).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, T. F.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. J.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, G. M.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davitt, R.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, R. D.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ekdahl, C.

C. Ekdahl, “Modern electron accelerators for radiography,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 254–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forster, D. W.

D. W. Forster, “Radiographic spot size definitions,” AWE Report HWH/9201/R8 (January 1992).

Goldsack, T. J.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kenna, N.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krushelnick, K.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McLean, J.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, K.

K. Mueller, “Measurement and characterization of x-ray spot size,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-UR-89-1886 (August 1989).

Pearce, A. G.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. J.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pullinger, K. P.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, B. T.

T. J. Boyd, Jr., B. T. Rogers, R. R. Tesche, and Douglas Venable, “PHERMEX—A high-current electron accelerator for use in dynamic radiography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1401–1408(1965).
[CrossRef]

Rose, E.

E. Rose and T. Beery, Los Alamos National Laboratory (personal communication, 2006).

Short, D. J.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, M. A.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tesche, R. R.

T. J. Boyd, Jr., B. T. Rogers, R. R. Tesche, and Douglas Venable, “PHERMEX—A high-current electron accelerator for use in dynamic radiography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1401–1408(1965).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, K. J.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Threadgold, J. R.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Venable, Douglas

T. J. Boyd, Jr., B. T. Rogers, R. R. Tesche, and Douglas Venable, “PHERMEX—A high-current electron accelerator for use in dynamic radiography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1401–1408(1965).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, M. C.

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.

C. Ekdahl, “Modern electron accelerators for radiography,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 254–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Goldsack, T. F. Bryant, P. F. Beech, S. J. Clough, G. M. Cooper, R. Davitt, R. D. Edwards, N. Kenna, J. McLean, A. G. Pearce, M. J. Phillips, K. P. Pullinger, D. J. Short, M. A. Sinclair, K. J. Thomas, J. R. Threadgold, M. C. Williamson, and K. Krushelnick, “Multimegavolt multiaxis high-resolution flash x-ray source development for a new hydrodynamics research facility at AWE Aldermaston,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 239–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. J. Boyd, Jr., B. T. Rogers, R. R. Tesche, and Douglas Venable, “PHERMEX—A high-current electron accelerator for use in dynamic radiography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 1401–1408(1965).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Mueller, “Measurement and characterization of x-ray spot size,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-UR-89-1886 (August 1989).

D. W. Forster, “Radiographic spot size definitions,” AWE Report HWH/9201/R8 (January 1992).

“Modulation transfer function of screen-film systems,” ICRU Report 41 (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, 1986).

“Military standard photographic lenses,” MIL-STD-150A (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1959), p. 21.

E. Rose and T. Beery, Los Alamos National Laboratory (personal communication, 2006).

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