Abstract

Imperfections and nonrobust behavior of practical multilevel spatial light modulators (SLMs) degrade the performance of many proposed full-complex amplitude modulation schemes. We consider the use of more robust binary SLMs for this purpose. We propose a generic method, by which, out of K binary (or 1 bit) SLMs of size M×N, we effectively create a new 2K-level (or K bit) SLM of size M×N. The method is a generalization of the well-known concepts of bit plane representation and decomposition for ordinary gray scale digital images and relies on forming a properly weighted superposition of binary SLMs. When K is sufficiently large, the effective SLM can be regarded as a full-complex one. Our method is as efficient as possible from an information theoretical perspective. A 4f system is discussed as a possible optical implementation. This 4f system also provides a means for eliminating the undesirable higher diffraction orders. The components of the 4f system can easily be customized for different production technologies.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011 (2)

L. Onural, F. Yaras, and H. Kang, “Digital holographic three-dimensional video displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 576–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ulusoy, L. Onural, and H. M. Ozaktas, “Synthesis of three-dimensional light fields with binary spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1211–1223 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

E. Ulusoy, L. Onural, and H. M. Ozaktas, “Signal processing for three-dimensional holographic television displays that use binary spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 41–44, in Turkish.

F. Yaras, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: a survey,” J. Disp. Technol. 6, 443–454 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H.M.Ozaktas and L.Onural, eds., Three-Dimensional Television: Capture, Transmission, Display, Series in Signals and Communication Technology (Springer, 2008).

E. G. van Putten, I. M. Vellekoop, and A. P. Mosk, “Spatial amplitude and phase modulation using commercial twisted nematic LCDs,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2076–2081 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

L. Onural, “Exact analysis of the effects of sampling of the scalar diffraction field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 359–367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Arrizon, U. Ruiz, R. Carrada, and L. A. Gonzalez, “Pixelated phase computer holograms for the accurate encoding of scalar complex fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3500–3507(2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Onural, A. Gotchev, H. M. Ozaktas, and E. Stoykova, “A survey of signal processing problems and tools in holographic three-dimensional television,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1631–1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Onural and H. M. Ozaktas, “Signal processing issues in diffraction and holographic 3DTV,” Signal Process., Image Commun. 22, 169–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007).

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

R. Tudela, E. Martin-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2650–2657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2002 (3)

T. J. Naughton, Y. Frauel, B. Javidi, and E. Tajahuerce, “Compression of digital holograms for three-dimensional object reconstruction and recognition,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4124–4132 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Gonzales and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing(Prentice-Hall, 2002).

R. Tudela, I. Labastida, E. Martin-Badosa, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “A simple method for displaying fresnel holograms on liquid crystal panels,” Opt. Commun. 214, 107–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

R. W. Cohn, “Analyzing the encoding range of amplitude-phase coupled spatial light modulators,” Opt. Eng. 38, 361–367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

R. D. Juday, “Full-complex modulation with two one-parameter spatial light modulators,” U.S. patent 5,416,618 (1995).

1992 (1)

Ambs, P.

Arrizon, V.

Aswendt, P.

T. Kreis, P. Aswendt, and R. Hofling, “Hologram reconstruction using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Eng. 40, 926–933 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bigue, L.

Birch, P. M.

Budgett, D.

Cameron, C.

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38, 46–53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carnicer, A.

R. Tudela, E. Martin-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2650–2657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Tudela, I. Labastida, E. Martin-Badosa, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “A simple method for displaying fresnel holograms on liquid crystal panels,” Opt. Commun. 214, 107–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carrada, R.

Chatwin, C.

Cohn, R. W.

Cottrell, D. M.

Davis, J. A.

de La-Llave, D. S.

Dudley, D.

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” white paper (Texas Instruments, 2003).

Duncan, W.

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” white paper (Texas Instruments, 2003).

Frauel, Y.

Gonzales, R. C.

R. C. Gonzales and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing(Prentice-Hall, 2002).

Gonzalez, L. A.

Gotchev, A.

L. Onural, A. Gotchev, H. M. Ozaktas, and E. Stoykova, “A survey of signal processing problems and tools in holographic three-dimensional television,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1631–1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, D. A.

Gurkan, D.

Hofling, R.

T. Kreis, P. Aswendt, and R. Hofling, “Hologram reconstruction using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Eng. 40, 926–933 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Juday, R. D.

R. D. Juday, “Full-complex modulation with two one-parameter spatial light modulators,” U.S. patent 5,416,618 (1995).

Juvells, I.

R. Tudela, E. Martin-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2650–2657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Tudela, I. Labastida, E. Martin-Badosa, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “A simple method for displaying fresnel holograms on liquid crystal panels,” Opt. Commun. 214, 107–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

L. Onural, F. Yaras, and H. Kang, “Digital holographic three-dimensional video displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 576–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Yaras, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: a survey,” J. Disp. Technol. 6, 443–454 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, J. C.

Kreis, T.

T. Kreis, P. Aswendt, and R. Hofling, “Hologram reconstruction using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Eng. 40, 926–933 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Labastida, I.

R. Tudela, E. Martin-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2650–2657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Tudela, I. Labastida, E. Martin-Badosa, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “A simple method for displaying fresnel holograms on liquid crystal panels,” Opt. Commun. 214, 107–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, C. L.

Martin-Badosa, E.

R. Tudela, E. Martin-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2650–2657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Tudela, I. Labastida, E. Martin-Badosa, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “A simple method for displaying fresnel holograms on liquid crystal panels,” Opt. Commun. 214, 107–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, G.

Mosk, A. P.

Naughton, T. J.

Neto, L. G.

Onural, L.

E. Ulusoy, L. Onural, and H. M. Ozaktas, “Synthesis of three-dimensional light fields with binary spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1211–1223 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Onural, F. Yaras, and H. Kang, “Digital holographic three-dimensional video displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 576–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Yaras, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: a survey,” J. Disp. Technol. 6, 443–454 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Ulusoy, L. Onural, and H. M. Ozaktas, “Signal processing for three-dimensional holographic television displays that use binary spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 41–44, in Turkish.

L. Onural, “Exact analysis of the effects of sampling of the scalar diffraction field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 359–367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Onural, A. Gotchev, H. M. Ozaktas, and E. Stoykova, “A survey of signal processing problems and tools in holographic three-dimensional television,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1631–1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Onural and H. M. Ozaktas, “Signal processing issues in diffraction and holographic 3DTV,” Signal Process., Image Commun. 22, 169–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Onural, “Sampling of the diffraction field,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5929–5935 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozaktas, H. M.

E. Ulusoy, L. Onural, and H. M. Ozaktas, “Synthesis of three-dimensional light fields with binary spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1211–1223 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ulusoy, L. Onural, and H. M. Ozaktas, “Signal processing for three-dimensional holographic television displays that use binary spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 41–44, in Turkish.

L. Onural, A. Gotchev, H. M. Ozaktas, and E. Stoykova, “A survey of signal processing problems and tools in holographic three-dimensional television,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1631–1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Onural and H. M. Ozaktas, “Signal processing issues in diffraction and holographic 3DTV,” Signal Process., Image Commun. 22, 169–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roberge, D.

Ruiz, U.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007).

Sheng, Y.

Slaughter, J.

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” white paper (Texas Instruments, 2003).

Slinger, C.

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38, 46–53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, M.

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38, 46–53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stark, H.

Stolz, C.

Stoykova, E.

L. Onural, A. Gotchev, H. M. Ozaktas, and E. Stoykova, “A survey of signal processing problems and tools in holographic three-dimensional television,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1631–1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tajahuerce, E.

Tam, E. C.

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007).

Tudela, R.

R. Tudela, E. Martin-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2650–2657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Tudela, I. Labastida, E. Martin-Badosa, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “A simple method for displaying fresnel holograms on liquid crystal panels,” Opt. Commun. 214, 107–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ulusoy, E.

E. Ulusoy, L. Onural, and H. M. Ozaktas, “Synthesis of three-dimensional light fields with binary spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1211–1223 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Ulusoy, L. Onural, and H. M. Ozaktas, “Signal processing for three-dimensional holographic television displays that use binary spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 41–44, in Turkish.

Valadez, K. O.

Vallmitjana, S.

R. Tudela, E. Martin-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2650–2657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Tudela, I. Labastida, E. Martin-Badosa, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “A simple method for displaying fresnel holograms on liquid crystal panels,” Opt. Commun. 214, 107–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Putten, E. G.

Vellekoop, I. M.

Woods, R. E.

R. C. Gonzales and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing(Prentice-Hall, 2002).

Yang, Y.

Yaras, F.

L. Onural, F. Yaras, and H. Kang, “Digital holographic three-dimensional video displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 576–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Yaras, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: a survey,” J. Disp. Technol. 6, 443–454 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Young, R.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Computer (1)

C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-generated holography as a generic display technology,” Computer 38, 46–53 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. (1)

L. Onural, A. Gotchev, H. M. Ozaktas, and E. Stoykova, “A survey of signal processing problems and tools in holographic three-dimensional television,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 17, 1631–1646 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

F. Yaras, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: a survey,” J. Disp. Technol. 6, 443–454 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Tudela, I. Labastida, E. Martin-Badosa, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “A simple method for displaying fresnel holograms on liquid crystal panels,” Opt. Commun. 214, 107–114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

R. Tudela, E. Martin-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, “Wavefront reconstruction by adding modulation capabilities of two liquid crystal devices,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2650–2657 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kreis, P. Aswendt, and R. Hofling, “Hologram reconstruction using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Eng. 40, 926–933 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Cohn, “Analyzing the encoding range of amplitude-phase coupled spatial light modulators,” Opt. Eng. 38, 361–367 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

L. Onural, F. Yaras, and H. Kang, “Digital holographic three-dimensional video displays,” Proc. IEEE 99, 576–589 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Signal Process., Image Commun. (1)

L. Onural and H. M. Ozaktas, “Signal processing issues in diffraction and holographic 3DTV,” Signal Process., Image Commun. 22, 169–177 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

R. D. Juday, “Full-complex modulation with two one-parameter spatial light modulators,” U.S. patent 5,416,618 (1995).

E. Ulusoy, L. Onural, and H. M. Ozaktas, “Signal processing for three-dimensional holographic television displays that use binary spatial light modulators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp. 41–44, in Turkish.

H.M.Ozaktas and L.Onural, eds., Three-Dimensional Television: Capture, Transmission, Display, Series in Signals and Communication Technology (Springer, 2008).

D. Dudley, W. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” white paper (Texas Instruments, 2003).

R. C. Gonzales and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing(Prentice-Hall, 2002).

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2007).

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