We recast the reconstruction problem of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in a pseudo-dynamical framework and develop a method to recover the optical parameters using particle filters, i.e., stochastic filters based on Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we have implemented two such filters, viz., the bootstrap (BS) filter and the Gaussian-sum (GS) filter and employed them to recover optical absorption coefficient distribution from both numerically simulated and experimentally generated photon fluence data. Using either indicator functions or compactly supported continuous kernels to represent the unknown property distribution within the inhomogeneous inclusions, we have drastically reduced the number of parameters to be recovered and thus brought the overall computation time to within reasonable limits. Even though the GS filter outperformed the BS filter in terms of accuracy of reconstruction, both gave fairly accurate recovery of the height, radius, and location of the inclusions. Since the present filtering algorithms do not use derivatives, we could demonstrate accurate contrast recovery even in the middle of the object where the usual deterministic algorithms perform poorly owing to the poor sensitivity of measurement of the parameters. Consistent with the fact that the DOT recovery, being ill posed, admits multiple solutions, both the filters gave solutions that were verified to be admissible by the closeness of the data computed through them to the data used in the filtering step (either numerically simulated or experimentally generated).
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