Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine how accurately color-normal subjects that have received basic information about, but do not have practical experience with, the Natural Color System (NCS) can estimate the Heringian components of a representative selection of samples. Twenty-five color-normal subjects, taking part in two trials with at least a 24h gap between assessments, selected four samples representing individual unique hues (uHs) from a set of 40 highly chromatic NCS samples on a rotatable tray. The samples selected for assessment of components were displayed to the subjects who estimated the hue components of 16 high-chroma samples, hue and white/black components of 16 tonal color samples, and three achromatic samples with different blackness values. Variability in selection of samples representing uHs as well as the relationship between the subjects’ estimates of unique hue components and the defined values of the system was obtained. It was found that hues alone are easier to correctly estimate than hues together with white and black and that the components of colors of higher chroma are easier to estimate accurately than those of lower chroma. It was also found that, for R and G, the mean uH choices of subjects differed very little from the NCS’s R and G, whereas selections for yellow and blue deviated, the former by 1.22 hue steps (slightly greener than G90Y), and the latter by 1.36 hue steps (represented approximately by R85B). This may impact the accuracy of color models that employ NCS unique hues.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Hård and L. Sivik, “NCS—Natural Colour System: Swedish standard for colour notation,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 129–138(1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Swedish Standard SS 01 91 00 colour notation system (SIS), 2nd ed. (Swedish Standards Institution, 1990).
  3. B. D. Judd and D. Nickerson, “One set of Munsell Re-renotations,” Rep. 192693 (U. S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, 1967).
  4. E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense, L.M.Hurvich and D.Jameson, transl. (Harvard University Press, 1964), p. 42.
  5. J. Neitz, Neitz Test of Color Vision (Western Psychological Services, 2001).
  6. R. G. Kuehni, D. Hinks, and R. Shamey, “Experimental object color unique hue data for the mean observer for color appearance modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 505–506(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. R. W. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “A colour-appearance transform for the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer,” Color Res. Appl. 10, 165–179 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 201–209, doi:10.1002/col.20637 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Shamey, M. Sedito, and R. G. Kuehni, “Comparison of unique hue stimuli determined by two different methods using Munsell color chips,” Color Res. Appl. 35, 419–424 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Hinks, L. M. Cardenas, R. G. Kuehni, and R. Shamey,  “Unique-hue stimulus selection using Munsell color chips,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3371–3378 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Melgosa, J. M. Rivas, E. Hita, and F. Viénot, “Are we able to distinguish color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 25, 356–366(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Zhang and D. E. Montag, “How well can people use different color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 31, 445–457 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. D. Philipona and J. K. O’Regan, “Color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation predicted from singularities in reflection properties,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 331–339 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. D. Mollon and G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C.Dickinson, I.Murray, and D.Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 381–392.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Malkoc, P. Kay, and M. A. Webster, “Variations in normal color vision. IV. Binary hues and hue scaling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2154–2168 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. G. Kuehni, “Variability in unique hue selection: a surprising phenomenon,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 158–162 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. De Valois, K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanism,” Vision Res. 45, 3210–3223(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 201–209, doi:10.1002/col.20637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

R. Shamey, M. Sedito, and R. G. Kuehni, “Comparison of unique hue stimuli determined by two different methods using Munsell color chips,” Color Res. Appl. 35, 419–424 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. G. Kuehni, D. Hinks, and R. Shamey, “Experimental object color unique hue data for the mean observer for color appearance modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 505–506(2008).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” Curr. Biol. 18, R698 –R699 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

H. Zhang and D. E. Montag, “How well can people use different color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 31, 445–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Philipona and J. K. O’Regan, “Color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation predicted from singularities in reflection properties,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 331–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

R. G. Kuehni, “Variability in unique hue selection: a surprising phenomenon,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 158–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Melgosa, J. M. Rivas, E. Hita, and F. Viénot, “Are we able to distinguish color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 25, 356–366(2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V. E. Raker, “Variations in normal color vision. II. Unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1545–1555 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. De Valois, K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

G. R. W. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “A colour-appearance transform for the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer,” Color Res. Appl. 10, 165–179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Hård and L. Sivik, “NCS—Natural Colour System: Swedish standard for colour notation,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 129–138(1981).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, I.

Atkinson, P.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanism,” Vision Res. 45, 3210–3223(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardenas, L. M.

Conway, B. R.

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” Curr. Biol. 18, R698 –R699 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cropper, S.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanism,” Vision Res. 45, 3210–3223(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Valois, K.

R. De Valois, K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Valois, R.

R. De Valois, K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, C.

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 201–209, doi:10.1002/col.20637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

Hård, A.

A. Hård and L. Sivik, “NCS—Natural Colour System: Swedish standard for colour notation,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 129–138(1981).
[CrossRef]

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense, L.M.Hurvich and D.Jameson, transl. (Harvard University Press, 1964), p. 42.

Hinks, D.

R. G. Kuehni, D. Hinks, and R. Shamey, “Experimental object color unique hue data for the mean observer for color appearance modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 505–506(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Hinks, L. M. Cardenas, R. G. Kuehni, and R. Shamey,  “Unique-hue stimulus selection using Munsell color chips,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3371–3378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hita, E.

M. Melgosa, J. M. Rivas, E. Hita, and F. Viénot, “Are we able to distinguish color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 25, 356–366(2000).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, G. R. W.

G. R. W. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “A colour-appearance transform for the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer,” Color Res. Appl. 10, 165–179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, G.

J. D. Mollon and G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C.Dickinson, I.Murray, and D.Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 381–392.

Judd, B. D.

B. D. Judd and D. Nickerson, “One set of Munsell Re-renotations,” Rep. 192693 (U. S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, 1967).

Karatzas, D.

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 201–209, doi:10.1002/col.20637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kay, P.

Kuehni, R. G.

R. Shamey, M. Sedito, and R. G. Kuehni, “Comparison of unique hue stimuli determined by two different methods using Munsell color chips,” Color Res. Appl. 35, 419–424 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, D. Hinks, and R. Shamey, “Experimental object color unique hue data for the mean observer for color appearance modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 505–506(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Hinks, L. M. Cardenas, R. G. Kuehni, and R. Shamey,  “Unique-hue stimulus selection using Munsell color chips,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3371–3378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “Variability in unique hue selection: a surprising phenomenon,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 158–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, L.

R. De Valois, K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malkoc, G.

Melgosa, M.

M. Melgosa, J. M. Rivas, E. Hita, and F. Viénot, “Are we able to distinguish color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 25, 356–366(2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyahara, E.

Mollon, J. D.

J. D. Mollon and G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C.Dickinson, I.Murray, and D.Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 381–392.

Montag, D. E.

H. Zhang and D. E. Montag, “How well can people use different color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 31, 445–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neitz, J.

J. Neitz, Neitz Test of Color Vision (Western Psychological Services, 2001).

Nickerson, D.

B. D. Judd and D. Nickerson, “One set of Munsell Re-renotations,” Rep. 192693 (U. S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, 1967).

O’Regan, J. K.

L. D. Philipona and J. K. O’Regan, “Color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation predicted from singularities in reflection properties,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 331–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Philipona, L. D.

L. D. Philipona and J. K. O’Regan, “Color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation predicted from singularities in reflection properties,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 331–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pointer, M. R.

G. R. W. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “A colour-appearance transform for the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer,” Color Res. Appl. 10, 165–179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Raker, V. E.

Rivas, J. M.

M. Melgosa, J. M. Rivas, E. Hita, and F. Viénot, “Are we able to distinguish color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 25, 356–366(2000).
[CrossRef]

Sedito, M.

R. Shamey, M. Sedito, and R. G. Kuehni, “Comparison of unique hue stimuli determined by two different methods using Munsell color chips,” Color Res. Appl. 35, 419–424 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shamey, R.

R. Shamey, M. Sedito, and R. G. Kuehni, “Comparison of unique hue stimuli determined by two different methods using Munsell color chips,” Color Res. Appl. 35, 419–424 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, D. Hinks, and R. Shamey, “Experimental object color unique hue data for the mean observer for color appearance modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 505–506(2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Hinks, L. M. Cardenas, R. G. Kuehni, and R. Shamey,  “Unique-hue stimulus selection using Munsell color chips,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3371–3378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sivik, L.

A. Hård and L. Sivik, “NCS—Natural Colour System: Swedish standard for colour notation,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 129–138(1981).
[CrossRef]

Stoughton, C. M.

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” Curr. Biol. 18, R698 –R699 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Switkes, E.

R. De Valois, K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viénot, F.

M. Melgosa, J. M. Rivas, E. Hita, and F. Viénot, “Are we able to distinguish color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 25, 356–366(2000).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M. A.

Wuerger, S.

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 201–209, doi:10.1002/col.20637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wuerger, S. M.

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanism,” Vision Res. 45, 3210–3223(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, K.

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 201–209, doi:10.1002/col.20637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang and D. E. Montag, “How well can people use different color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 31, 445–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (8)

R. G. Kuehni, D. Hinks, and R. Shamey, “Experimental object color unique hue data for the mean observer for color appearance modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 505–506(2008).
[CrossRef]

G. R. W. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “A colour-appearance transform for the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer,” Color Res. Appl. 10, 165–179 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Xiao, S. Wuerger, C. Fu, and D. Karatzas, “Unique hue data for colour appearance models. Part I: loci of unique hues and hue uniformity,” Color Res. Appl. 36, 201–209, doi:10.1002/col.20637 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamey, M. Sedito, and R. G. Kuehni, “Comparison of unique hue stimuli determined by two different methods using Munsell color chips,” Color Res. Appl. 35, 419–424 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, J. M. Rivas, E. Hita, and F. Viénot, “Are we able to distinguish color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 25, 356–366(2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang and D. E. Montag, “How well can people use different color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 31, 445–457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hård and L. Sivik, “NCS—Natural Colour System: Swedish standard for colour notation,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 129–138(1981).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “Variability in unique hue selection: a surprising phenomenon,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 158–162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Biol. (1)

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” Curr. Biol. 18, R698 –R699 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Vision Res. (2)

R. De Valois, K. De Valois, E. Switkes, and L. Mahon, “Hue scaling of isoluminant and cone-specific lights,” Vision Res. 37, 885–897 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, “The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanism,” Vision Res. 45, 3210–3223(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visual Neurosci. (1)

L. D. Philipona and J. K. O’Regan, “Color naming, unique hues, and hue cancellation predicted from singularities in reflection properties,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 331–339 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. D. Mollon and G. Jordan, “On the nature of unique hues,” in John Dalton’s Colour Vision Legacy, C.Dickinson, I.Murray, and D.Carden, eds. (Taylor & Francis, 1997), pp. 381–392.

Swedish Standard SS 01 91 00 colour notation system (SIS), 2nd ed. (Swedish Standards Institution, 1990).

B. D. Judd and D. Nickerson, “One set of Munsell Re-renotations,” Rep. 192693 (U. S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, 1967).

E. Hering, Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense, L.M.Hurvich and D.Jameson, transl. (Harvard University Press, 1964), p. 42.

J. Neitz, Neitz Test of Color Vision (Western Psychological Services, 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Abbreviated model of the Munsell color system, with irregular form of the implicit solid, and (b) schematic representation of the structure of the NCS fitting into a double cone.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Hue circle based on high-chroma NCS samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic representation of the 16 tonal samples in the NCS triangle sample display.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of abbreviated version of the NCS: (a) schematic representation of the contents of full color, whiteness, and blackness in the samples of a constant hue triangle; and (b) resulting color samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distribution of mean samples picked by subjects as representing unique hues. Sample names are based on the NCS notations.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Identification of the 16 “Hue” Samples Used in Task 2

Tables Icon

Table 2 Identification of the 16 Tonal and the Three Achromatic Samples Used in Task 3

Tables Icon

Table 3 Example Error Calculations for Subject F1

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Table 4 Error Statistics for All 35 Samples

Tables Icon

Table 5 Inaccuracy in Percent by Primary Color in Task 2 and 3 Judgments

Tables Icon

Table 6 Inaccuracy in Percent for Task 2 Samples Representing uHs, Intermediate Hues, and Hues between Unique and Intermediate

Tables Icon

Table 7 Inaccuracy in Percent for Task 3 Samples of Highly Chromatic and Nearly Achromatic Tonal Colors

Metrics