Abstract

We present an optical scheme to encode and decode 2bits of information into different orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of a paraxial optical beam. Our device generates the four light angular momentum states of order ±2 and ±4 by spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in a triangular optical loop arrangement. The switching among the four OAM states is obtained by changing the polarization state of the circulating beam by two quarter-wave plates, and the 2bit information is transferred to the beam OAM exploiting a single q plate. The polarization of the exit beam is left free for an additional 1bit of information. The switching among the different OAM states can be as fast as a few nanoseconds, if suitable electro-optical cells are used. This may be particularly useful in communication systems based on light OAM.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. V. Sergienko, Quantum Communications and Cryptography (Taylor & Francis, 2006).
  2. S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Advances in optical angular momentum, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299313 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Twisted photons, Nat. Phys. 3, 305310 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum, Opt. Express 12, 54485456 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 44184421 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, Quantum key distribution for d-level systems with generalized bell states, Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Vrtesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. P. Torres, Y. Deyanova, and L. Torner, Preparation of engineered two-photon entangled states for multidimensional quantum information, Phys. Rev. A 67, 052313 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Vaziri, J. W. Pan, T. Jennewein, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Concentration of higher dimensional entanglement: qutrits of photon orbital angular momentum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227902(2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. OBrien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Measuring entangled qutrits and their use for quantum bit commitment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding, Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge, Opt. Lett. 34, 12251227 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Because we are only interested to the OAM value of the beam, we have neglected the phase delay between the first and second trip inside the optical loop. Indeed, the beam with OAM value |m|=4 has a trip delay with respect to the beam with OAM value |m|=2.
  21. G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through HongOuMandel coalescence, Nat. Photon. 3, 720723 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states, Opt. Express 17, 1874518759 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. This pattern has the characteristic form of a six-petal flower.

2010

T. Vrtesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding, Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through HongOuMandel coalescence, Nat. Photon. 3, 720723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states, Opt. Express 17, 1874518759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge, Opt. Lett. 34, 12251227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Advances in optical angular momentum, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Twisted photons, Nat. Phys. 3, 305310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. OBrien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Measuring entangled qutrits and their use for quantum bit commitment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum, Opt. Express 12, 54485456 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. P. Torres, Y. Deyanova, and L. Torner, Preparation of engineered two-photon entangled states for multidimensional quantum information, Phys. Rev. A 67, 052313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Vaziri, J. W. Pan, T. Jennewein, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Concentration of higher dimensional entanglement: qutrits of photon orbital angular momentum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227902(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, Quantum key distribution for d-level systems with generalized bell states, Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 44184421 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Advances in optical angular momentum, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, M. P.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, M.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagherinezhad, S.

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, Quantum key distribution for d-level systems with generalized bell states, Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bahraminasab, A.

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, Quantum key distribution for d-level systems with generalized bell states, Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, M.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S. M.

Bartlett, S. D.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. OBrien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Measuring entangled qutrits and their use for quantum bit commitment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berkhout, G. C. G.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bialczak, R. C.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourennane, M.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunner, N.

T. Vrtesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerf, N. J.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cleland, A. N.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courtial, J.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum, Opt. Express 12, 54485456 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, R. B.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. OBrien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Measuring entangled qutrits and their use for quantum bit commitment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deyanova, Y.

J. P. Torres, Y. Deyanova, and L. Torner, Preparation of engineered two-photon entangled states for multidimensional quantum information, Phys. Rev. A 67, 052313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Geller, M. R.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G.

Gilchrist, A.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. OBrien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Measuring entangled qutrits and their use for quantum bit commitment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gnacinski, P.

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 44184421 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, M. D.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. OBrien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Measuring entangled qutrits and their use for quantum bit commitment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofheinz, M.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hradil, Z.

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jennewein, T.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Vaziri, J. W. Pan, T. Jennewein, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Concentration of higher dimensional entanglement: qutrits of photon orbital angular momentum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227902(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karimi, E.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge, Opt. Lett. 34, 12251227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through HongOuMandel coalescence, Nat. Photon. 3, 720723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states, Opt. Express 17, 1874518759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karimipour, V.

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, Quantum key distribution for d-level systems with generalized bell states, Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, A.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaszlikowski, D.

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 44184421 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langford, N. K.

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. OBrien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Measuring entangled qutrits and their use for quantum bit commitment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanyon, B. P.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lavery, M. P. J.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lucero, E.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manzo, C.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marrucci, L.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding, Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge, Opt. Lett. 34, 12251227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through HongOuMandel coalescence, Nat. Photon. 3, 720723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states, Opt. Express 17, 1874518759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martini, F. D.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through HongOuMandel coalescence, Nat. Photon. 3, 720723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states, Opt. Express 17, 1874518759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martinis, J. M.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miklaszewski, W.

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 44184421 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Twisted photons, Nat. Phys. 3, 305310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagali, E.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding, Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through HongOuMandel coalescence, Nat. Photon. 3, 720723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states, Opt. Express 17, 1874518759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neeley, M.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

OBrien, J. L.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. OBrien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Measuring entangled qutrits and their use for quantum bit commitment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

OConnell, A. D.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Advances in optical angular momentum, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pasko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum, Opt. Express 12, 54485456 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, J. W.

A. Vaziri, J. W. Pan, T. Jennewein, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Concentration of higher dimensional entanglement: qutrits of photon orbital angular momentum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227902(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pasko, V.

Piccirillo, B.

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge, Opt. Lett. 34, 12251227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through HongOuMandel coalescence, Nat. Photon. 3, 720723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states, Opt. Express 17, 1874518759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pironio, S.

T. Vrtesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pryde, G. J.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. OBrien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Measuring entangled qutrits and their use for quantum bit commitment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralph, T. C.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rehacek, J.

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Resch, K. J.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sank, D.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansoni, L.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding, Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through HongOuMandel coalescence, Nat. Photon. 3, 720723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Santamato, E.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding, Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Light propagation in a birefringent plate with topological charge, Opt. Lett. 34, 12251227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states, Opt. Express 17, 1874518759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through HongOuMandel coalescence, Nat. Photon. 3, 720723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sciarrino, F.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding, Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through HongOuMandel coalescence, Nat. Photon. 3, 720723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states, Opt. Express 17, 1874518759 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

A. V. Sergienko, Quantum Communications and Cryptography (Taylor & Francis, 2006).

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Twisted photons, Nat. Phys. 3, 305310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Torres, Y. Deyanova, and L. Torner, Preparation of engineered two-photon entangled states for multidimensional quantum information, Phys. Rev. A 67, 052313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Twisted photons, Nat. Phys. 3, 305310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Torres, Y. Deyanova, and L. Torner, Preparation of engineered two-photon entangled states for multidimensional quantum information, Phys. Rev. A 67, 052313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M.

Vaziri, A.

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vaziri, J. W. Pan, T. Jennewein, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Concentration of higher dimensional entanglement: qutrits of photon orbital angular momentum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227902(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrtesi, T.

T. Vrtesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihs, G.

A. Vaziri, J. W. Pan, T. Jennewein, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Concentration of higher dimensional entanglement: qutrits of photon orbital angular momentum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227902(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenner, J.

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A. G.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. OBrien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Measuring entangled qutrits and their use for quantum bit commitment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vaziri, J. W. Pan, T. Jennewein, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Concentration of higher dimensional entanglement: qutrits of photon orbital angular momentum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227902(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 44184421 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zukowski, M.

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 44184421 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements for wavefront shaping in the visible domain: switchable helical modes generation, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Karimi, B. Piccirillo, E. Nagali, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, Efficient generation and sorting of orbital angular momentum eigenmodes of light by thermally tuned q-plates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, Advances in optical angular momentum, Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 299313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Optimal quantum cloning of orbital angular momentum photon qubits through HongOuMandel coalescence, Nat. Photon. 3, 720723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, Twisted photons, Nat. Phys. 3, 305310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. OBrien, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces, Nat. Phys. 5, 134140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

V. Karimipour, A. Bahraminasab, and S. Bagherinezhad, Quantum key distribution for d-level systems with generalized bell states, Phys. Rev. A 65, 042320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Torres, Y. Deyanova, and L. Torner, Preparation of engineered two-photon entangled states for multidimensional quantum information, Phys. Rev. A 67, 052313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Nagali, L. Sansoni, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, and F. Sciarrino, Experimental generation and characterization of single-photon hybrid ququarts based on polarization and orbital angular momentum encoding, Phys. Rev. A 81, 052317 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vrtesi, S. Pironio, and N. Brunner, Closing the detection loophole in bell experiments using qudits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vaziri, J. W. Pan, T. Jennewein, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, Concentration of higher dimensional entanglement: qutrits of photon orbital angular momentum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227902(2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, A. Vaziri, J. Rehacek, Z. Hradil, and A. Zeilinger, Triggered qutrits for quantum communication protocols, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 167903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Langford, R. B. Dalton, M. D. Harvey, J. L. OBrien, G. J. Pryde, A. Gilchrist, S. D. Bartlett, and A. G. White, Measuring entangled qutrits and their use for quantum bit commitment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kaszlikowski, P. Gnacinski, M. Zukowski, W. Miklaszewski, and A. Zeilinger, Violations of local realism by two entangled n-dimensional systems are stronger than for two qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 44184421 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. D. Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 013601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. Neeley, M. Ansmann, R. C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, E. Lucero, A. D. OConnell, D. Sank, H. Wang, J. Wenner, A. N. Cleland, M. R. Geller, and J. M. Martinis, Emulation of a quantum spin with a superconducting phase qudit, Science 325, 722725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. V. Sergienko, Quantum Communications and Cryptography (Taylor & Francis, 2006).

This pattern has the characteristic form of a six-petal flower.

Because we are only interested to the OAM value of the beam, we have neglected the phase delay between the first and second trip inside the optical loop. Indeed, the beam with OAM value |m|=4 has a trip delay with respect to the beam with OAM value |m|=2.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

q plate sandwiched between two QWPs ( Q 1 and Q 2 ) inserted in the triangular optical loop. The beam trajectory inside the loop device for the case of ( 45 ° , 45 ° ) , ( - 45 ° , - 45 ° ) where the beam passes once [inset (a)], and ( - 45 ° , 45 ° ) and ( 45 ° , - 45 ° ) where the beam passes twice inside the cavity [inset (b)]. The solid green and red lines show the first and second trip, respectively. M, mirror; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; Q, quarter-wave plate; QP, q plate..4/CO

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Alice apparatus is similar to what is shown in Fig. 1. In order to encode another information bit, a third QWP ( Q 3 ) is located at the exit face of the optical loop. Alice is able to generate ( | L , - 4 , | L , - 2 , | L , + 2 , | L , + 4 , | R , - 4 , | R , - 2 , | R , + 2 and | R , + 4 ) by setting her QWPs at ± 45 ° . Bob measures the photon SAM state by a suitable QWP and a PBS and measures the photon OAM state by suitable holograms, as shown..4/CO

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated OAM power spectrum I n = | c 2 n | 2 of the beam emerging form the loop device for different angles θ 1 and θ 2 of the two QWPs for loop delay ψ = 0 . The power spectrum can be either (a) symmetric or (b), (c), (d) not symmetric, and (b), (d) the fundamental m = 0 component can be suppressed..4/CO

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The interference of the output beam from the loop device and TEM 00 beam for the four QWP angles shown in Table 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The normalized powers of the m = 2 (blue) and m = - 4 (red) components of the loop output beam as functions of the orientation angle θ of the second QWP. The first QWP was held fixed at 45 ° . The continuous curve is the fit to the square moduli of the coefficients of modes m = 2 and m = - 4 in Eq. (5). The optical retardation ψ of the loop was used as fitting parameter. In this case , we found a best-fit value ψ = 0 ..4/CO

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Four Possible Combinations of QWP Angles and Their Corresponding Beam’s OAM Values

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

QP ^ · | L , m = | R , m + 2 QP ^ · | R , m = | L , m - 2 ,
| H , 0 Q 1 @ 45 ° | L , 0 Q P | R , 2 Q 2 @ 45 ° | H , 2 .
| H , 0 Q 1 @ - 45 ° | R , 0 Q P | L , - 2 Q 2 @ - 45 ° | H , - 2 .
| H , 0 Q 1 @ 45 ° | L , 0 Q P | R , 2 Q 2 @ - 45 ° | V , 2 M + PBS | V , - 2 Q 1 @ 45 ° | R , - 2 Q P | L , - 4 Q 2 @ - 45 ° | H , - 4 | H , 0 Q 1 @ - 45 ° | R , 0 Q P | L , - 2 Q 2 @ 45 ° | V , - 2 M + PBS | V , 2 Q 1 @ - 45 ° | L , 2 Q P | R , 4 Q 2 @ 45 ° | H , 4 .
| ψ 1 = C 1 ( θ , ψ ) [ 2 ( cos ( 2 θ + ψ ) - sin ψ ) | 2 - i ( 1 - sin 2 θ ) | 4 ] ,
| ψ 2 = C 2 ( θ , ψ ) [ 2 ( cos ( 2 θ - ψ ) - sin ψ ) | - 2 - i ( 1 + sin 2 θ ) | ± 4 ] ,

Metrics