A theoretical examination of off-axial trapping in non-paraxial Laguerre–Gaussian beams is presented for both the Rayleigh and Mie regimes. It is well known that the force acting on a particle may be divided into a term proportional to the intensity gradient and another representing the scattering force. The latter term may be further sub-divided into a dissipative radiation force and a term dependent on the electric field gradient. For Rayleigh particles in Laguerre–Gaussian beams, it is shown that the field gradient term contributes exactly half of the scattering force. This may be compared with a plane wave, in which it makes zero contribution. The off-axis trapping positions for spheres with radii varying from 0.1 to and a range of refractive indices are calculated numerically in the Mie regime, using a conjugate gradient approach. Azimuthal forces and orbital torques are presented for particles in their trapping positions, for beams with different orbital angular momentum and polarization states. The components of a “spin” torque, acting through the center of the particle, are also computed for absorbing particles in the Mie regime.
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