Abstract

The reliability of using a reference system intrinsic to the cornea has been evaluated in order to characterize corneas of subjects after refractive surgery. Data on 90 eyes operated on by LASIK to correct myopia and astigmatism were considered. The corneal parameters (curvature radii and corneal asphericity) found with respect to this reference system are compared with the parameters provided directly by the corneal topographer. The corneal parameters referenced to the intrinsic main axes of the cornea allow a better characterization of the corneal geometry, showing lower variability and diminishing the dissimilarities between the different eyes. The use of these parameters reduces the discrepancies between the real experimental and the theoretically predicted values (21% mean relative error using intrinsic data versus 81% using the topographer data). To understand and reduce these differences is essential in refractive surgery.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  25. J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, J. Jorge, A. Queiros, J. B. Almeida, and M. A. Parafita, “A comparison of the ARK-700A autokeratometer and Medmont E300 corneal topographer when measuring peripheral corneal curvature,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 391–398 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. G. Anera, C. Villa, J. R. Jimenez, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Differences between real and predicted corneal shapes after aspherical corneal ablation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4528–4532 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic LASIK,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1468–1468 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. A. Diaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

S. Hick, J. F. Laliberté, J. Meunier, M. Chagnon, and I. Brunette, “Effects of misalignment during corneal topography,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 1522–1529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

C. E. Campbell, in Wavefront Customized Visual Correction: The Quest for Super Vision II, R.R.Krueger, R.A.Applegate, and S.M.MacRae, eds. (SLACK Incorporated, 2004), p. 301.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, J. Jorge, A. Queiros, J. B. Almeida, and M. A. Parafita, “A comparison of the ARK-700A autokeratometer and Medmont E300 corneal topographer when measuring peripheral corneal curvature,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 391–398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

P. R. Preussner, J. Wahl, and C. Kramann, “Corneal model,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 471–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, J. Bermudez, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic LASIK,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1468–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Diaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser refractive surgery, including reflection losses and nonnormal incidence upon the anterior cornea,” Opt. Lett. 28, 417–419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, and L. J. del Barco, “Equation for corneal asphericity after corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 65–69 (2003).

2002 (2)

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. del Barco, and E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Calossi, The Optical Quality of the Cornea (Fabiano Editore, 2002).

2001 (3)

M. Mrochen and T. Seiler, “Influence of corneal curvature on calculation of ablation patterns used in photorefractive laser surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S584–S587 (2001).

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

S. Marcos, “Aberrations and visual performance following standard laser vision correction,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S596–S601 (2001).

2000 (1)

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

1997 (2)

L. G. Carney, J. C. Mainstone, and B. A. Henderson, “Corneal topography and myopia—A cross-sectional study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 311–320 (1997).

K. M. Oliver, R. P. Hemenger, M. C. Corbett, D. P. S. OBrart, S. Verma, J. Marshall, and A. Tomlinson, “Corneal optical aberrations induced by photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 246–254 (1997).

1996 (1)

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, and J. P. Medina, “Changes in corneal aberration structure after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 4277 (1996) [ARVO abstract].

1995 (1)

S. D. Klyce, “Information fidelity in corneal topography,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 791–792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. Burek and W. A. Douthwaite, “Mathematical-models of the general corneal surface,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 68–72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Wang, D. A. Rice, and S. D. Klyce, “Analysis of the effects of astigmatism and misalignment on corneal surface reconstruction from photokeratoscopic data,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 7, 129–140 (1991).

1988 (1)

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, and J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy—a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).

1982 (1)

P. M. Kiely, G. Smith, and L. G. Carney, “The shape of the human cornea,” Opt. Acta 29, 1027–1040 (1982).

1943 (1)

T. Y. Baker, “Ray tracing through non-spherical surfaces,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 55, 361–364 (1943).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, J. B.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, J. Jorge, A. Queiros, J. B. Almeida, and M. A. Parafita, “A comparison of the ARK-700A autokeratometer and Medmont E300 corneal topographer when measuring peripheral corneal curvature,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 391–398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anera, R. G.

R. G. Anera, C. Villa, J. R. Jimenez, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Differences between real and predicted corneal shapes after aspherical corneal ablation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4528–4532 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic LASIK,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1468–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Diaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, and L. J. del Barco, “Equation for corneal asphericity after corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 65–69 (2003).

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser refractive surgery, including reflection losses and nonnormal incidence upon the anterior cornea,” Opt. Lett. 28, 417–419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, J. Bermudez, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. del Barco, and E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Applegate, R. A.

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, and J. P. Medina, “Changes in corneal aberration structure after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 4277 (1996) [ARVO abstract].

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

Baker, T. Y.

T. Y. Baker, “Ray tracing through non-spherical surfaces,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 55, 361–364 (1943).
[CrossRef]

Barbero, S.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Bermudez, J.

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, J. Bermudez, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brunette, I.

S. Hick, J. F. Laliberté, J. Meunier, M. Chagnon, and I. Brunette, “Effects of misalignment during corneal topography,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 1522–1529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burek, H.

H. Burek and W. A. Douthwaite, “Mathematical-models of the general corneal surface,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 68–72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Calossi, A.

A. Calossi, The Optical Quality of the Cornea (Fabiano Editore, 2002).

Campbell, C. E.

C. E. Campbell, in Wavefront Customized Visual Correction: The Quest for Super Vision II, R.R.Krueger, R.A.Applegate, and S.M.MacRae, eds. (SLACK Incorporated, 2004), p. 301.

Carney, L. G.

L. G. Carney, J. C. Mainstone, and B. A. Henderson, “Corneal topography and myopia—A cross-sectional study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 311–320 (1997).

P. M. Kiely, G. Smith, and L. G. Carney, “The shape of the human cornea,” Opt. Acta 29, 1027–1040 (1982).

Chagnon, M.

S. Hick, J. F. Laliberté, J. Meunier, M. Chagnon, and I. Brunette, “Effects of misalignment during corneal topography,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 1522–1529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, M. C.

K. M. Oliver, R. P. Hemenger, M. C. Corbett, D. P. S. OBrart, S. Verma, J. Marshall, and A. Tomlinson, “Corneal optical aberrations induced by photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 246–254 (1997).

del Barco, L. J.

R. G. Anera, C. Villa, J. R. Jimenez, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Differences between real and predicted corneal shapes after aspherical corneal ablation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4528–4532 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic LASIK,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1468–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Diaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, and L. J. del Barco, “Equation for corneal asphericity after corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 65–69 (2003).

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser refractive surgery, including reflection losses and nonnormal incidence upon the anterior cornea,” Opt. Lett. 28, 417–419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, J. Bermudez, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. del Barco, and E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, J. A.

J. A. Diaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dorronsoro, C.

Douthwaite, W. A.

H. Burek and W. A. Douthwaite, “Mathematical-models of the general corneal surface,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 68–72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, L.

Gonzalez-Meijome, J. M.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, J. Jorge, A. Queiros, J. B. Almeida, and M. A. Parafita, “A comparison of the ARK-700A autokeratometer and Medmont E300 corneal topographer when measuring peripheral corneal curvature,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 391–398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, R.

Hemenger, R. P.

K. M. Oliver, R. P. Hemenger, M. C. Corbett, D. P. S. OBrart, S. Verma, J. Marshall, and A. Tomlinson, “Corneal optical aberrations induced by photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 246–254 (1997).

Henderson, B. A.

L. G. Carney, J. C. Mainstone, and B. A. Henderson, “Corneal topography and myopia—A cross-sectional study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 311–320 (1997).

Hernandez, J. L.

Hick, S.

S. Hick, J. F. Laliberté, J. Meunier, M. Chagnon, and I. Brunette, “Effects of misalignment during corneal topography,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 1522–1529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hita, E.

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, J. Bermudez, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser refractive surgery, including reflection losses and nonnormal incidence upon the anterior cornea,” Opt. Lett. 28, 417–419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic LASIK,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1468–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. del Barco, and E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Howland, H. C.

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, and J. P. Medina, “Changes in corneal aberration structure after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 4277 (1996) [ARVO abstract].

Jimenez, J. R.

R. G. Anera, C. Villa, J. R. Jimenez, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Differences between real and predicted corneal shapes after aspherical corneal ablation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4528–4532 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic LASIK,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1468–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Diaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, J. Bermudez, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser refractive surgery, including reflection losses and nonnormal incidence upon the anterior cornea,” Opt. Lett. 28, 417–419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, and L. J. del Barco, “Equation for corneal asphericity after corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 65–69 (2003).

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. del Barco, and E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jorge, J.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, J. Jorge, A. Queiros, J. B. Almeida, and M. A. Parafita, “A comparison of the ARK-700A autokeratometer and Medmont E300 corneal topographer when measuring peripheral corneal curvature,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 391–398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kiely, P. M.

P. M. Kiely, G. Smith, and L. G. Carney, “The shape of the human cornea,” Opt. Acta 29, 1027–1040 (1982).

Klyce, S. D.

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, and J. P. Medina, “Changes in corneal aberration structure after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 4277 (1996) [ARVO abstract].

S. D. Klyce, “Information fidelity in corneal topography,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 791–792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, D. A. Rice, and S. D. Klyce, “Analysis of the effects of astigmatism and misalignment on corneal surface reconstruction from photokeratoscopic data,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 7, 129–140 (1991).

Koons, S. J.

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, and J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy—a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).

Kramann, C.

P. R. Preussner, J. Wahl, and C. Kramann, “Corneal model,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 471–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laliberté, J. F.

S. Hick, J. F. Laliberté, J. Meunier, M. Chagnon, and I. Brunette, “Effects of misalignment during corneal topography,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 1522–1529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Llorente, L.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Lloves, J. M.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Mainstone, J. C.

L. G. Carney, J. C. Mainstone, and B. A. Henderson, “Corneal topography and myopia—A cross-sectional study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 311–320 (1997).

Marcos, S.

A. Pérez-Escudero, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Correlation between radius and asphericity in surfaces fitted by conics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 1541–1548 (2010).

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

S. Marcos, “Aberrations and visual performance following standard laser vision correction,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S596–S601 (2001).

Marshall, J.

K. M. Oliver, R. P. Hemenger, M. C. Corbett, D. P. S. OBrart, S. Verma, J. Marshall, and A. Tomlinson, “Corneal optical aberrations induced by photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 246–254 (1997).

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, and J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy—a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).

Martinez, C. E.

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, and J. P. Medina, “Changes in corneal aberration structure after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 4277 (1996) [ARVO abstract].

McDonald, M. B.

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, and J. P. Medina, “Changes in corneal aberration structure after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 4277 (1996) [ARVO abstract].

Medina, J. P.

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, and J. P. Medina, “Changes in corneal aberration structure after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 4277 (1996) [ARVO abstract].

Meunier, J.

S. Hick, J. F. Laliberté, J. Meunier, M. Chagnon, and I. Brunette, “Effects of misalignment during corneal topography,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 1522–1529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Mrochen, M.

M. Mrochen and T. Seiler, “Influence of corneal curvature on calculation of ablation patterns used in photorefractive laser surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S584–S587 (2001).

Munnerlyn, C. R.

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, and J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy—a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).

Navarro, R.

R. Navarro, L. Gonzalez, and J. L. Hernandez, “Optics of the average normal cornea from general and canonical representations of its surface topography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 219–232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

OBrart, D. P. S.

K. M. Oliver, R. P. Hemenger, M. C. Corbett, D. P. S. OBrart, S. Verma, J. Marshall, and A. Tomlinson, “Corneal optical aberrations induced by photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 246–254 (1997).

Oliver, K. M.

K. M. Oliver, R. P. Hemenger, M. C. Corbett, D. P. S. OBrart, S. Verma, J. Marshall, and A. Tomlinson, “Corneal optical aberrations induced by photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 246–254 (1997).

Parafita, M. A.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, J. Jorge, A. Queiros, J. B. Almeida, and M. A. Parafita, “A comparison of the ARK-700A autokeratometer and Medmont E300 corneal topographer when measuring peripheral corneal curvature,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 391–398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Escudero, A.

Preussner, P. R.

P. R. Preussner, J. Wahl, and C. Kramann, “Corneal model,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 471–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Queiros, A.

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, J. Jorge, A. Queiros, J. B. Almeida, and M. A. Parafita, “A comparison of the ARK-700A autokeratometer and Medmont E300 corneal topographer when measuring peripheral corneal curvature,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 391–398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rice, D. A.

J. Wang, D. A. Rice, and S. D. Klyce, “Analysis of the effects of astigmatism and misalignment on corneal surface reconstruction from photokeratoscopic data,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 7, 129–140 (1991).

Seiler, T.

M. Mrochen and T. Seiler, “Influence of corneal curvature on calculation of ablation patterns used in photorefractive laser surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S584–S587 (2001).

Smith, G.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

P. M. Kiely, G. Smith, and L. G. Carney, “The shape of the human cornea,” Opt. Acta 29, 1027–1040 (1982).

Tomlinson, A.

K. M. Oliver, R. P. Hemenger, M. C. Corbett, D. P. S. OBrart, S. Verma, J. Marshall, and A. Tomlinson, “Corneal optical aberrations induced by photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 246–254 (1997).

Verma, S.

K. M. Oliver, R. P. Hemenger, M. C. Corbett, D. P. S. OBrart, S. Verma, J. Marshall, and A. Tomlinson, “Corneal optical aberrations induced by photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 246–254 (1997).

Villa, C.

Wahl, J.

P. R. Preussner, J. Wahl, and C. Kramann, “Corneal model,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 471–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, D. A. Rice, and S. D. Klyce, “Analysis of the effects of astigmatism and misalignment on corneal surface reconstruction from photokeratoscopic data,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 7, 129–140 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. del Barco, and E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthamol. (1)

S. D. Klyce, “Information fidelity in corneal topography,” Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 791–792 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (3)

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

C. E. Martinez, R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, S. D. Klyce, M. B. McDonald, and J. P. Medina, “Changes in corneal aberration structure after photorefractive keratectomy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 37, 4277 (1996) [ARVO abstract].

L. G. Carney, J. C. Mainstone, and B. A. Henderson, “Corneal topography and myopia—A cross-sectional study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 311–320 (1997).

J. Cataract Refractive Surg. (5)

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic LASIK,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1468–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Hick, J. F. Laliberté, J. Meunier, M. Chagnon, and I. Brunette, “Effects of misalignment during corneal topography,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 1522–1529 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Preussner, J. Wahl, and C. Kramann, “Corneal model,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 471–477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, and J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratectomy—a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, L. J. del Barco, J. Bermudez, and E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. A. Diaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Refract. Surg. (4)

K. M. Oliver, R. P. Hemenger, M. C. Corbett, D. P. S. OBrart, S. Verma, J. Marshall, and A. Tomlinson, “Corneal optical aberrations induced by photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Refract. Surg. 13, 246–254 (1997).

S. Marcos, “Aberrations and visual performance following standard laser vision correction,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S596–S601 (2001).

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, and L. J. del Barco, “Equation for corneal asphericity after corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 65–69 (2003).

M. Mrochen and T. Seiler, “Influence of corneal curvature on calculation of ablation patterns used in photorefractive laser surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S584–S587 (2001).

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (2)

H. Burek and W. A. Douthwaite, “Mathematical-models of the general corneal surface,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 68–72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gonzalez-Meijome, J. Jorge, A. Queiros, J. B. Almeida, and M. A. Parafita, “A comparison of the ARK-700A autokeratometer and Medmont E300 corneal topographer when measuring peripheral corneal curvature,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24, 391–398 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

P. M. Kiely, G. Smith, and L. G. Carney, “The shape of the human cornea,” Opt. Acta 29, 1027–1040 (1982).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (1)

T. Y. Baker, “Ray tracing through non-spherical surfaces,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 55, 361–364 (1943).
[CrossRef]

Refract. Corneal Surg. (1)

J. Wang, D. A. Rice, and S. D. Klyce, “Analysis of the effects of astigmatism and misalignment on corneal surface reconstruction from photokeratoscopic data,” Refract. Corneal Surg. 7, 129–140 (1991).

Other (4)

ANSI Z80.23-2008 Corneal Topography Systems—Standard Terminology, Requirements.

C. E. Campbell, in Wavefront Customized Visual Correction: The Quest for Super Vision II, R.R.Krueger, R.A.Applegate, and S.M.MacRae, eds. (SLACK Incorporated, 2004), p. 301.

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

A. Calossi, The Optical Quality of the Cornea (Fabiano Editore, 2002).

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