Abstract

In imaging systems and especially in confocal microscopy systems there is a trade-off between the lateral resolution and the obtained depth of focus. The use of complex pupils to improve the lateral resolution by engineering the point spread function is a common approach; however the lateral improvement reduces the effective depth of focus and therefore the fluorescence efficiency. In this work we analytically develop an optimized approach for obtaining a complex pupil with an extended depth of focus. The proposed solution is numerically applied and tested in designing an improved focal depth in confocal microscope configuration.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

J. J. M. Braat, S. van Haver, A. J. E. M. Janssen, and S. F. Pereira, “Image formation in a multilayer using the extended Nijboer–Zernike theory,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09048 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

S. Delica and C. M. Blanca, “Wide-field depth-sectioning fluorescence microscopy using projector-generated patterned illumination,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7237–7243 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Littleton, K. Laib, D. Longstaffb, V. Sarafisa, P. Munroee, N. Heckenberga, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlopa, “Coherent super-resolution microscopy via laterally structured illumination,” Micron 38, 150–157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Scanning two photon fluorescence microscopy with extended depth of field,” Opt. Commun. 268, 253–260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dufour, M. Piché, Y. De Koninck, and N. McCarthy, “Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy with a high depth of field using an axicon,” Appl. Opt. 45, 9246–9252 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Sazbon, Z. Zalevsky, and E. Rivlin, “Qualitative real-time range extraction for preplanned scene partitioning using laser beam coding,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 26, 1772–1781 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Ganic, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Focusing of doughnut laser beams by a high numerical-aperture objective in free space,” Opt. Express 11, 2747–2752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Heintzmann, V. Sarafis, P. Munroe, J. Nailon, Q. S. Hanley, and T. M. Jovin, “Resolution enhancement by subtraction of confocal signals taken at different pinhole sizes,” Micron 34, 293–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. A. Rolfe and J. D. Scholes, “Extended depth-of-focus imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence from intact leaves,” Photosynth. Res. 72, 107–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

D. Mendlovic, Z. Zalevsky, and N. Konforti, “Computation considerations and fast algorithms for calculating the diffraction integral,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 407–413 (1997).

1996 (1)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

1973 (1)

1960 (1)

Blanca, C. M.

Botcherby, E. J.

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Scanning two photon fluorescence microscopy with extended depth of field,” Opt. Commun. 268, 253–260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

J. J. M. Braat, S. van Haver, A. J. E. M. Janssen, and S. F. Pereira, “Image formation in a multilayer using the extended Nijboer–Zernike theory,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09048 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cox, I. J.

Dam, J. S.

De Koninck, Y.

Delica, S.

Dufour, P.

Gan, X.

Ganic, D.

Garcia, J.

Glückstad, J.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Gu, M.

Hanley, Q. S.

R. Heintzmann, V. Sarafis, P. Munroe, J. Nailon, Q. S. Hanley, and T. M. Jovin, “Resolution enhancement by subtraction of confocal signals taken at different pinhole sizes,” Micron 34, 293–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heckenberga, N.

B. Littleton, K. Laib, D. Longstaffb, V. Sarafisa, P. Munroee, N. Heckenberga, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlopa, “Coherent super-resolution microscopy via laterally structured illumination,” Micron 38, 150–157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hegedus, Z. S.

Heintzmann, R.

R. Heintzmann, V. Sarafis, P. Munroe, J. Nailon, Q. S. Hanley, and T. M. Jovin, “Resolution enhancement by subtraction of confocal signals taken at different pinhole sizes,” Micron 34, 293–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, A. J. E. M.

J. J. M. Braat, S. van Haver, A. J. E. M. Janssen, and S. F. Pereira, “Image formation in a multilayer using the extended Nijboer–Zernike theory,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09048 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jovin, T. M.

R. Heintzmann, V. Sarafis, P. Munroe, J. Nailon, Q. S. Hanley, and T. M. Jovin, “Resolution enhancement by subtraction of confocal signals taken at different pinhole sizes,” Micron 34, 293–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Juskaitis, R.

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Scanning two photon fluorescence microscopy with extended depth of field,” Opt. Commun. 268, 253–260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Konforti, N.

D. Mendlovic, Z. Zalevsky, and N. Konforti, “Computation considerations and fast algorithms for calculating the diffraction integral,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 407–413 (1997).

Laib, K.

B. Littleton, K. Laib, D. Longstaffb, V. Sarafisa, P. Munroee, N. Heckenberga, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlopa, “Coherent super-resolution microscopy via laterally structured illumination,” Micron 38, 150–157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Levy, U.

Lit, J. W. Y.

Littleton, B.

B. Littleton, K. Laib, D. Longstaffb, V. Sarafisa, P. Munroee, N. Heckenberga, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlopa, “Coherent super-resolution microscopy via laterally structured illumination,” Micron 38, 150–157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Longstaffb, D.

B. Littleton, K. Laib, D. Longstaffb, V. Sarafisa, P. Munroee, N. Heckenberga, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlopa, “Coherent super-resolution microscopy via laterally structured illumination,” Micron 38, 150–157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Martinez, P. G.

McCarthy, N.

Mendlovic, D.

Munroe, P.

R. Heintzmann, V. Sarafis, P. Munroe, J. Nailon, Q. S. Hanley, and T. M. Jovin, “Resolution enhancement by subtraction of confocal signals taken at different pinhole sizes,” Micron 34, 293–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Munroee, P.

B. Littleton, K. Laib, D. Longstaffb, V. Sarafisa, P. Munroee, N. Heckenberga, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlopa, “Coherent super-resolution microscopy via laterally structured illumination,” Micron 38, 150–157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nailon, J.

R. Heintzmann, V. Sarafis, P. Munroe, J. Nailon, Q. S. Hanley, and T. M. Jovin, “Resolution enhancement by subtraction of confocal signals taken at different pinhole sizes,” Micron 34, 293–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Palima, D.

Perch-Nielsen, I. R.

Pereira, S. F.

J. J. M. Braat, S. van Haver, A. J. E. M. Janssen, and S. F. Pereira, “Image formation in a multilayer using the extended Nijboer–Zernike theory,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09048 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piché, M.

Rivlin, E.

D. Sazbon, Z. Zalevsky, and E. Rivlin, “Qualitative real-time range extraction for preplanned scene partitioning using laser beam coding,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 26, 1772–1781 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rolfe, S. A.

S. A. Rolfe and J. D. Scholes, “Extended depth-of-focus imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence from intact leaves,” Photosynth. Res. 72, 107–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rubinsztein-Dunlopa, H.

B. Littleton, K. Laib, D. Longstaffb, V. Sarafisa, P. Munroee, N. Heckenberga, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlopa, “Coherent super-resolution microscopy via laterally structured illumination,” Micron 38, 150–157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sarafis, V.

R. Heintzmann, V. Sarafis, P. Munroe, J. Nailon, Q. S. Hanley, and T. M. Jovin, “Resolution enhancement by subtraction of confocal signals taken at different pinhole sizes,” Micron 34, 293–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Hegedus and V. Sarafis, “Superresolving filters in confocally scanned imaging systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1892–1896 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sarafisa, V.

B. Littleton, K. Laib, D. Longstaffb, V. Sarafisa, P. Munroee, N. Heckenberga, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlopa, “Coherent super-resolution microscopy via laterally structured illumination,” Micron 38, 150–157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sazbon, D.

D. Sazbon, Z. Zalevsky, and E. Rivlin, “Qualitative real-time range extraction for preplanned scene partitioning using laser beam coding,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 26, 1772–1781 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scholes, J. D.

S. A. Rolfe and J. D. Scholes, “Extended depth-of-focus imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence from intact leaves,” Photosynth. Res. 72, 107–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shabtay, G.

Shemer, A.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Tremblay, R.

van Haver, S.

J. J. M. Braat, S. van Haver, A. J. E. M. Janssen, and S. F. Pereira, “Image formation in a multilayer using the extended Nijboer–Zernike theory,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09048 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Welford, W. T.

Wilson, T.

Zalevsky, Z.

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. (1)

J. J. M. Braat, S. van Haver, A. J. E. M. Janssen, and S. F. Pereira, “Image formation in a multilayer using the extended Nijboer–Zernike theory,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09048 1–12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. Mendlovic, Z. Zalevsky, and N. Konforti, “Computation considerations and fast algorithms for calculating the diffraction integral,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 407–413 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Micron (2)

B. Littleton, K. Laib, D. Longstaffb, V. Sarafisa, P. Munroee, N. Heckenberga, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlopa, “Coherent super-resolution microscopy via laterally structured illumination,” Micron 38, 150–157 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Heintzmann, V. Sarafis, P. Munroe, J. Nailon, Q. S. Hanley, and T. M. Jovin, “Resolution enhancement by subtraction of confocal signals taken at different pinhole sizes,” Micron 34, 293–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Scanning two photon fluorescence microscopy with extended depth of field,” Opt. Commun. 268, 253–260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pattern Recogn. Lett. (1)

D. Sazbon, Z. Zalevsky, and E. Rivlin, “Qualitative real-time range extraction for preplanned scene partitioning using laser beam coding,” Pattern Recogn. Lett. 26, 1772–1781 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Photosynth. Res. (1)

S. A. Rolfe and J. D. Scholes, “Extended depth-of-focus imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence from intact leaves,” Photosynth. Res. 72, 107–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

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