Abstract

HOMER, the new bench developed at ONERA devoted to wide field adaptive optics (WFAO) laboratory research, has allowed the first experimental validations of multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) and laser tomography adaptive optics (LTAO) concepts with a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control approach. Results obtained in LTAO in closed loop show the significant gain in performance brought by LQG control, which allows tomographic reconstruction. We present a calibration and model identification strategy. Experimental results are shown to be consistent with end-to-end simulations. These results are very encouraging and demonstrate robustness of performance with respect to inevitable experimental uncertainties. They represent a first step for the study of very large telescope (VLT) and extremely large telescopes (ELT) instruments.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

2008 (6)

C. Correia, H.-F. Raynaud, C. Kulcsár, and J.-M. Conan, “Globally optimal minimum mean-square error control in adaptive optical systems with mirror dynamics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151F-1-70151F-12 (2008).

M. Bec, F. Rigaut, R. Galvez, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, G. Gausachs, D. Gratadour, E. James, R. Rojas, R. Rogers, M. P. Sheehan, G. Trancho, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini MCAO bench: system overview and lab integration,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701568-1-701568-13 (2008).

E. Laag, M. Ammons, T. Gavel, and R. Kupke, “Multiconjugate adaptive optics results from the laboratory for adaptive optics MCAO/MOAO testbed,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2114-2121 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-F. Raynaud, C. Kulcsár, C. Correia, and J.-M. Conan, “Multirate LQG AO control,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701538-1-701538-6 (2008).

L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Split atmospheric tomography using laser and natural guide star,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2427-2435 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

2007 (3)

2006 (5)

2005 (8)

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri and D. Rabaud, “Optimal control for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1059-1069 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Gilles, “Closed-loop stability and performance analysis of least-squares and minimum variance control algorithms for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 44, 993-1002 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Piatrou and L. Gilles, “Robustness study of the pseudo open-loop controller for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1003-1010 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1099-1109 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan J.-M., T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1110-1117 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 59030P-1-59030P-9 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

D. Looze, M. Kasper, S. Hippler, O. Beker, and R. Weiss, “Optimal compensation and implementation for adaptive optics systems,” ESA Bull. 15, 67-88 (2003).

B. Ellerbroek and C. Vogel, “Simulations of closed-loop wavefront reconstruction for multiconjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5169-23, 206-217 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1983 (1)

1961 (1)

P. Joseph and J. Tou, “On linear control theory,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Ind. 80, 193-196 (1961).

Ammons, M.

Amorim, A.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

Andersen, D.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Anderson, D.

Angel, J. R. P.

Arcidiacono, C.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
[Crossref]

Arriagada, G.

M. Bec, F. Rigaut, R. Galvez, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, G. Gausachs, D. Gratadour, E. James, R. Rojas, R. Rogers, M. P. Sheehan, G. Trancho, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini MCAO bench: system overview and lab integration,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701568-1-701568-13 (2008).

Arsenault, R.

N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1099-1109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Assémat, F.

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan J.-M., T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1110-1117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Babnara, P.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

Bagnara, P.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baranec, C.

Baruffolo, A.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bauman, B. J.

S. Mark Ammons, L. Johnson, E. A. Laag, R. Kupke, D. T. Gavel, B. J. Bauman, and C. E. Max, “Integrated laboratory demonstrations of multi-object adaptive optics on a simulated 10-meter telescope at visible wavelengths,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published). arXiv/0901.1716.

Baumeister, H.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bec, M.

M. Bec, F. Rigaut, R. Galvez, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, G. Gausachs, D. Gratadour, E. James, R. Rojas, R. Rogers, M. P. Sheehan, G. Trancho, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini MCAO bench: system overview and lab integration,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701568-1-701568-13 (2008).

Béchet, C.

C. Béchet, M. Tallon, and E. Thiébaut, “FRIM: minimum-variance reconstructor with a fractal iterative method,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62722U (2006).
[Crossref]

Beckers, J.-M.

J.-M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multi conjugate adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.H.Ulrich, ed., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings (ESO, 1988), No. 30, pp. 693-703.

Beckmann, U.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Behrend, J.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Beker, O.

D. Looze, M. Kasper, S. Hippler, O. Beker, and R. Weiss, “Optimal compensation and implementation for adaptive optics systems,” ESA Bull. 15, 67-88 (2003).

D. Looze, O. Beker, M. Kasper, and S. Hippler, “Optimal compensation and implementation for adaptive optics systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (IEEE, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 1715-1720.

Bertram, T.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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Bizenberger, P.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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Boccas, M.

M. Bec, F. Rigaut, R. Galvez, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, G. Gausachs, D. Gratadour, E. James, R. Rojas, R. Rogers, M. P. Sheehan, G. Trancho, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini MCAO bench: system overview and lab integration,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701568-1-701568-13 (2008).

Boehnhardt, H.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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Brast, R.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
[Crossref]

Briegel, F.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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Carbillet, M.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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Chemla, F.

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan J.-M., T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1110-1117 (2005).
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C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 59030P-1-59030P-9 (2005).

Conan, J.-M.

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaud, “LQG control for AO and MCAO: experimental and numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1307-1325 (2009).
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H.-F. Raynaud, C. Kulcsár, C. Correia, and J.-M. Conan, “Multirate LQG AO control,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701538-1-701538-6 (2008).

C. Correia, H.-F. Raynaud, C. Kulcsár, and J.-M. Conan, “Globally optimal minimum mean-square error control in adaptive optical systems with mirror dynamics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151F-1-70151F-12 (2008).

C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, and P. Viaris de Lesegno, “Optimal control, observers and integrators in adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 14, 7464-7476 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 59030P-1-59030P-9 (2005).

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri and D. Rabaud, “Optimal control for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1059-1069 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Le Roux, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, L. M. Mugnier, and T. Fusco, “Optimal control law for classical and multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1261-1276 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier and V. Michau, “Optimal wavefront reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527-2538 (2001).
[Crossref]

Conan J.-M., J.-M.

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan J.-M., T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1110-1117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Conzelmann, R.

N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1099-1109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Correia, C.

C. Correia, H.-F. Raynaud, C. Kulcsár, and J.-M. Conan, “Globally optimal minimum mean-square error control in adaptive optical systems with mirror dynamics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151F-1-70151F-12 (2008).

H.-F. Raynaud, C. Kulcsár, C. Correia, and J.-M. Conan, “Multirate LQG AO control,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701538-1-701538-6 (2008).

Delabre, B.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1099-1109 (2005).
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E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
[Crossref]

Diolaiti, E.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Doelman, N.

Donaldson, R.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
[Crossref]

Driebe, T.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Eckart, A.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Egner, S.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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Ellerbroek, B.

B. Ellerbroek and C. Vogel, “Simulations of closed-loop wavefront reconstruction for multiconjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5169-23, 206-217 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Farinato, J.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fedrigo, E.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
[Crossref]

Frank, C.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fusco, T.

J.-F. Sauvage, T. Fusco, G. Rousset, and C. Petit, “Calibration and pre-compensation of non-common path aberrations for extreme adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2334-2346 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 59030P-1-59030P-9 (2005).

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan J.-M., T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1110-1117 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri and D. Rabaud, “Optimal control for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1059-1069 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Le Roux, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, L. M. Mugnier, and T. Fusco, “Optimal control law for classical and multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1261-1276 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fusco, J.-M. Conan, G. Rousset, L. M. Mugnier and V. Michau, “Optimal wavefront reconstruction strategies for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2527-2538 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gaessler, W.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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Galvez, R.

M. Bec, F. Rigaut, R. Galvez, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, G. Gausachs, D. Gratadour, E. James, R. Rojas, R. Rogers, M. P. Sheehan, G. Trancho, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini MCAO bench: system overview and lab integration,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701568-1-701568-13 (2008).

Gausachs, G.

M. Bec, F. Rigaut, R. Galvez, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, G. Gausachs, D. Gratadour, E. James, R. Rojas, R. Rogers, M. P. Sheehan, G. Trancho, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini MCAO bench: system overview and lab integration,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701568-1-701568-13 (2008).

Gavel, D. T.

D. Wiberg, C. Max, and D. T. Gavel, “A spatial non-dynamic LQG controller: Part I, Application to adaptive optics,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (IEEE, 2004), Vol. 3, pp. 3326-3332.

S. Mark Ammons, L. Johnson, E. A. Laag, R. Kupke, D. T. Gavel, B. J. Bauman, and C. E. Max, “Integrated laboratory demonstrations of multi-object adaptive optics on a simulated 10-meter telescope at visible wavelengths,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published). arXiv/0901.1716.

Gavel, T.

Gendron, E.

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan J.-M., T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1110-1117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gilles, L.

Gratadour, D.

M. Bec, F. Rigaut, R. Galvez, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, G. Gausachs, D. Gratadour, E. James, R. Rojas, R. Rogers, M. P. Sheehan, G. Trancho, and T. Vucina, “The Gemini MCAO bench: system overview and lab integration,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701568-1-701568-13 (2008).

Grimm, B.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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Hammer, F.

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W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
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E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan J.-M., T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1110-1117 (2005).
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D. Looze, M. Kasper, S. Hippler, O. Beker, and R. Weiss, “Optimal compensation and implementation for adaptive optics systems,” ESA Bull. 15, 67-88 (2003).

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E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

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W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaud, “LQG control for AO and MCAO: experimental and numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1307-1325 (2009).
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C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, and P. Viaris de Lesegno, “Optimal control, observers and integrators in adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 14, 7464-7476 (2006).
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C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 59030P-1-59030P-9 (2005).

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri and D. Rabaud, “Optimal control for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1059-1069 (2005).
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Laag, E. A.

S. Mark Ammons, L. Johnson, E. A. Laag, R. Kupke, D. T. Gavel, B. J. Bauman, and C. E. Max, “Integrated laboratory demonstrations of multi-object adaptive optics on a simulated 10-meter telescope at visible wavelengths,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published). arXiv/0901.1716.

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E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan J.-M., T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1110-1117 (2005).
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W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1099-1109 (2005).
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E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
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Lima, J.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

Liotard, A.

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan J.-M., T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1110-1117 (2005).
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E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
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Looze, D. P.

Marchesi, M.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

Marchetti, E.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, J.-L. Lizon, M. Marchesi, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Babnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on sky results in star oriented mode,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150F-1-70150F-12 (2008).

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
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Marteaud, M.

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan J.-M., T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1110-1117 (2005).
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W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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Max, C. E.

S. Mark Ammons, L. Johnson, E. A. Laag, R. Kupke, D. T. Gavel, B. J. Bauman, and C. E. Max, “Integrated laboratory demonstrations of multi-object adaptive optics on a simulated 10-meter telescope at visible wavelengths,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (to be published). arXiv/0901.1716.

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Mohr, L.

W. Gaessler, C. Arcidiacono, S. Egner, T. M. Herbst, D. Andersen, H. Baumeister, P. Bizenberger, H. Boehnhardt, F. Briegel, M. Kuerster, W. Laun, L. Mohr, B. Grimm, H.-W. Rix, R.-R. Rohloff, R. Soci, C. Storz, W. Xu, R. Ragazzoni, P. Salinari, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, M. Carbillet, L. Schreiber, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, C. Straumbmeier, Y. Wang, L. Zealounk, G. Weigelt, U. Beckmann, J. Behrend, T. Driebe, M. Heininger, K.-H. Hofmann, E. Nussbaum, D. Schertel, and E. Masciadri, “LINC-NIRVANA: MCAO toward extremely large telescopes,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1129-1138 (2005).
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C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri and D. Rabaud, “Optimal control for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1059-1069 (2005).
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Nussbaum, E.

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E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. Le Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, F. Quirós-Pacheco, R. Reiss, J. Santos, S. Tordo, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, P. Bagnara, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, and M. Lombini, “MAD: Practical implementation of MCAO concepts,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1118-1128 (2005).
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Petit, C.

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaud, “LQG control for AO and MCAO: experimental and numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1307-1325 (2009).
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C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri, F. Chemla, and D. Rabaud, “Off-axis adaptive optics with optimal control: experimental and numerical validation,” Proc. SPIE 5903, 59030P-1-59030P-9 (2005).

C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H.-F. Raynaud, T. Fusco, J. Montri and D. Rabaud, “Optimal control for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1059-1069 (2005).
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Piatrou, P.

Puech, M.

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan J.-M., T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. 6, 1110-1117 (2005).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

C. R. Acad. Sci. Phys. (5)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, and H.-F. Raynaud, “LQG control for AO and MCAO: experimental and numerical analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1307-1325 (2009).
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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

HOMER bench and its main components.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

GSs configurations (solid boxes for WFAO and dashed boxes for AO) and science star constellation (crosses).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative separation δ = α h D between two stars in the FoV for a layer at altitude h. We can see the footprint and the separation of the pupils in altitude.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sketch of a constant envelope collimator. The marginal ray passing the edge of the pupil in the collimated entry space, corresponding to the extreme half-field, passes through the primary focal point of the lens. It allows the GS footprint size to change with the altitude, whereas the meta-pupil keeps its original size. We see on the bottom the footprint for two positions of the DM88: on the left it corresponds to δ = 100 % and on the right to δ = 0 % .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

WFS display: top, full display with all 7 × 7 sub-apertures. Bottom-right, zoom on one sub-aperture: dashed squares represent the windows cut by the RTC for wavefront sensing on each GS.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of a WFAO system. Turbulence is composed of n l layers and analyzed thanks to n g s WFSs in the n g s GSs’ directions. Correction is performed by n m DMs, conjugated with n m = 2 altitudes in this picture.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal diagram of the system process.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Map of internal SR in AO case (left) and MCAO case (right). The standard deviation is 5.8% in AO and 5.6% in MCAO.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Left, map of experimental long-exposure PSFs obtained on HOMER without any correction of the turbulence. Right, map of experimental long-exposure PSFs obtained in AO with an integrator control. The star surrounded by the dashed square is both WFS and correction direction. The PSFs have been cut off from the original image and artificially brought closer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of experimental (dashed line) and numerical (solid line) SR in AO with an integrator control, according to the footprint relative separation of the stars in the FoV. Note that star with δ = 0 is both WFS and correction direction.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Left, map of experimental long-exposure PSFs obtained in AO with an integrator control. Right, map of experimental long-exposure PSFs obtained in MCAO with an LQG control. The GSs for MCAO are surrounded by a red (online) solid square and for AO by a blue (online) dashed square.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Left, map of experimental SR obtained in AO with an integrator control. Right, map of experimental SR obtained in MCAO with an LQG control. Note that the two images are not represented with the same color scale.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of experimental (dashed line) and numerical (solid line) mean SR measured in the whole FoV in MCAO, as a function of the noise variance σ w 2 .

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison of experimental and numerical mean SR in the FoV obtained with an integrator control as a function of the number of truncated modes in the TSVD of the interaction matrix.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Comparison of experimental (dashed line) and numerical (solid line) SR in the direction of optimization in TAO configuration, as a function of the noise variance σ w 2 .

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Size of the Interaction Matrices for AO, GLAO, and MCAO in HOMER a

Tables Icon

Table 2 SR Obtained in AO with an Integrator Control and Internal SR Measured in AO without Turbulence a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Experimental and Numerical SR in MCAO with Integrator and LQG Control

Tables Icon

Table 4 SR Obtained on Four Different Stars in Classical AO in the Presence of Turbulence, in TAO with LQG Control and in GLAO with Integrator Control

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ k = N k u k ,
u k = P k φ k = ( ( N k ) t N k ) ( N k ) t φ k ,
Σ v k = P k Σ φ k ( P k ) t .
φ l , n tur = 1 T ( n 1 ) T n T φ l tur ( t ) d t .
φ n cor = 1 T ( n 1 ) T n T φ cor ( t ) d t = N u n 1 .
ϕ β , n 1 res = M β n l φ n 1 tur M β n m φ n 1 cor .
y n = D n g s ϕ α , n 1 res + w n ,
y n = M int n g s , n m u n = D n g s M α n m N u n .
J ( u ) wfao = lim N + 1 N n = 1 N M β n l φ n tur M β n m N u n 1 2 .
u n = u n 1 + g Δ u n l s = u n 1 + g M com y n ,
v n + 1 = A v v n + ξ n ,
Σ ξ = Σ v A v Σ v ( A v ) t = ( 1 a 2 ) ( P 52 Σ φ 52 ( P 52 ) t 0 0 P 88 Σ φ 88 ( P 88 ) t ) .
X n = ( v n v n 1 u n 1 u n 2 ) ,
X n + 1 = A X n + B u n + η n ,
y n = C X n + w n ,
A = ( A v 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 ) , B = ( 0 0 I 0 ) and η n = ( ξ n 0 0 0 ) ,
C = ( 0 C n l 0 C n m ) ,
u n = P wfao v ̂ n + 1 | n ,
P wfao = ( ( M β n m N ) t M β n m N ) ( M β n m N ) t M β n l N tur .
J ( u ) wfao = M β n l N tur v n M β n m N u n 1 2 .
v ̂ n | n = v ̂ n | n 1 + a H ( y n y ̂ n | n 1 ) ,
v ̂ n + 1 | n = a v ̂ n | n ,
u n = P wfao v ̂ n + 1 | n ,
H = ( a H opt H opt 0 0 ) ,
Σ = a 2 Σ + Σ ξ a 2 Σ C n l t ( C n l Σ C n l t + Σ w ) C n l Σ .

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