Abstract

Reviewed are various designs of advanced, multiaperture optical systems dedicated to high-angular-resolution imaging or to the detection of exoplanets by nulling interferometry. A simple Fourier optics formalism applicable to both imaging arrays and nulling interferometers is presented, allowing their basic theoretical relationships to be derived as convolution or cross-correlation products suitable for fast and accurate computation. Several unusual designs, such as a “superresolving telescope” utilizing a mosaicking observation procedure or a free-flying, axially recombined interferometer are examined, and their performance in terms of imaging and nulling capacity are assessed. In all considered cases, it is found that the limiting parameter is the diameter of the individual telescopes. A final section devoted to nulling interferometry shows an apparent superiority of axial versus multiaxial recombining schemes. The entire study is valid only in the framework of first-order geometrical optics and scalar diffraction theory. Furthermore, it is assumed that all entrance subapertures are optically conjugated with their associated exit pupils.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

François Hénault, "Simple Fourier optics formalism for high angular resolution systems and nulling interferometry: erratum," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 341-341 (2011)
https://www.osapublishing.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?uri=josaa-28-3-341

References

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

F. Hénault, “Computing extinction maps of star nulling interferometers,” Opt. Express 16, 4537-4546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hénault, “Fine art of computing nulling interferometer maps,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131X (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (5)

P. Haguenauer and E. Serabyn, “Deep nulling of laser light with a single-mode-fiber beam combiner,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2749-2754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Sabatke, J. H. Burge, and P. Hinz, “Optical design of interferometric telescopes with wide fields of view,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8026-8035 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiébaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747-751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, P. Ferruit, E. Prieto, D. Robert, E. Renault, J. P. Dubois, and R. Bacon, “CRAL activities on advanced image slicers: optical design, manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing,” New Astron. Rev. 50(4-5), 346-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, E. Renault, R. Bacon, and J. P. Dubois, “Design of an integral field unit for MUSE, and results from prototyping,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1564-1573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. H. Greenaway, F. H. P. Spaan, and V. Mourai, “Pupil replication for exoplanet imaging,” Astrophys. J. 618, L165-L168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Kaltenegger and M. Fridlund, “The Darwin mission: search for extra-solar planets,” Adv. Space Res. 36, 1114-1122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Lay, “Imaging properties of rotating nulling interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5859-5871 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

D. M. Stubbs, A. L. Duncan, J. T. Pitman, R. D. Sigler, R. L. Kendrick, J. F. Chilese, and E. H. Smith, “Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) science payload concept,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1444-1452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, and R. Ruggeri, “Beyond the diffraction limit: super-resolving pupils,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2217-2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

1997 (3)

M. Ollivier and J. M. Mariotti, “Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5340-5346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, and J. M. Mariotti, “Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 379-392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Angel, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Detection and spectroscopy of exo-planets like Earth,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 516-519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Labeyrie, “Resolved imaging of extra-solar planets with future 10-100 km optical interferometric arrays,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 118, 517-524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1992 (1)

M. Tallon and I. Tallon-Bosc, “The object-image relationship in Michelson stellar interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 253, 641-645 (1992).

1988 (2)

L. D. Weaver, J. S. Fender, and C. R. de Hainaut, “Design considerations for multiple telescope imaging arrays,” Opt. Eng. 27, 730-735 (1988).

F. Merkle, “Synthetic-aperture imaging with the European Very Large Telescope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 904-913 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

J. M. Beckers, “Field of view considerations for telescope arrays,” Proc. SPIE 628, 255-260 (1986).

W. A. Traub, “Combining beams from separated telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 25, 528-532 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

J. E. Harvey, A. B. Wissinger, and A. N. Bunner, “A parametric study of various synthetic aperture telescope configurations for coherent imaging applications,” Proc. SPIE 643, 194-207 (1985).

E. K. Hege, J. M. Beckers, P. A. Strittmatter, and D. W. McCarthy, “Multiple mirror telescope as a phased array telescope,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2565-2576 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

J. M. Beckers, E. K. Hege, and P. A. Strittmatter, “Optical interferometry with the MMT,” Proc. SPIE 444, 85-92 (1983).

1982 (1)

1979 (2)

C. G. Wyne, “Extending the bandwidth of speckle interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 28, 21-25 (1979).

R. N. Bracewell and R. H. MacPhie, “Searching for non-solar planets,” Icarus 38, 136-147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 196, L71-L75 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1952 (1)

G. Toraldo di Francia, “Super-gain antennas and optical resolving power,” Nuovo Cimento 9, 426-438 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

1921 (1)

A. A. Michelson and F. G. Pease, “Measurement of the diameter of α Orionis with the interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 53, 249-259 (1921).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Amans, J. P.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R.

J. R. Angel, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Detection and spectroscopy of exo-planets like Earth,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 516-519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Angel, “Use of a 16 m telescope to detect earthlike planets,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Next Generation Space Telescope, P.Bely and C.J.Burrows, eds. (Space Telescope Science Institute, 1990), pp. 81-94.

Bacon, R.

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, P. Ferruit, E. Prieto, D. Robert, E. Renault, J. P. Dubois, and R. Bacon, “CRAL activities on advanced image slicers: optical design, manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing,” New Astron. Rev. 50(4-5), 346-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, E. Renault, R. Bacon, and J. P. Dubois, “Design of an integral field unit for MUSE, and results from prototyping,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1564-1573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barillot, M.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Buisset, X. Rejeaunier, Y. Rabbia, and M. Barillot, “Stable deep nulling in polychromatic unpolarized light with multiaxial beam combination,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7817-7822 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Field of view considerations for telescope arrays,” Proc. SPIE 628, 255-260 (1986).

E. K. Hege, J. M. Beckers, P. A. Strittmatter, and D. W. McCarthy, “Multiple mirror telescope as a phased array telescope,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2565-2576 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Beckers, E. K. Hege, and P. A. Strittmatter, “Optical interferometry with the MMT,” Proc. SPIE 444, 85-92 (1983).

Benesch, W.

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell and R. H. MacPhie, “Searching for non-solar planets,” Icarus 38, 136-147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Buey, T.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buisset, C.

Bunner, A. N.

J. E. Harvey, A. B. Wissinger, and A. N. Bunner, “A parametric study of various synthetic aperture telescope configurations for coherent imaging applications,” Proc. SPIE 643, 194-207 (1985).

Burge, J. H.

E. E. Sabatke, J. H. Burge, and P. Hinz, “Optical design of interferometric telescopes with wide fields of view,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8026-8035 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Angel, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Detection and spectroscopy of exo-planets like Earth,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 516-519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Busse, L. E.

Cassaing, F.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruilier and F. Cassaing, “Coupling of large telescope and single-mode waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 143-149 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chilese, J. F.

D. M. Stubbs, A. L. Duncan, J. T. Pitman, R. D. Sigler, R. L. Kendrick, J. F. Chilese, and E. H. Smith, “Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) science payload concept,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1444-1452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Colavita, M. M.

Coudé du Foresto, V.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, and J. M. Mariotti, “Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 379-392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Hainaut, C. R.

L. D. Weaver, J. S. Fender, and C. R. de Hainaut, “Design considerations for multiple telescope imaging arrays,” Opt. Eng. 27, 730-735 (1988).

Diaz, R. T.

Dubois, J. P.

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, E. Renault, R. Bacon, and J. P. Dubois, “Design of an integral field unit for MUSE, and results from prototyping,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1564-1573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, P. Ferruit, E. Prieto, D. Robert, E. Renault, J. P. Dubois, and R. Bacon, “CRAL activities on advanced image slicers: optical design, manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing,” New Astron. Rev. 50(4-5), 346-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, A. L.

D. M. Stubbs, A. L. Duncan, J. T. Pitman, R. D. Sigler, R. L. Kendrick, J. F. Chilese, and E. H. Smith, “Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) science payload concept,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1444-1452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fender, J. S.

L. D. Weaver, J. S. Fender, and C. R. de Hainaut, “Design considerations for multiple telescope imaging arrays,” Opt. Eng. 27, 730-735 (1988).

Ferruit, P.

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, P. Ferruit, E. Prieto, D. Robert, E. Renault, J. P. Dubois, and R. Bacon, “CRAL activities on advanced image slicers: optical design, manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing,” New Astron. Rev. 50(4-5), 346-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fridlund, M.

L. Kaltenegger and M. Fridlund, “The Darwin mission: search for extra-solar planets,” Adv. Space Res. 36, 1114-1122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ftaclas, C.

Gappinger, R. O.

Greenaway, A. H.

F. H. P. Spaan and A. H. Greenaway, “Analysis of pupil replication,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1380-1385 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Greenaway, F. H. P. Spaan, and V. Mourai, “Pupil replication for exoplanet imaging,” Astrophys. J. 618, L165-L168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

Harvey, J. E.

Hege, E. K.

E. K. Hege, J. M. Beckers, P. A. Strittmatter, and D. W. McCarthy, “Multiple mirror telescope as a phased array telescope,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2565-2576 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Beckers, E. K. Hege, and P. A. Strittmatter, “Optical interferometry with the MMT,” Proc. SPIE 444, 85-92 (1983).

Hénault, F.

F. Hénault, “Fibered nulling telescope for extra-solar coronagraphy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1096-1098 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hénault, “Fine art of computing nulling interferometer maps,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131X (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hénault, “Computing extinction maps of star nulling interferometers,” Opt. Express 16, 4537-4546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, P. Ferruit, E. Prieto, D. Robert, E. Renault, J. P. Dubois, and R. Bacon, “CRAL activities on advanced image slicers: optical design, manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing,” New Astron. Rev. 50(4-5), 346-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, E. Renault, R. Bacon, and J. P. Dubois, “Design of an integral field unit for MUSE, and results from prototyping,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1564-1573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hinz, P.

Houairi, K.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacquinod, S.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaltenegger, L.

L. Kaltenegger and M. Fridlund, “The Darwin mission: search for extra-solar planets,” Adv. Space Res. 36, 1114-1122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kendrick, R. L.

D. M. Stubbs, A. L. Duncan, J. T. Pitman, R. D. Sigler, R. L. Kendrick, J. F. Chilese, and E. H. Smith, “Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) science payload concept,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1444-1452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. H.

Kotha, A.

Ksendzov, A.

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, “Resolved imaging of extra-solar planets with future 10-100 km optical interferometric arrays,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 118, 517-524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 196, L71-L75 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lacour, S.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiébaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747-751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laporte, P.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lardière, O.

O. Lardière, F. Martinache, and F. Patru, “Direct imaging with highly diluted apertures—I. Field of view limitations,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 375, 977-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, F.

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, P. Ferruit, E. Prieto, D. Robert, E. Renault, J. P. Dubois, and R. Bacon, “CRAL activities on advanced image slicers: optical design, manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing,” New Astron. Rev. 50(4-5), 346-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, E. Renault, R. Bacon, and J. P. Dubois, “Design of an integral field unit for MUSE, and results from prototyping,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1564-1573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, P. R.

Lay, O.

Lay, O. P.

LeDuigou, J. M.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liewer, K. M.

Loya, F. M.

MacPhie, R. H.

R. N. Bracewell and R. H. MacPhie, “Searching for non-solar planets,” Icarus 38, 136-147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Marcotto, A.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, J. M.

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, and J. M. Mariotti, “Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 379-392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier and J. M. Mariotti, “Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5340-5346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, S.

Martin, S. R.

Martinache, F.

O. Lardière, F. Martinache, and F. Patru, “Direct imaging with highly diluted apertures—I. Field of view limitations,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 375, 977-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, D. W.

Meinel, A. B.

Merkle, F.

Michelson, A. A.

A. A. Michelson and F. G. Pease, “Measurement of the diameter of α Orionis with the interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 53, 249-259 (1921).
[CrossRef]

Mourai, V.

A. H. Greenaway, F. H. P. Spaan, and V. Mourai, “Pupil replication for exoplanet imaging,” Astrophys. J. 618, L165-L168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mugnai, D.

A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, and R. Ruggeri, “Beyond the diffraction limit: super-resolving pupils,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2217-2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Ollivier, M.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ollivier and J. M. Mariotti, “Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5340-5346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patru, F.

O. Lardière, F. Martinache, and F. Patru, “Direct imaging with highly diluted apertures—I. Field of view limitations,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 375, 977-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pease, F. G.

A. A. Michelson and F. G. Pease, “Measurement of the diameter of α Orionis with the interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 53, 249-259 (1921).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, G.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiébaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747-751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. L.

Pirson, L.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pitman, J. T.

D. M. Stubbs, A. L. Duncan, J. T. Pitman, R. D. Sigler, R. L. Kendrick, J. F. Chilese, and E. H. Smith, “Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) science payload concept,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1444-1452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, E.

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, P. Ferruit, E. Prieto, D. Robert, E. Renault, J. P. Dubois, and R. Bacon, “CRAL activities on advanced image slicers: optical design, manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing,” New Astron. Rev. 50(4-5), 346-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pureza, P. C.

Rabbia, Y.

Ranfagni, A.

A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, and R. Ruggeri, “Beyond the diffraction limit: super-resolving pupils,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2217-2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reess, J. M.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rejeaunier, X.

Renault, E.

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, P. Ferruit, E. Prieto, D. Robert, E. Renault, J. P. Dubois, and R. Bacon, “CRAL activities on advanced image slicers: optical design, manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing,” New Astron. Rev. 50(4-5), 346-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, E. Renault, R. Bacon, and J. P. Dubois, “Design of an integral field unit for MUSE, and results from prototyping,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1564-1573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S.

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, and J. M. Mariotti, “Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 379-392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robert, D.

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, P. Ferruit, E. Prieto, D. Robert, E. Renault, J. P. Dubois, and R. Bacon, “CRAL activities on advanced image slicers: optical design, manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing,” New Astron. Rev. 50(4-5), 346-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruggeri, R.

A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, and R. Ruggeri, “Beyond the diffraction limit: super-resolving pupils,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2217-2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruilier, C.

Sabatke, E. E.

Sanghera, J. S.

Serabyn, E.

Sigler, R. D.

D. M. Stubbs, A. L. Duncan, J. T. Pitman, R. D. Sigler, R. L. Kendrick, J. F. Chilese, and E. H. Smith, “Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) science payload concept,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1444-1452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. H.

D. M. Stubbs, A. L. Duncan, J. T. Pitman, R. D. Sigler, R. L. Kendrick, J. F. Chilese, and E. H. Smith, “Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) science payload concept,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1444-1452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sorrente, B.

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spaan, F. H. P.

F. H. P. Spaan and A. H. Greenaway, “Analysis of pupil replication,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1380-1385 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Greenaway, F. H. P. Spaan, and V. Mourai, “Pupil replication for exoplanet imaging,” Astrophys. J. 618, L165-L168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strittmatter, P. A.

E. K. Hege, J. M. Beckers, P. A. Strittmatter, and D. W. McCarthy, “Multiple mirror telescope as a phased array telescope,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2565-2576 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Beckers, E. K. Hege, and P. A. Strittmatter, “Optical interferometry with the MMT,” Proc. SPIE 444, 85-92 (1983).

Strong, J.

Stubbs, D. M.

D. M. Stubbs, A. L. Duncan, J. T. Pitman, R. D. Sigler, R. L. Kendrick, J. F. Chilese, and E. H. Smith, “Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) science payload concept,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1444-1452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tallon, M.

M. Tallon and I. Tallon-Bosc, “The object-image relationship in Michelson stellar interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 253, 641-645 (1992).

Tallon-Bosc, I.

M. Tallon and I. Tallon-Bosc, “The object-image relationship in Michelson stellar interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 253, 641-645 (1992).

Thiébaut, E.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiébaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747-751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Toraldo di Francia, G.

G. Toraldo di Francia, “Super-gain antennas and optical resolving power,” Nuovo Cimento 9, 426-438 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

Wagner, R. E.

Wallace, J. K.

Weaver, L. D.

L. D. Weaver, J. S. Fender, and C. R. de Hainaut, “Design considerations for multiple telescope imaging arrays,” Opt. Eng. 27, 730-735 (1988).

Wissinger, A. B.

J. E. Harvey, A. B. Wissinger, and A. N. Bunner, “A parametric study of various synthetic aperture telescope configurations for coherent imaging applications,” Proc. SPIE 643, 194-207 (1985).

Woillez, J.

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiébaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747-751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woolf, N. J.

J. R. Angel, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Detection and spectroscopy of exo-planets like Earth,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 516-519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wyne, C. G.

C. G. Wyne, “Extending the bandwidth of speckle interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 28, 21-25 (1979).

Adv. Space Res. (1)

L. Kaltenegger and M. Fridlund, “The Darwin mission: search for extra-solar planets,” Adv. Space Res. 36, 1114-1122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (14)

A. B. Meinel, “Aperture synthesis using independent telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2501-2504 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Wagner and W. J. Tomlinson, “Coupling efficiency of optics in single-mode fiber components,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2671-2688 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. K. Hege, J. M. Beckers, P. A. Strittmatter, and D. W. McCarthy, “Multiple mirror telescope as a phased array telescope,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2565-2576 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Traub, “Combining beams from separated telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 25, 528-532 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ollivier and J. M. Mariotti, “Improvement in the rejection rate of a nulling interferometer by spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5340-5346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Harvey, A. Kotha, and R. L. Phillips, “Image characteristics in applications utilizing dilute subaperture arrays,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2983-2992 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Harvey and C. Ftaclas, “Field-of-view limitations of phased telescope arrays,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5787-5798 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Serabyn and M. M. Colavita, “Fully symmetric nulling beam combiners,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1668-1671 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. P. Lay, “Imaging properties of rotating nulling interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5859-5871 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Haguenauer and E. Serabyn, “Deep nulling of laser light with a single-mode-fiber beam combiner,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2749-2754 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Sabatke, J. H. Burge, and P. Hinz, “Optical design of interferometric telescopes with wide fields of view,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8026-8035 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Buisset, X. Rejeaunier, Y. Rabbia, and M. Barillot, “Stable deep nulling in polychromatic unpolarized light with multiaxial beam combination,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7817-7822 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ksendzov, O. Lay, S. Martin, J. S. Sanghera, L. E. Busse, W. H. Kim, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Characterization of mid-infrared single mode fibers as modal filters,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7957-7962 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Gappinger, R. T. Diaz, A. Ksendzov, P. R. Lawson, O. P. Lay, K. M. Liewer, F. M. Loya, S. R. Martin, E. Serabyn, and J. K. Wallace, “Experimental evaluation of achromatic phase shifters for mid-infrared starlight suppression,” Appl. Opt. 48, 868-880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

M. Tallon and I. Tallon-Bosc, “The object-image relationship in Michelson stellar interferometry,” Astron. Astrophys. 253, 641-645 (1992).

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (2)

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, and J. M. Mariotti, “Deriving object visibilities from interferograms obtained with a fiber stellar interferometer,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 121, 379-392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Labeyrie, “Resolved imaging of extra-solar planets with future 10-100 km optical interferometric arrays,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 118, 517-524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (4)

A. A. Michelson and F. G. Pease, “Measurement of the diameter of α Orionis with the interferometer,” Astrophys. J. 53, 249-259 (1921).
[CrossRef]

A. Labeyrie, “Interference fringes obtained on Vega with two optical telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 196, L71-L75 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Greenaway, F. H. P. Spaan, and V. Mourai, “Pupil replication for exoplanet imaging,” Astrophys. J. 618, L165-L168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. H. P. Spaan and A. H. Greenaway, “Analysis of pupil replication,” Astrophys. J. 658, 1380-1385 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

R. N. Bracewell and R. H. MacPhie, “Searching for non-solar planets,” Icarus 38, 136-147 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Ranfagni, D. Mugnai, and R. Ruggeri, “Beyond the diffraction limit: super-resolving pupils,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2217-2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

O. Lardière, F. Martinache, and F. Patru, “Direct imaging with highly diluted apertures—I. Field of view limitations,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 375, 977-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Perrin, S. Lacour, J. Woillez, and E. Thiébaut, “High dynamic range imaging by pupil single-mode filtering and remapping,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373, 747-751 (2006).
[CrossRef]

New Astron. Rev. (1)

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, P. Ferruit, E. Prieto, D. Robert, E. Renault, J. P. Dubois, and R. Bacon, “CRAL activities on advanced image slicers: optical design, manufacturing, assembly, integration and testing,” New Astron. Rev. 50(4-5), 346-350 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento (1)

G. Toraldo di Francia, “Super-gain antennas and optical resolving power,” Nuovo Cimento 9, 426-438 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

L. D. Weaver, J. S. Fender, and C. R. de Hainaut, “Design considerations for multiple telescope imaging arrays,” Opt. Eng. 27, 730-735 (1988).

C. G. Wyne, “Extending the bandwidth of speckle interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 28, 21-25 (1979).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (7)

F. Cassaing, J. M. LeDuigou, J. P. Amans, M. Barillot, T. Buey, F. Hénault, K. Houairi, S. Jacquinod, P. Laporte, A. Marcotto, L. Pirson, J. M. Reess, B. Sorrente, G. Rousset, V. Coudé du Foresto, and M. Ollivier, “Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131Z (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Harvey, A. B. Wissinger, and A. N. Bunner, “A parametric study of various synthetic aperture telescope configurations for coherent imaging applications,” Proc. SPIE 643, 194-207 (1985).

D. M. Stubbs, A. L. Duncan, J. T. Pitman, R. D. Sigler, R. L. Kendrick, J. F. Chilese, and E. H. Smith, “Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) science payload concept,” Proc. SPIE 5487, 1444-1452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Beckers, E. K. Hege, and P. A. Strittmatter, “Optical interferometry with the MMT,” Proc. SPIE 444, 85-92 (1983).

J. M. Beckers, “Field of view considerations for telescope arrays,” Proc. SPIE 628, 255-260 (1986).

J. R. Angel, J. H. Burge, and N. J. Woolf, “Detection and spectroscopy of exo-planets like Earth,” Proc. SPIE 2871, 516-519 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Hénault, “Fine art of computing nulling interferometer maps,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70131X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

F. Laurent, F. Hénault, E. Renault, R. Bacon, and J. P. Dubois, “Design of an integral field unit for MUSE, and results from prototyping,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 1564-1573 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P.R.Lawson, O.P.Lay, K.J.Johnston, and C.A.Beichman eds., TPF-I Science Working Group Report, JPL Publication 07-1 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2007).

J. R. Angel, “Use of a 16 m telescope to detect earthlike planets,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Next Generation Space Telescope, P.Bely and C.J.Burrows, eds. (Space Telescope Science Institute, 1990), pp. 81-94.

P. R. Lawson, Selected Papers on Long Baseline Stellar Interferometry, Vol. MS 139 of SPIE Milestones Series (SPIE, 1997).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reference frames on sky, on the entrance and exit pupils, and in the image plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometrical configurations of entrance and exit pupils.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Input and output optical layout of a generic multi-aperture, high angular resolution system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Input and output subpupil configurations for the Fizeau-like interferometer (top) and hypertelescope (bottom).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic layout of a hypertelescope.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images formed by a hypertelescope for various baseline values B at λ = 10 μ m (original object shown in top left panel).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Conceptual optical layout of a SRT.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Gray-scale map and slices along the U V axes of the far-field fringe function F ( M ) projected on sky by the SRT.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Illustration of the 4 × 4 mosaicking procedure. The optical axis of the telescope is tilted by steps of 100 msec , scanning a 400 × 400 msec square angular area.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Numerical simulation of images formed by a SRT. Top left, original object; top right, image at λ = 10 μ m formed by a 5 m telescope; bottom left, elementary image acquired by a 5 m SRT; bottom right, reconstructed image after a 4 × 4 mosaicking and reconstruction process. Image sampling is 149 × 149 .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Symmetric optical layout for coaxial recombination.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Images formed by an axial combining interferometer for various baseline values B at λ = 10 μ m (original object shown in top left panel. Image sampling is 439 × 439 ).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Interferometer equipped with nulling periscopes and a SMF centred on the optical axis (collecting and densifying optics are not shown).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Computed nulling maps for some typical cases. Top row: nulling Fizeau-like interferometer with two collecting telescopes. Second row: nulling SRT constituted of two exit recombining arms. Lower rows: ACI with two, four, and eight collecting telescopes (left, linear gray scale; right, logarithmic gray scale).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Same nulling maps as in Fig. 14 shown as three-dimensional surface plots. Top row, nulling Fizeau-like interferometer (left) and SRT (right). Lower rows, nulling ACIs with two, four, and eight telescopes.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Overview of Considered Optical Configurations

Tables Icon

Table 2 Numerical Values of Main Physical Parameters for Various Simulated Cases

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of Nulling Interferometer Parameters and Achievable Performance (See Also Table 2)

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m = D D = F C F ,
m C = F F C .
ζ n = [ P n H n ] + [ P n H n ]
ζ n = O P P n s + O P P n s O = P n s + P n s O .
s = O P M | O P M | ( O P O + O M ) F ( O P O + M ) F .
O P M O = O P O + O M O = m C F s O = F s O m ,
s O = m ( O P O + O M O ) F = m ( O P O + M O ) F .
ζ n = P n M F m P n M O F .
A T ( M , M O ) = B ̂ D ( M M O ) A ( M , M O ) ,
A ( M , M O ) = n = 1 N a n exp [ i ( φ n + k ζ n ) ] = n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k ( M P n m M O P n ) F ] .
I ( M ) = M O O ( M O ) | A T ( M , M O ) | 2 d M O = M O O ( M O ) | B ̂ D ( M M O ) | 2 × | n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k ( M P n m M O P n ) F ] | 2 d M O
| A O ( M O ) | 2 = O ( M O ) .
A I ( M ) = M O A O ( M O ) A T ( M , M O ) d M O ,
ρ ( M G ) = M A I ( M ) G * ( M M G ) d M γ
ρ ( M P ) = M A T ( M , M P ) G * ( M ) d M γ = M G * ( M ) B ̂ D ( M M P ) × n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k ( M P n m M P P n ) F ] d M γ .
P n = m P n
ζ n = ( m M m M O ) P n F ,
m = m ,
I ( M ) = M O O ( M O ) | B ̂ D ( M M O ) | 2 | n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k m ( M M O ) P n F ] | 2 d M O = O ( M ) [ | B ̂ D ( M ) | 2 | n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k m M P n F ] | 2 ] ,
ζ n = m ( M d M O ) P n F ,
I ( M ) = M O O ( M O ) | B ̂ D ( M M O ) | 2 | n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k M P n F ] | 2 d M O = F ( M ) [ O ( M ) | B ̂ D ( M ) | 2 ] ,
F ( M ) = | n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k M P n F ] | 2 .
I ( M ) = M O O ( M O ) | B ̂ D ( M M O ) | 2 | n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k m M O P n F ] | 2 d M O = [ O ( M ) F ( M ) ] | B ̂ D ( M ) | 2 ,
F ( M ) = | n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k m M P n F ] | 2 .
ρ ( M ) = G ( M ) [ B ̂ D ( M ) n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k m M P n F ] ] γ ,
T ( M ) = | ρ ( M ) | 2 × P P 0 ,
ρ ( M ) = [ G ( M ) n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k M P n F ] ] B ̂ D ( M ) γ ,
ρ ( M ) = [ n = 1 N a n exp [ i φ n ] exp [ i k m M P n F ] ] [ G ( M ) B ̂ D ( M ) ] γ

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