Abstract

Reported are results of an experiment involving perceptual assessment of very large color differences using samples representing approximate mean Hering opponent generic unique hues (guHs) based on subject selections, intermediate hues (iHs) using Munsell samples intermediate between guHs, and pairings of both guHs and iHs with a neutral gray. Sample pairs were assessed by 28 color normal subjects twice, with a gap of at least 24 hours between assessments. Results were calculated for individual subjects and the entire group. The hypothesis was that perceived chromatic differences of Hering’s guHs are larger than those of iHs, and this was found to be statistically valid at the 99% confidence level based on a t-test. In addition, gray as a percept was found to have prominence comparable to that of generic unique hues.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Hering, Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinne (Wien: Gerolds Sohn, 1878).
  2. D. Jameson and L. H. Hurvich, “Some quantitative aspects of an opponent-colors theory I. Chromatic responses and spectral saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 546-552 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Abramov and J. Gordon, “Seeing unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2143-2153 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. I. A. MacLeod, “Into the neural maze,” in Color Ontology and Color Science, J.Cohen and M.Matthen, eds. (MIT Press, to be published).
  5. C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” J. Phycol. 18, R698-R699 (2008).
  6. R. G. Kuehni, Color Space and Its Divisions (Wiley-Interscience, 2003), Chap. 8.
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “A colour-difference formula for assessing large colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 344-355 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Indow, “Principal hue curves and color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 266-279 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V. E. Raker, “Variations in normal color vision. II. Unique hues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1545-1555 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Malkoc, P. Kay, and M. A. Webster, “Variations in normal color vision. IV. Binary hues and hue scaling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2154-2168 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Neitz, Neitz Test of Color Vision (Western Psychological Services, 2001).
  12. J. Cohn, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Gefühlsbetonung der Farben, Helligkeiten und ihrer Combinationen,” Philos. Studien 10, 562-603 (1894).
  13. D. L. MacAdam, “Uniform color scales,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1691-1702 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Takasaki, “Lightness change of grays induced by change in reflectance of gray background,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 504-509 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Indow, “Colour atlases and colour scaling,” in Color '73: Proceedings of the 2nd Congress (Adam Hilger, 1974), pp. 137-152.
  16. R. G. Kuehni, “Variability in estimation of suprathreshold, small color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 367-374 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. R. Farnum, Modern Statistical Quality Control and Improvement (Wadsworth, 1994).
  18. L. M. Cardenas, “Evaluation of variability in visual assessment of small color differences,” Ph.D. thesis (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, 2009).
  19. R. Shamey, L. M. Cardenas, D. Hinks, and R. Woodard, “Comparison of novice and expert observers in the assessment of small color differences,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.
  20. F. Aguilonius, Opticorum libri sex (Plantin, Antwerp, 1613).
  21. R. Boyle, Experiments and Considerations Touching Color (Herringman, London, 1664).
  22. D. Hinks, L. M. Cardenas, R. G. Kuehni, and R. Shamey, “Unique-hue stimulus selection using Munsell color chips,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3371-3378 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. L. DeValois, I. Abramov, and G. H. Jacobs, “Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 966-977 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

R. G. Kuehni, “Variability in estimation of suprathreshold, small color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 367-374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” J. Phycol. 18, R698-R699 (2008).

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “A colour-difference formula for assessing large colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 344-355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Indow, “Principal hue curves and color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 266-279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1966 (2)

1955 (1)

1894 (1)

J. Cohn, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Gefühlsbetonung der Farben, Helligkeiten und ihrer Combinationen,” Philos. Studien 10, 562-603 (1894).

Abramov, I.

Aguilonius, F.

F. Aguilonius, Opticorum libri sex (Plantin, Antwerp, 1613).

Boyle, R.

R. Boyle, Experiments and Considerations Touching Color (Herringman, London, 1664).

Cardenas, L. M.

D. Hinks, L. M. Cardenas, R. G. Kuehni, and R. Shamey, “Unique-hue stimulus selection using Munsell color chips,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3371-3378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamey, L. M. Cardenas, D. Hinks, and R. Woodard, “Comparison of novice and expert observers in the assessment of small color differences,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

L. M. Cardenas, “Evaluation of variability in visual assessment of small color differences,” Ph.D. thesis (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, 2009).

Cohn, J.

J. Cohn, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Gefühlsbetonung der Farben, Helligkeiten und ihrer Combinationen,” Philos. Studien 10, 562-603 (1894).

Conway, B. R.

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” J. Phycol. 18, R698-R699 (2008).

DeValois, R. L.

Farnum, N. R.

N. R. Farnum, Modern Statistical Quality Control and Improvement (Wadsworth, 1994).

Gordon, J.

Guan, S. S.

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “A colour-difference formula for assessing large colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 344-355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hering, E.

E. Hering, Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinne (Wien: Gerolds Sohn, 1878).

Hinks, D.

D. Hinks, L. M. Cardenas, R. G. Kuehni, and R. Shamey, “Unique-hue stimulus selection using Munsell color chips,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3371-3378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamey, L. M. Cardenas, D. Hinks, and R. Woodard, “Comparison of novice and expert observers in the assessment of small color differences,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

Hurvich, L. H.

Indow, T.

T. Indow, “Principal hue curves and color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 266-279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Indow, “Colour atlases and colour scaling,” in Color '73: Proceedings of the 2nd Congress (Adam Hilger, 1974), pp. 137-152.

Jacobs, G. H.

Jameson, D.

Kay, P.

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, “Variability in estimation of suprathreshold, small color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 367-374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Hinks, L. M. Cardenas, R. G. Kuehni, and R. Shamey, “Unique-hue stimulus selection using Munsell color chips,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3371-3378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, Color Space and Its Divisions (Wiley-Interscience, 2003), Chap. 8.
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “A colour-difference formula for assessing large colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 344-355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

MacAdam, D. L.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Into the neural maze,” in Color Ontology and Color Science, J.Cohen and M.Matthen, eds. (MIT Press, to be published).

Malkoc, G.

Miyahara, E.

Neitz, J.

J. Neitz, Neitz Test of Color Vision (Western Psychological Services, 2001).

Raker, V. E.

Shamey, R.

D. Hinks, L. M. Cardenas, R. G. Kuehni, and R. Shamey, “Unique-hue stimulus selection using Munsell color chips,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3371-3378 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Shamey, L. M. Cardenas, D. Hinks, and R. Woodard, “Comparison of novice and expert observers in the assessment of small color differences,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

Stoughton, C. M.

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” J. Phycol. 18, R698-R699 (2008).

Takasaki, H.

Webster, M. A.

Woodard, R.

R. Shamey, L. M. Cardenas, D. Hinks, and R. Woodard, “Comparison of novice and expert observers in the assessment of small color differences,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

Color Res. Appl. (3)

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “A colour-difference formula for assessing large colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 344-355 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Indow, “Principal hue curves and color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 266-279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “Variability in estimation of suprathreshold, small color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 34, 367-374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Phycol. (1)

C. M. Stoughton and B. R. Conway, “Neural basis for unique hues,” J. Phycol. 18, R698-R699 (2008).

Philos. Studien (1)

J. Cohn, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Gefühlsbetonung der Farben, Helligkeiten und ihrer Combinationen,” Philos. Studien 10, 562-603 (1894).

Other (10)

E. Hering, Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinne (Wien: Gerolds Sohn, 1878).

T. Indow, “Colour atlases and colour scaling,” in Color '73: Proceedings of the 2nd Congress (Adam Hilger, 1974), pp. 137-152.

N. R. Farnum, Modern Statistical Quality Control and Improvement (Wadsworth, 1994).

L. M. Cardenas, “Evaluation of variability in visual assessment of small color differences,” Ph.D. thesis (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, 2009).

R. Shamey, L. M. Cardenas, D. Hinks, and R. Woodard, “Comparison of novice and expert observers in the assessment of small color differences,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

F. Aguilonius, Opticorum libri sex (Plantin, Antwerp, 1613).

R. Boyle, Experiments and Considerations Touching Color (Herringman, London, 1664).

R. G. Kuehni, Color Space and Its Divisions (Wiley-Interscience, 2003), Chap. 8.
[CrossRef]

D. I. A. MacLeod, “Into the neural maze,” in Color Ontology and Color Science, J.Cohen and M.Matthen, eds. (MIT Press, to be published).

J. Neitz, Neitz Test of Color Vision (Western Psychological Services, 2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample schemes: (a) Double pair arrangement. (b) Triangle sample arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean normalized perceived difference values for diagonal comparisons.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean normalized perceived difference values for neighboring guH pairs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean normalized perceived difference values for neighboring iH pairs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean normalized perceived difference values between central gray and guH or iHs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the location of the same guH color chips in the Munsell system (dashed lines M) and as a result of the experiment (solid lines), both scales normalized at R (5R).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison in the same manner as Fig. 6 of the iH color chip locations, normalized at O (5YR).

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Munsell Colors Used as Generic and Intermediate Hues

Tables Icon

Table 2 Double Pair Samples Compared

Tables Icon

Table 3 Triangular Sample Sets

Tables Icon

Table 4 Mean Values from Double-Pair Data

Tables Icon

Table 5 Mean Normalized Relative Perceptual Color Differences

Tables Icon

Table 6 Summary of Intra- and Inter-Subject Variability for Triangular Judgments

Tables Icon

Table 7 Ranks of the guH and iH Differences for All 28 Subjects

Tables Icon

Table 8 Distinctness Index

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Accuracy = Y ¯ m Y .
Inter-subject sum of squares = ( Y i k Y ̿ i ) 2 .
Inter-subject standard deviation = ( Y i k Y ̿ i ) 2 K I .
Intra-subject sum of squares = k = 1 K i = 1 I ( Y i k Y i ¯ ) 2 .
Intra-subject std. dev. = k = 1 K i = 1 I ( Y i k Y ¯ i ) 2 K I .

Metrics