Abstract

This paper is an introduction to the problem of modeling the probability density function of adaptive-optics speckle. We show that with the modified Rician distribution one cannot describe the statistics of light on axis. A dual solution is proposed: the modified Rician distribution for off-axis speckle and gamma-based distribution for the core of the point spread function. From these two distributions we derive optimal statistical discriminators between real sources and quasi-static speckles. In the second part of the paper the morphological difference between the two probability density functions is used to constrain a one-dimensional, “blind,” iterative deconvolution at the position of an exoplanet. Separation of the probability density functions of signal and speckle yields accurate differential photometry in our simulations of the SPHERE planet finder instrument.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Topics in Applied Physics: Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J.C.Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1975), Vol. 9, pp. 9–75.
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    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Aime and R. Soummer, “The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles,” Astrophys. J. 612, L85–L88 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Soummer, A. Ferrari, C. Aime, and L. Jolissaint, “Speckle noise and dynamic range in coronagraphic images,” Astrophys. J. 669, 642–656 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. P. Cagigal and V. F. Canales, “Experimental checking of the Rician the statistics in partially compensated wavefronts,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2690–2697 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. P. Fitzgerald and J. R. Graham, “Speckle the statistics in adaptively corrected images,” Astrophys. J. 637, 541–547 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Christou, S. Gladysz, M. Redfern, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. J. Roberts, “Characterization of the variability of the Strehl ratio of adaptive optics point spread functions,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2006), pp. 528–537.
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    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. Roberts, Jr., “Temporal variability and the statistics of the Strehl ratio in adaptive-optics images,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1132–1143 (2008).
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  15. E. E. Bloemhof, R. D. Dekany, M. Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, “Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 558, L71–L74 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, “The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 596, 702–712 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Gladysz, J. Christou, and M. Redfern, “Characterization of the Lick adaptive optics point spread function,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720J1–12 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  32. J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).
  33. C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, T. Fusco, D. Mouillet, M. Langlois, C. Moutou, and K. Dohlen, “End-to-end simulation of AO-assisted coronagraphic differential imaging: estimation of performance for SPHERE,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156E1–11 (2008).
  35. N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, and P. Dierickx, “Analytical study of diffraction effects in extremely large segmented telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1563–1575 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. Burrows, D. Sudarsky, and I. Hubeny, “Spectra and diagnostics for the direct detection of wide-separation extrasolar giant planets,” Astrophys. J. 609, 407–416 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Boccaletti, G. Chauvin, P. Baudoz, and J.-L. Beuzit, “Coronagraphic near-IR photometry of AB Doradus C,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 939–943 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Sivaramakrishnan and B. R. Oppenheimer, “Astrometry and photometry with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 647, 620–629 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  39. C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612–619 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  40. D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767–777 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  41. L. M. Mugnier, A. Cornia, J.-F. Sauvage, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and N. Vedrenne, “Optimal method for exoplanet detection by angular differential imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1326–1334 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  42. J. C. Christou and J. D. Drummond, “Parameterization of the adaptive optics point spread function,” in Adaptive Optics: Methods, Analysis and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper AOWA4.
  43. C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: a powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556–564 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010

E. Aller-Carpentier, eallerca@eso.org (personal communication, 2010).

2009

S. Gladysz and J. C. Christou, “Reference-less detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions with adaptive optics,” Astrophys. J. 698, 28–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Yaitskova, “Probability density function and detection threshold in high contrast imaging with partially polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1720–1722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yaitskova, “Adaptive optics correction of segment aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 59–71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Mugnier, A. Cornia, J.-F. Sauvage, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and N. Vedrenne, “Optimal method for exoplanet detection by angular differential imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1326–1334 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Christou and J. D. Drummond, “Parameterization of the adaptive optics point spread function,” in Adaptive Optics: Methods, Analysis and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper AOWA4.

2008

A. Boccaletti, G. Chauvin, P. Baudoz, and J.-L. Beuzit, “Coronagraphic near-IR photometry of AB Doradus C,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 939–943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gladysz and J. C. Christou, “Detection of faint companions through stochastic speckle discrimination,” Astrophys. J. 684, 1486–1495 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, M. Kenworthy, N. M. Law, and R. Dekany, “Reference-less detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions with adaptive optics at 1, 2 and 5 microns,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2008), pp. 42–51.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, T. Fusco, D. Mouillet, M. Langlois, C. Moutou, and K. Dohlen, “End-to-end simulation of AO-assisted coronagraphic differential imaging: estimation of performance for SPHERE,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156E1–11 (2008).

S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. Roberts, Jr., “Temporal variability and the statistics of the Strehl ratio in adaptive-optics images,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1132–1143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Soummer and A. Ferrari, “The Strehl ratio in adaptive optics images: the statistics and estimation,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 663, L49–L52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Soummer, A. Ferrari, C. Aime, and L. Jolissaint, “Speckle noise and dynamic range in coronagraphic images,” Astrophys. J. 669, 642–656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Janson, W. Brandner, T. Henning, and H. Zinnecker, “Early ComeOn+ adaptive optics observation of GQ Lupi and its substellar companion,” Astron. Astrophys. 453, 609–614 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Gladysz, J. Christou, and M. Redfern, “Characterization of the Lick adaptive optics point spread function,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720J1–12 (2006).

L. Jolissaint, J.-P. Veran, and R. Conan, “Analytical modeling of adaptive optics: foundations of the phase spatial power spectrum approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 382–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics (Roberts, 2006).

M. P. Fitzgerald and J. R. Graham, “Speckle the statistics in adaptively corrected images,” Astrophys. J. 637, 541–547 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Christou, S. Gladysz, M. Redfern, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. J. Roberts, “Characterization of the variability of the Strehl ratio of adaptive optics point spread functions,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2006), pp. 528–537.

A. Sivaramakrishnan and B. R. Oppenheimer, “Astrometry and photometry with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 647, 620–629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612–619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: a powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Burrows, D. Sudarsky, and I. Hubeny, “Spectra and diagnostics for the direct detection of wide-separation extrasolar giant planets,” Astrophys. J. 609, 407–416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Aime and R. Soummer, “The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles,” Astrophys. J. 612, L85–L88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco and J.-M. Conan, “On- and off-axis statistical behavior of adaptive-optics-corrected short-exposure Strehl ratio,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1277–1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, and P. Dierickx, “Analytical study of diffraction effects in extremely large segmented telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1563–1575 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, “The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 596, 702–712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. P. Cagigal and V. F. Canales, “Experimental checking of the Rician the statistics in partially compensated wavefronts,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2690–2697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bloemhof, R. D. Dekany, M. Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, “Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 558, L71–L74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1996

M. C. Roggemann and B. M. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

1981

J. Uozumi and T. Asakura, “The first-order the statistics of partially developed non-Gaussian speckle patterns,” J. Opt. 12, 177–186 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976

1975

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Topics in Applied Physics: Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J.C.Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1975), Vol. 9, pp. 9–75.

1972

P. Hariharan, “Speckle patterns: a historical retrospect,” Opt. Acta 19, 791–793 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of diffraction limited resolution in large telescopes by Fourier analysing speckle patterns in star images,” Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85–87 (1970).

Abe, L.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Aime, C.

R. Soummer, A. Ferrari, C. Aime, and L. Jolissaint, “Speckle noise and dynamic range in coronagraphic images,” Astrophys. J. 669, 642–656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Aime and R. Soummer, “The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles,” Astrophys. J. 612, L85–L88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aller-Carpentier, E.

E. Aller-Carpentier, eallerca@eso.org (personal communication, 2010).

Antichi, J.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Asakura, T.

J. Uozumi and T. Asakura, “The first-order the statistics of partially developed non-Gaussian speckle patterns,” J. Opt. 12, 177–186 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Baudoz, P.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

A. Boccaletti, G. Chauvin, P. Baudoz, and J.-L. Beuzit, “Coronagraphic near-IR photometry of AB Doradus C,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 939–943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beuzit, J.-L.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

A. Boccaletti, G. Chauvin, P. Baudoz, and J.-L. Beuzit, “Coronagraphic near-IR photometry of AB Doradus C,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 939–943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bloemhof, E. E.

E. E. Bloemhof, R. D. Dekany, M. Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, “Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 558, L71–L74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boccaletti, A.

A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, T. Fusco, D. Mouillet, M. Langlois, C. Moutou, and K. Dohlen, “End-to-end simulation of AO-assisted coronagraphic differential imaging: estimation of performance for SPHERE,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156E1–11 (2008).

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

A. Boccaletti, G. Chauvin, P. Baudoz, and J.-L. Beuzit, “Coronagraphic near-IR photometry of AB Doradus C,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 939–943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bradford, L. W.

S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. Roberts, Jr., “Temporal variability and the statistics of the Strehl ratio in adaptive-optics images,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1132–1143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Christou, S. Gladysz, M. Redfern, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. J. Roberts, “Characterization of the variability of the Strehl ratio of adaptive optics point spread functions,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2006), pp. 528–537.

Brandner, W.

M. Janson, W. Brandner, T. Henning, and H. Zinnecker, “Early ComeOn+ adaptive optics observation of GQ Lupi and its substellar companion,” Astron. Astrophys. 453, 609–614 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, D.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burke, D.

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, A.

A. Burrows, D. Sudarsky, and I. Hubeny, “Spectra and diagnostics for the direct detection of wide-separation extrasolar giant planets,” Astrophys. J. 609, 407–416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cagigal, M. P.

Canales, V. F.

Carbillet, M.

A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, T. Fusco, D. Mouillet, M. Langlois, C. Moutou, and K. Dohlen, “End-to-end simulation of AO-assisted coronagraphic differential imaging: estimation of performance for SPHERE,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156E1–11 (2008).

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Cavarroc, C.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charton, J.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Chauvin, G.

A. Boccaletti, G. Chauvin, P. Baudoz, and J.-L. Beuzit, “Coronagraphic near-IR photometry of AB Doradus C,” Astron. Astrophys. 482, 939–943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christou, J.

S. Gladysz, J. Christou, and M. Redfern, “Characterization of the Lick adaptive optics point spread function,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720J1–12 (2006).

Christou, J. C.

S. Gladysz and J. C. Christou, “Reference-less detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions with adaptive optics,” Astrophys. J. 698, 28–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Christou and J. D. Drummond, “Parameterization of the adaptive optics point spread function,” in Adaptive Optics: Methods, Analysis and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper AOWA4.

S. Gladysz and J. C. Christou, “Detection of faint companions through stochastic speckle discrimination,” Astrophys. J. 684, 1486–1495 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. Roberts, Jr., “Temporal variability and the statistics of the Strehl ratio in adaptive-optics images,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1132–1143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, M. Kenworthy, N. M. Law, and R. Dekany, “Reference-less detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions with adaptive optics at 1, 2 and 5 microns,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2008), pp. 42–51.

J. C. Christou, S. Gladysz, M. Redfern, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. J. Roberts, “Characterization of the variability of the Strehl ratio of adaptive optics point spread functions,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2006), pp. 528–537.

Claudi, R.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Conan, J.-M.

Conan, R.

Cornia, A.

Dainty, C.

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dekany, R.

S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, M. Kenworthy, N. M. Law, and R. Dekany, “Reference-less detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions with adaptive optics at 1, 2 and 5 microns,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2008), pp. 42–51.

Dekany, R. D.

E. E. Bloemhof, R. D. Dekany, M. Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, “Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 558, L71–L74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Devaney, N.

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dierickx, P.

Dohlen, K.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, T. Fusco, D. Mouillet, M. Langlois, C. Moutou, and K. Dohlen, “End-to-end simulation of AO-assisted coronagraphic differential imaging: estimation of performance for SPHERE,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156E1–11 (2008).

N. Yaitskova, K. Dohlen, and P. Dierickx, “Analytical study of diffraction effects in extremely large segmented telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1563–1575 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Downing, M.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Doyon, R.

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612–619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: a powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Racine, G. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, “Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. D.

J. C. Christou and J. D. Drummond, “Parameterization of the adaptive optics point spread function,” in Adaptive Optics: Methods, Analysis and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper AOWA4.

Fabron, C.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Feautrier, P.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Fedrigo, E.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Feldt, M.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Ferrari, A.

R. Soummer and A. Ferrari, “The Strehl ratio in adaptive optics images: the statistics and estimation,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 663, L49–L52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Soummer, A. Ferrari, C. Aime, and L. Jolissaint, “Speckle noise and dynamic range in coronagraphic images,” Astrophys. J. 669, 642–656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, M. P.

M. P. Fitzgerald and J. R. Graham, “Speckle the statistics in adaptively corrected images,” Astrophys. J. 637, 541–547 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

L. M. Mugnier, A. Cornia, J.-F. Sauvage, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and N. Vedrenne, “Optimal method for exoplanet detection by angular differential imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1326–1334 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, T. Fusco, D. Mouillet, M. Langlois, C. Moutou, and K. Dohlen, “End-to-end simulation of AO-assisted coronagraphic differential imaging: estimation of performance for SPHERE,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156E1–11 (2008).

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco and J.-M. Conan, “On- and off-axis statistical behavior of adaptive-optics-corrected short-exposure Strehl ratio,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1277–1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gach, J.-L.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Gladysz, S.

S. Gladysz and J. C. Christou, “Reference-less detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions with adaptive optics,” Astrophys. J. 698, 28–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767–777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Gladysz and J. C. Christou, “Detection of faint companions through stochastic speckle discrimination,” Astrophys. J. 684, 1486–1495 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. Roberts, Jr., “Temporal variability and the statistics of the Strehl ratio in adaptive-optics images,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1132–1143 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, M. Kenworthy, N. M. Law, and R. Dekany, “Reference-less detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions with adaptive optics at 1, 2 and 5 microns,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2008), pp. 42–51.

S. Gladysz, J. Christou, and M. Redfern, “Characterization of the Lick adaptive optics point spread function,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720J1–12 (2006).

J. C. Christou, S. Gladysz, M. Redfern, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. J. Roberts, “Characterization of the variability of the Strehl ratio of adaptive optics point spread functions,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2006), pp. 528–537.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics (Roberts, 2006).

J. W. Goodman, “Some fundamental properties of speckle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1145–1150 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Topics in Applied Physics: Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J.C.Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1975), Vol. 9, pp. 9–75.

Graham, J. R.

M. P. Fitzgerald and J. R. Graham, “Speckle the statistics in adaptively corrected images,” Astrophys. J. 637, 541–547 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, “The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 596, 702–712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, R.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan, “Speckle patterns: a historical retrospect,” Opt. Acta 19, 791–793 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Henning, T.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

M. Janson, W. Brandner, T. Henning, and H. Zinnecker, “Early ComeOn+ adaptive optics observation of GQ Lupi and its substellar companion,” Astron. Astrophys. 453, 609–614 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hinkley, S.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hubeny, I.

A. Burrows, D. Sudarsky, and I. Hubeny, “Spectra and diagnostics for the direct detection of wide-separation extrasolar giant planets,” Astrophys. J. 609, 407–416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Janson, M.

M. Janson, W. Brandner, T. Henning, and H. Zinnecker, “Early ComeOn+ adaptive optics observation of GQ Lupi and its substellar companion,” Astron. Astrophys. 453, 609–614 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jolissaint, L.

R. Soummer, A. Ferrari, C. Aime, and L. Jolissaint, “Speckle noise and dynamic range in coronagraphic images,” Astrophys. J. 669, 642–656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Jolissaint, J.-P. Veran, and R. Conan, “Analytical modeling of adaptive optics: foundations of the phase spatial power spectrum approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 382–394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joos, F.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Kasper, M.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Kenworthy, M.

S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, M. Kenworthy, N. M. Law, and R. Dekany, “Reference-less detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions with adaptive optics at 1, 2 and 5 microns,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2008), pp. 42–51.

Kratter, K.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, J.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of diffraction limited resolution in large telescopes by Fourier analysing speckle patterns in star images,” Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85–87 (1970).

Lafreniere, D.

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612–619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: a powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langlois, M.

A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, T. Fusco, D. Mouillet, M. Langlois, C. Moutou, and K. Dohlen, “End-to-end simulation of AO-assisted coronagraphic differential imaging: estimation of performance for SPHERE,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156E1–11 (2008).

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Law, N. M.

S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, M. Kenworthy, N. M. Law, and R. Dekany, “Reference-less detection, astrometry, and photometry of faint companions with adaptive optics at 1, 2 and 5 microns,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2008), pp. 42–51.

Lenzen, R.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Lloyd, J. P.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: a powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612–619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Makidon, R. B.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, “The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 596, 702–712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marois, C.

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, B. Macintosh, and R. Doyon, “Accurate astrometry and photometry of saturated and coronagraphic point spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 647, 612–619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: a powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Racine, G. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, “Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mouillet, D.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, T. Fusco, D. Mouillet, M. Langlois, C. Moutou, and K. Dohlen, “End-to-end simulation of AO-assisted coronagraphic differential imaging: estimation of performance for SPHERE,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156E1–11 (2008).

Moutou, C.

A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, T. Fusco, D. Mouillet, M. Langlois, C. Moutou, and K. Dohlen, “End-to-end simulation of AO-assisted coronagraphic differential imaging: estimation of performance for SPHERE,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70156E1–11 (2008).

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Mugnier, L. M.

Nadeau, D.

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: a powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556–564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Racine, G. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, “Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R. J.

Oppenheimer, B. R.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan and B. R. Oppenheimer, “Astrometry and photometry with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 647, 620–629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, “The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 596, 702–712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bloemhof, R. D. Dekany, M. Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, “Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 558, L71–L74 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, A.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Perrin, M. D.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, “The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 596, 702–712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petit, C.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Pragt, J.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Puget, P.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Rabou, P.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Racine, R.

R. Racine, G. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, “Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Redfern, M.

J. C. Christou, S. Gladysz, M. Redfern, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. J. Roberts, “Characterization of the variability of the Strehl ratio of adaptive optics point spread functions,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2006), pp. 528–537.

S. Gladysz, J. Christou, and M. Redfern, “Characterization of the Lick adaptive optics point spread function,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720J1–12 (2006).

Rigal, F.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Roberts, L.

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767–777 (2009).
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Roberts, L. C.

S. Gladysz, J. C. Christou, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. Roberts, Jr., “Temporal variability and the statistics of the Strehl ratio in adaptive-optics images,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 120, 1132–1143 (2008).
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S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, L. C. J.

J. C. Christou, S. Gladysz, M. Redfern, L. W. Bradford, and L. C. J. Roberts, “Characterization of the variability of the Strehl ratio of adaptive optics point spread functions,” in Proceedings of the AMOS Technical Conference (Maui Economic Development Board, 2006), pp. 528–537.

Roelfsema, R.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Roggemann, M. C.

M. C. Roggemann and B. M. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC Press, 1996).

Rouan, D.

C. Cavarroc, A. Boccaletti, P. Baudoz, T. Fusco, and D. Rouan, “Fundamental limitations on Earth-like planet detection with extremely large telescopes,” Astron. Astrophys. 447, 397–403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

L. M. Mugnier, A. Cornia, J.-F. Sauvage, G. Rousset, T. Fusco, and N. Vedrenne, “Optimal method for exoplanet detection by angular differential imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1326–1334 (2009).
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J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Saisse, M.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Sauvage, J.-F.

Schmid, H.-M.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Sivaramakrishnan and B. R. Oppenheimer, “Astrometry and photometry with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 647, 620–629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perrin, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. B. Makidon, B. R. Oppenheimer, and J. R. Graham, “The structure of high Strehl ratio point-spread functions,” Astrophys. J. 596, 702–712 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soummer, R.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633–640 (2007).
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R. Soummer and A. Ferrari, “The Strehl ratio in adaptive optics images: the statistics and estimation,” Astrophys. J. Lett. 663, L49–L52 (2007).
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R. Soummer, A. Ferrari, C. Aime, and L. Jolissaint, “Speckle noise and dynamic range in coronagraphic images,” Astrophys. J. 669, 642–656 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Aime and R. Soummer, “The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles,” Astrophys. J. 612, L85–L88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, E.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Sudarsky, D.

A. Burrows, D. Sudarsky, and I. Hubeny, “Spectra and diagnostics for the direct detection of wide-separation extrasolar giant planets,” Astrophys. J. 609, 407–416 (2004).
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Thalmann, C.

J.-L. Beuzit, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, A. Boccaletti, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, and R. Waters, “SPHERE: a planet finder instrument for the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 7014181-12 (2008).

Troy, M.

E. E. Bloemhof, R. D. Dekany, M. Troy, and B. R. Oppenheimer, “Behavior of remnant speckles in an adaptively corrected imaging system,” Astrophys. J. 558, L71–L74 (2001).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Histograms of the “instantaneous” SRs measured on 5 m Hale Telescope at the Palomar Observatory (LAMP detector, wavelength 0.95 μ m , 10 4 images, exposure time 20 ms , natural guide star AO), 3 m Shane Telescope at the Lick Observatory (IRCAL detector, 2.2 μ m , 10 4 images, exposure time 22 ms , natural guide star AO), and 8 m Very Large Telescope at the Paranal Observatory (VISIR detector, 10 μ m , 3 10 4 images, exposure time 10 ms , no AO compensation). We define instantaneous SR as ratio of peak value of a single short exposure to that of the diffraction-limited image. Data courtesy of Nicholas Law (University of Toronto) and Eric Pantin (CEA Saclay).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Efficiency of SSD predicted using ratios K S N and K r for different SR regimes, D r 0 = 27 . (a) 64-subaperture system, S R = 13 % , (b) 144-subaperture system, S R = 36 % , (c) 324-subaperture system, S R = 60 % , d) 900-subaperture system, S R = 80 % .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Efficiency of SSD shown for real and simulated data. Top row: Lick LGS dataset, 15% SR, both companions 20 times fainter than the star. Middle row: Lick NGS dataset, 48% SR, companions 125 times fainter than the star. Bottom row: simulated XAO data, 90% SR, 10 3 brightness ratio between the star and planets. In each case observations are Nyquist sampled. All images are displayed on a linear scale between zero and the peak value of the lower-SNR companion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of how PDF deconvolution works. (a) Least-squares fit of Eq. (22) to the histogram of measured on-axis intensity. (b)–(d) Separation of the PDFs at the location of a companion, brightness ratio = 2000 , 4000, and 5000 respectively. The symbol ∗ denotes convolution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SSD combined with differential imaging. Top row, traditional approach where two long exposures are subtracted. Bottom row, subtraction of beam ratio images. (a) Long exposure containing images of the planets, (b) long exposure with the planets absent, (c) subtraction of (a) and (b). (d) Beam ratio for the first data cube, (e) beam ratio for the second data cube, (f) subtraction of (d) and (e). Images are displayed on the linear scale; the central parts are deliberately saturated to bring out the faint speckle structure outside the PSF core.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Efficiency of the Discriminators: Comparison of Theory and Simulations for Planets Sitting on Speckle Intensity

Equations (30)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A = A 0 + j = 1 m a j e i θ j = A 0 + A m .
pdf I ( I ) = 1 I S exp { I + I C I S } I 0 ( 2 I I C I S ) = 1 I S exp { ( I I S + r ) } I 0 ( 2 I I S r ) ,
γ 1 = ( 6 r + 2 ) ( 2 r + 1 ) 3 2 ,
pdf S ( S ) = m 2 [ m ln ( S ) 2 ln ( SR ) ] ( m 3 ) 2 exp [ m ln ( S ) 2 ln ( SR ) ] Γ ( m 1 2 ) | ln ( SR ) | S ,
S N I σ .
r I C I S .
I = I S + I C ,
σ = 2 I S I C + I S 2 .
I C = I 2 σ 2 ,
I S = I I 2 σ 2 .
r I C I S = I n 2 σ n 2 I n I n 2 σ n 2 = S N 2 1 S N S N 2 1 ,
S = [ 1 2 ln ( SR ) m ] ( 1 m ) 2 .
σ S = [ 1 4 ln ( SR ) m ] ( 1 m ) 2 [ 1 2 ln ( SR ) m ] 1 m .
S N = 1 [ 1 4 ln ( SR ) m ] ( 1 m ) 2 [ 1 2 ln ( SR ) m ] 1 m 1 .
S N = m 2 1 | ln ( SR ) | .
r = S N 2 1 S N S N 2 1 ,
σ ϕ 2 = ln SR = 0.27 ( D r 0 m ) 5 3 ,
I planet = I + 10 q S ,
I planet = I + 10 q S ,
σ planet = σ 2 + 10 2 q σ S 2 ,
S N = I C + I S + 10 q S 2 I C I S + I S 2 + 10 2 q σ S 2 ,
S N = I C + I S 2 I C I S + I S 2 .
I C = exp ( σ ϕ 2 ) ( 1 γ 2 ) 2 [ 2 J 1 ( π x ) π x γ 2 2 J 1 ( γ π x ) γ π x ] 2 .
I S = 1 exp ( σ ϕ 2 ) m [ sin ( π x m ) π x m ] 2 .
pdf I ( I ) = pdf S ( I I P ) I P = m 2 [ m ln ( I I P ) 2 ln ( SR ) ] ( m 3 ) 2 exp [ m ln ( I I P ) 2 ln ( SR ) ] Γ ( m 1 2 ) | ln ( SR ) | I ,
pdf ( I ) = m 2 [ m ln ( I I P 1 ) 2 ln ( SR ) ] ( m 3 ) 2 exp [ m ln ( I I P 1 ) 2 ln ( SR ) ] Γ ( m 1 2 ) | ln ( SR ) | I ,
pdf ( I ) = m 2 [ m ln ( I I P 2 ) 2 ln ( SR ) ] ( m 3 ) 2 exp [ m ln ( I I P 2 ) 2 ln ( SR ) ] Γ ( m 1 2 ) | ln ( SR ) | I 1 I S exp { I + I C I S } I 0 ( 2 I I C I S ) .
b = I P 2 I P 1 .
E = j = 0 k 1 [ h j pdf ( I j ; SR ˆ , m ̂ , I ̂ P 1 ) ] 2 ,
E = j = 0 k 1 [ h j pdf ( I j ; SR , m , I ̂ C , I ̂ S , I ̂ P 2 ) ] 2 .

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