Abstract

In this paper we examine approaches to faint companion detection and estimation in multi-spectral images. We will employ the Hotelling observer, which is the optimal linear algorithm for signal detection. We have shown how to use this observer to estimate faint object position and brightness in the presence of residual speckle, which usually limits astrometric and photometric techniques. These speckles can be reduced by differential imaging techniques such as Angular Differential Imaging and Spectral Differential Imaging. Here we present results based on simulations of adaptive-optics-corrected images from an Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) that contain quasi-static speckle noise. The simulation includes Angular Differential Imaging and Spectral Differential Imaging to reduce the residual speckle and subsequent multi-wavelength processing. We examine the feasibility of this approach on simulated ELT observations of faint companions.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  26. D. Lafrenière, C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, and E. Artigau, “A new algorithm for point-spread function subtraction in high-contrast imaging: a demonstration with angular differential imaging,” Astrophys. J. 660, 770-780 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767-777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Gladysz and J. C. Christou, “Detection of faint companions through stochastic speckle discrimination,” Astrophys. J. 698, 28-44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

D. Lafrenière, C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, and E. Artigau, “A new algorithm for point-spread function subtraction in high-contrast imaging: a demonstration with angular differential imaging,” Astrophys. J. 660, 770-780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Caucci, H. H. Barrett, N. Devaney, and J. J. Rodríguez, “Application of the Hotelling and ideal observers to detection and localization of exoplanets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B13-B24 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European extremely large telescope,” The Messenger 127, 11-19 (2007).

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, R. Racine, M. Riopel, P. Vallee, and D. Lafreniere, “TRIDENT: an infrared differential imaging camera optimized for the detection of methanated substellar companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 745-756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Ingleby and D. R. McGaughey, “Real data results with wavelength-diverse blind deconvolution,” Opt. Lett. 30, 489-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. Aime and R. Soummer, “The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles,” Astrophys. J. 612, L85-L88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Barrett and K. Myres, “Foundations of Image Science” (Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics, 2004).

2003 (1)

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. G. Löfdahl, T. E. Berger, and H. Seldin, “Two dual-wavelength sequences of high-resolution solar photospheric images captured over several hours and restored by use of phase diversity,” Astron. Astrophys. 377, 1128-1135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, and D. Nadeau, “Efficient speckle noise attenuation in faint companion imaging,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 91-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

R. Racine, G. A. H. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, “Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bonet, Motions in the Solar Atmosphere (ASSL Series, 1999).

1996 (1)

M. S. Marley, D. Saumon, T. Guillot, S. Freedman, W. B. Hubbard, A. Burrows, and J. I. Lunine, “Atmospheric, evolutionary, and spectral models of the brown dwarf gliese 229 B,” Science 272, 1919-1921 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1982 (1)

R. A. Gonsalves, “Phase retrieval and diversity in adaptive optics,” Opt. Eng. (1982).

1979 (1)

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Childlaw, “Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval,” Proc. SPIE 207, 32-39 (1979).

1968 (1)

C. W. Helstrom, “Statistical Theory of Signal Detection” (Pergamon, 1968).

Aime, C.

C. Aime and R. Soummer, “The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles,” Astrophys. J. 612, L85-L88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Artigau, E.

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Lafrenière, C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, and E. Artigau, “A new algorithm for point-spread function subtraction in high-contrast imaging: a demonstration with angular differential imaging,” Astrophys. J. 660, 770-780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, H. H.

Bec, M.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berger, T. E.

M. G. Löfdahl, T. E. Berger, and H. Seldin, “Two dual-wavelength sequences of high-resolution solar photospheric images captured over several hours and restored by use of phase diversity,” Astron. Astrophys. 377, 1128-1135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biller, B. A.

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonet, J. M.

J. M. Bonet, Motions in the Solar Atmosphere (ASSL Series, 1999).

Brenner, D.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burke, D.

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767-777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, A.

M. S. Marley, D. Saumon, T. Guillot, S. Freedman, W. B. Hubbard, A. Burrows, and J. I. Lunine, “Atmospheric, evolutionary, and spectral models of the brown dwarf gliese 229 B,” Science 272, 1919-1921 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caucci, L.

Childlaw, R.

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Childlaw, “Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval,” Proc. SPIE 207, 32-39 (1979).

Christou, J. C.

S. Gladysz and J. C. Christou, “Detection of faint companions through stochastic speckle discrimination,” Astrophys. J. 698, 28-44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chun, M. R.

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chung, R.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Close, L. M.

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

Dainty, C.

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767-777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

Devaney, M. N.

Devaney, N.

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767-777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Caucci, H. H. Barrett, N. Devaney, and J. J. Rodríguez, “Application of the Hotelling and ideal observers to detection and localization of exoplanets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B13-B24 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doyon, R.

D. Lafrenière, C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, and E. Artigau, “A new algorithm for point-spread function subtraction in high-contrast imaging: a demonstration with angular differential imaging,” Astrophys. J. 660, 770-780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, R. Racine, M. Riopel, P. Vallee, and D. Lafreniere, “TRIDENT: an infrared differential imaging camera optimized for the detection of methanated substellar companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 745-756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, and D. Nadeau, “Efficient speckle noise attenuation in faint companion imaging,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 91-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Racine, G. A. H. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, “Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

Flectcher, K.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, A. M.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freedman, S.

M. S. Marley, D. Saumon, T. Guillot, S. Freedman, W. B. Hubbard, A. Burrows, and J. I. Lunine, “Atmospheric, evolutionary, and spectral models of the brown dwarf gliese 229 B,” Science 272, 1919-1921 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ftaclas, C.

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G., T.

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilmozzi, R.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European extremely large telescope,” The Messenger 127, 11-19 (2007).

Gladysz, S.

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767-777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Gladysz and J. C. Christou, “Detection of faint companions through stochastic speckle discrimination,” Astrophys. J. 698, 28-44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gonsalves, R. A.

R. A. Gonsalves, “Phase retrieval and diversity in adaptive optics,” Opt. Eng. (1982).

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Childlaw, “Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval,” Proc. SPIE 207, 32-39 (1979).

Guillot, T.

M. S. Marley, D. Saumon, T. Guillot, S. Freedman, W. B. Hubbard, A. Burrows, and J. I. Lunine, “Atmospheric, evolutionary, and spectral models of the brown dwarf gliese 229 B,” Science 272, 1919-1921 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H., Y.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hartung, M.

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helstrom, C. W.

C. W. Helstrom, “Statistical Theory of Signal Detection” (Pergamon, 1968).

Hinkley, S.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hodapp, K. W.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hora, J. L.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, W. B.

M. S. Marley, D. Saumon, T. Guillot, S. Freedman, W. B. Hubbard, A. Burrows, and J. I. Lunine, “Atmospheric, evolutionary, and spectral models of the brown dwarf gliese 229 B,” Science 272, 1919-1921 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingleby, H. R.

Irwin, E. M.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jolissaint, L.

Kratter, K.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, J.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lafreniere, D.

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, R. Racine, M. Riopel, P. Vallee, and D. Lafreniere, “TRIDENT: an infrared differential imaging camera optimized for the detection of methanated substellar companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 745-756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lafrenière, D.

D. Lafrenière, C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, and E. Artigau, “A new algorithm for point-spread function subtraction in high-contrast imaging: a demonstration with angular differential imaging,” Astrophys. J. 660, 770-780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. C.

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd, J. P.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Löfdahl, M. G.

M. G. Löfdahl, T. E. Berger, and H. Seldin, “Two dual-wavelength sequences of high-resolution solar photospheric images captured over several hours and restored by use of phase diversity,” Astron. Astrophys. 377, 1128-1135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lunine, J. I.

M. S. Marley, D. Saumon, T. Guillot, S. Freedman, W. B. Hubbard, A. Burrows, and J. I. Lunine, “Atmospheric, evolutionary, and spectral models of the brown dwarf gliese 229 B,” Science 272, 1919-1921 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macintosh, B.

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Makidon, R. B.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marley, M. S.

M. S. Marley, D. Saumon, T. Guillot, S. Freedman, W. B. Hubbard, A. Burrows, and J. I. Lunine, “Atmospheric, evolutionary, and spectral models of the brown dwarf gliese 229 B,” Science 272, 1919-1921 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marois, C.

D. Lafrenière, C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, and E. Artigau, “A new algorithm for point-spread function subtraction in high-contrast imaging: a demonstration with angular differential imaging,” Astrophys. J. 660, 770-780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, R. Racine, M. Riopel, P. Vallee, and D. Lafreniere, “TRIDENT: an infrared differential imaging camera optimized for the detection of methanated substellar companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 745-756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, and D. Nadeau, “Efficient speckle noise attenuation in faint companion imaging,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 91-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Racine, G. A. H. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, “Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mays, W.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGaughey, D. R.

Merrill, M.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Myers, K. J.

Myres, K.

H. H. Barrett and K. Myres, “Foundations of Image Science” (Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics, 2004).

Nadeau, D.

D. Lafrenière, C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, and E. Artigau, “A new algorithm for point-spread function subtraction in high-contrast imaging: a demonstration with angular differential imaging,” Astrophys. J. 660, 770-780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, R. Racine, M. Riopel, P. Vallee, and D. Lafreniere, “TRIDENT: an infrared differential imaging camera optimized for the detection of methanated substellar companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 745-756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, and D. Nadeau, “Efficient speckle noise attenuation in faint companion imaging,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 91-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Racine, G. A. H. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, “Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nolad, R.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheimer, B. R.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paxman, R. G.

Perrin, M. D.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Racine, R.

C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, R. Racine, M. Riopel, P. Vallee, and D. Lafreniere, “TRIDENT: an infrared differential imaging camera optimized for the detection of methanated substellar companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 745-756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, and D. Nadeau, “Efficient speckle noise attenuation in faint companion imaging,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 91-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Racine, G. A. H. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, “Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riopel, M.

C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, R. Racine, M. Riopel, P. Vallee, and D. Lafreniere, “TRIDENT: an infrared differential imaging camera optimized for the detection of methanated substellar companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 745-756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, L.

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767-777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, L. C.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, L.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, J. J.

Saumon, D.

M. S. Marley, D. Saumon, T. Guillot, S. Freedman, W. B. Hubbard, A. Burrows, and J. I. Lunine, “Atmospheric, evolutionary, and spectral models of the brown dwarf gliese 229 B,” Science 272, 1919-1921 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, T. J.

Seldin, H.

M. G. Löfdahl, T. E. Berger, and H. Seldin, “Two dual-wavelength sequences of high-resolution solar photospheric images captured over several hours and restored by use of phase diversity,” Astron. Astrophys. 377, 1128-1135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simons, D. A.

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soummer, R.

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Aime and R. Soummer, “The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles,” Astrophys. J. 612, L85-L88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spyromilio, J.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European extremely large telescope,” The Messenger 127, 11-19 (2007).

Toomey, D. W.

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, P.

C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, R. Racine, M. Riopel, P. Vallee, and D. Lafreniere, “TRIDENT: an infrared differential imaging camera optimized for the detection of methanated substellar companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 745-756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Véran, J.

Wahhaj, Z.

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. A. H. A. H.

R. Racine, G. A. H. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, “Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

M. G. Löfdahl, T. E. Berger, and H. Seldin, “Two dual-wavelength sequences of high-resolution solar photospheric images captured over several hours and restored by use of phase diversity,” Astron. Astrophys. 377, 1128-1135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (5)

C. Marois, D. Lafreniere, R. Doyon, B. Macintosh, and D. Nadeau, “Angular differential imaging: A powerful high-contrast imaging technique,” Astrophys. J. 641, 556-564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Aime and R. Soummer, “The usefulness and limits of coronagraphy in the presence of pinned speckles,” Astrophys. J. 612, L85-L88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Hinkley, B. R. Oppenheimer, R. Soummer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, L. C. Roberts, Jr., J. Kuhn, R. B. Makidon, M. D. Perrin, J. P. Lloyd, K. Kratter, and D. Brenner, “Temporal evolution of coronagraphic dynamic range and constraints on companions to Vega,” Astrophys. J. 654, 633-640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Gladysz and J. C. Christou, “Detection of faint companions through stochastic speckle discrimination,” Astrophys. J. 698, 28-44 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Lafrenière, C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, and E. Artigau, “A new algorithm for point-spread function subtraction in high-contrast imaging: a demonstration with angular differential imaging,” Astrophys. J. 660, 770-780 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Childlaw, “Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval,” Proc. SPIE 207, 32-39 (1979).

E. Artigau, B. A. Biller, Z. Wahhaj, M. Hartung, L. M. Close, M. R. Chun, M. C. Liu, T. G., F. Rigaut, D. W. Toomey, and C. Ftaclas, “Nici: combining coronagraphy, adi, and sdi,” Proc. SPIE 7014, 70141-70149 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (5)

K. W. Hodapp, J. B. Jensen, E. M. Irwin, Y. H., R. Chung, K. Flectcher, L. Robertson, J. L. Hora, D. A. Simons, W. Mays, R. Nolad, M. Bec, M. Merrill, and A. M. Fowler, “The Gemini near-infrared imager (NIRI),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1388-1406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, D. Nadeau, R. Racine, M. Riopel, P. Vallee, and D. Lafreniere, “TRIDENT: an infrared differential imaging camera optimized for the detection of methanated substellar companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 117, 745-756 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Racine, G. A. H. A. H. Walker, D. Nadeau, R. Doyon, and C. Marois, “Speckle noise and the detection of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 587-594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Burke, S. Gladysz, L. Roberts, N. Devaney, and C. Dainty, “An improved technique for the photometry and astrometry of faint companions,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 767-777 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, R. Doyon, R. Racine, and D. Nadeau, “Efficient speckle noise attenuation in faint companion imaging,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 91-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. S. Marley, D. Saumon, T. Guillot, S. Freedman, W. B. Hubbard, A. Burrows, and J. I. Lunine, “Atmospheric, evolutionary, and spectral models of the brown dwarf gliese 229 B,” Science 272, 1919-1921 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The Messenger (1)

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European extremely large telescope,” The Messenger 127, 11-19 (2007).

Other (6)

“http://www.eso.org/projects/vlt/,”.

“http://www.eso.org/vlt/unit-tel/m1unit. html/,”.

H. H. Barrett and K. Myres, “Foundations of Image Science” (Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics, 2004).

R. A. Gonsalves, “Phase retrieval and diversity in adaptive optics,” Opt. Eng. (1982).

J. M. Bonet, Motions in the Solar Atmosphere (ASSL Series, 1999).

C. W. Helstrom, “Statistical Theory of Signal Detection” (Pergamon, 1968).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three operations of the Hotelling observer: (a) take a pre-processed image from which the signal of the central star is subtracted, (b) prewhiten the residual image, and (c) estimate the companion signal via a matched filter. (d) Note the companion signal is 10 magnitudes fainter than the parent star. All figures are shown on a log scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Initial simulations of our wavelength diversity approach resulted in pupil phase estimates with a sign ambiguity on the even radial order Zernike coefficients. The corresponding PSF estimates were identical due to the fact that if the pupil is symmetric, then the pupil autocorrelation of an even phase does not depend on the sign of that function.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulating speckle noise on an ELT with PAOLA. The pupil of the E-ELT was modeled as a 42 m segmented primary mirror, (a). Static speckle noise was added to the pupil by using a scaled version of the VLT error map, (b). The resulting long exposure PSF, (c), is the combination of 30 short-exposure PSFs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PSF estimates were made using a wavelength diversity, (a), and by taking the mean of the ADI image sequence, (c). Subtracting the mean of the wavelength diversity PSF estimates from the data, derotating, and co-adding the residuals reveals the presence of the faint companion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Values of the Hotelling test statistic [Eq. (15)] for the ADI–SDI reduced image sequence; the maximum of this map corresponds to the position and intensity of the faint companion.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparative Photometry and Astrometry Estimation Test

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g 1 ( r ) = f h 1 ( r ) + n 1 ( r ) ,
g 2 ( r ) = f h 2 ( r ) + n 2 ( r ) ,
L = u { | G 1 ( u ) F ( u ) H 1 ( u ) | 2 + γ | G 2 ( u ) F ( u ) H 2 ( u ) | 2 } ,
γ = σ 1 2 σ 2 2 .
F ̂ = G 1 ( u ) H 1 * ( u ) + γ G 2 ( u ) H 2 * ( u ) | H 1 ( u ) | 2 + γ | H 2 ( u ) | 2 ,
L m ( α ) = u | G 1 ( u ) H 2 ( u , α ) G 2 ( u ) H 1 ( u , α ) | 2 | H 1 ( u , α ) | 2 + γ | H 2 ( u , α ) | 2 .
α ̂ = arg max α [ L m ( α ) ] .
pr ( g | H 0 ) = [ 1 ( 2 π ) M det ( K g ) ] 1 2 × exp [ 1 2 ( g g ¯ 0 ) T K g 1 ( g g ¯ 0 ) ] ,
pr ( g | H 1 , r pl ) = [ 1 ( 2 π ) M det ( K g ) ] 1 2 × exp [ 1 2 ( g g ¯ 0 s r pl ) T K g 1 ( g g ¯ 0 s r pl ) ] .
[ K g ] m , m = [ A * h m ( r * ) + b m + σ m 2 ] δ m , m ,
Λ ( g | r pl ) = pr ( g | H 1 , r pl ) pr ( g | H 0 ) .
Λ ( g ) = max r pl R Λ ( g | r pl ) = max r pl R pr ( g | H 1 , r pl ) pr ( g | H 0 ) .
r ̃ pl = arg max r pl R Λ ( g | r pl ) .
λ ( g ) = max r pl R [ s r pl T K g 1 ( g g ¯ 0 1 2 s r pl ) ] .
t Hot ( g ) = max r pl R m = 1 M A pl h m ( r pl ) A * h m ( r * ) + b m + σ m 2 [ g m g ¯ 0 , m 1 2 A pl h m ( r pl ) ] .
r ̃ pl = arg max r pl R [ t hot ( g ) ] .
A ̃ pl = arg max A pl A [ s r pl T K g 1 ( g g ¯ 0 ) 1 2 s r pl T K g 1 s r pl ] .
t Hot ( g ) A pl = h ( r pl ) T K g 1 ( g g ¯ 0 ) A pl h ( r pl ) T K g 1 h m ( r pl ) = 0 ,
A ̃ pl = h ( r pl ) T K g 1 ( g g ¯ 0 ) h ( r pl ) T K g 1 h ( r pl ) .
A ̃ pl = m = 1 M ( h m ( r pl ) ( A * h m ( r * ) + b m + σ m 2 ) ) [ g m g ¯ 0 , m ] h m ( r pl ) 2 ( A * h m ( r * ) + b m + σ m 2 ) .

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