Abstract

Noise effects induced by laser guide star (LGS) elongation have to be considered globally in a multi-LGS tomographic reconstruction analysis. This allows a fine estimation of performance and the comparison of different launching options. We present a modal analysis of the wavefront error with Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors based on quasi-analytical matrix formalism. Including spot elongation and the Rayleigh fratricide effect, edge launching produces similar performance to central launching and avoids the risk of possible underestimation of fratricide scatter. Performance improves slightly with an optimized centroid estimator and is not affected by a slight field-of-view truncation of the subapertures. Finally we discuss detector characteristics for a LGS Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, and T. Fusco, “Tomographic wavefront error using the six-LGS constellation of TMT sensed with Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors” (personal communication, 2010; clelia.robert@onera.fr.

L. Schreiber, L. Lombini, E. Diolaiti, C. Robert, I. Foppiani, G. Cosentino, G. Bregoli, and E. Marchetti, “Laser guide stars wavefront sensor prototype for the E-ELT: test results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77365B (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, D. Gavel, and R. Kibrick “Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data from Lick observatory,” Appl. Opt. 49, 394–402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (10)

B. Neichel, T. Fusco, and J.-M. Conan, “Tomographic reconstruction for wide-field adaptive optics systems: Fourier domain analysis and fundamental limitations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 219–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05010].

T. Fusco, V. Michau, S. Meimon, Y. Clénet, M. Cohen, J. Paufique, E. Gendron, D. Gratadour, N. Hubin, J. Montri, C. Petit, C. Robert, and G. Rousset, “ATLAS: The LTAO module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02002].

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

M. Lombini, L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and E. Marchetti, “A prototype of the laser guide stars wavefront sensor for the E-ELT multi-conjugate adaptive optics module,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05020].

O. Lardière, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and P. Hampton, “Radial thresholding to mitigate laser-guide-star aberrations on centre-of-gravity-based Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1461–1467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Gratadour, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, and F. Rigaut “Fratricide effect on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [01002].

L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, C. Robert, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and M. Lombini, “Laser guide stars for extremely large telescopes: efficient Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor design using the weighted centre-of-gravity algorithm,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 396, 1513–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Muller, C. Robert, V. Michau, T. Fusco, C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, N. Védrenne, and G. Rousset, “Anisoplanatism effects in Shack–Hartmann wave front sensing with laser guide stars on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05015].

2008 (3)

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Bechet, and E. Thiébault, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, and T. Fusco, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Split atmospheric tomography using laser and natural guide star,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2427–2435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

C. A. Trujillo, F. Rigaut, D. Gratadour, and Gemini Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Team, “Gemini North laser adaptive optics performance from first science data,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 38, 1927–1933 (2007).

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” ESO Messenger 127, 11–19 (2007).

2006 (4)

J. E. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “TMT status report,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 745–761 (2006).

S. Adkins, O. Azucena, and J. Nelson, “The design and optimization of detectors for adaptive optics wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721E (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Dawson, A. D. Drobshoff, R. J. Beach, M. J. Messerly, S. A. Payne, A. Brown, D. M. Pennington, D. J. Bamford, S. J. Sharpe, and D. J. Cook, “Multi-watt 589 nm fiber laser source,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021F (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, T. Fusco, and N. Védrenne, “Scintillation and phase anisoplanatism in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Vol. 23, 613–624 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Phys. 6 , 1099–1109 (2005).

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Phys. 6, 1110–1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, “Optimization of a Shack–Hartmann-based wavefront sensor for XAO systems,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155–1166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

F. Rigaut, “Ground-conjugate wide field adaptive optics for ELTs,” in ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds. (ESO, 2002), No. 58, pp. 11–17.

2000 (1)

C. O’Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147–156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and A. Riccardi, “Multiple LGSs to correct conical anisokinetism, “Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. ,” 128, 617–619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R.-K. Tyson,Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1998).

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

1992 (2)

F. Rigaut, E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677–684 (1992).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications, Reprint ed. (Krieger, 1992).

1990 (1)

M. Tallon and R. Foy, “Adaptive telescope with laser probe—Isoplanatism and cone effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549–557 (1990).

1988 (1)

J.-M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation, M.H.Ulrich, ed. (ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, 1988), No. 30, pp. 693–703.

1982 (1)

A. Tarantola and B. Valette, “Generalized nonlinear inverse problems solved using the least squares criterion,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 219–232 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adkins, S.

S. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, and T. Fusco, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Adkins, O. Azucena, and J. Nelson, “The design and optimization of detectors for adaptive optics wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ageorges, N.

C. O’Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147–156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Argall, P. S.

Arsenault, R.

N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Phys. 6 , 1099–1109 (2005).

Assémat, F.

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Phys. 6, 1110–1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Avicola, K.

Azucena, O.

S. Adkins, O. Azucena, and J. Nelson, “The design and optimization of detectors for adaptive optics wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bamford, D. J.

J. W. Dawson, A. D. Drobshoff, R. J. Beach, M. J. Messerly, S. A. Payne, A. Brown, D. M. Pennington, D. J. Bamford, S. J. Sharpe, and D. J. Cook, “Multi-watt 589 nm fiber laser source,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barrufolo, A.

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

Beach, R. J.

J. W. Dawson, A. D. Drobshoff, R. J. Beach, M. J. Messerly, S. A. Payne, A. Brown, D. M. Pennington, D. J. Bamford, S. J. Sharpe, and D. J. Cook, “Multi-watt 589 nm fiber laser source,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bechet, C.

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Bechet, and E. Thiébault, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J.-M.

J.-M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation, M.H.Ulrich, ed. (ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, 1988), No. 30, pp. 693–703.

Bellazzini, M.

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

Beuzit, J.-L.

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, “Optimization of a Shack–Hartmann-based wavefront sensor for XAO systems,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155–1166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biolotti, V.

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

Bissinger, H. D.

Borra, E. F.

Bradley, C.

O. Lardière, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and P. Hampton, “Radial thresholding to mitigate laser-guide-star aberrations on centre-of-gravity-based Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1461–1467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brase, J. M.

Bregoli, G.

L. Schreiber, L. Lombini, E. Diolaiti, C. Robert, I. Foppiani, G. Cosentino, G. Bregoli, and E. Marchetti, “Laser guide stars wavefront sensor prototype for the E-ELT: test results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77365B (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

M. Lombini, L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and E. Marchetti, “A prototype of the laser guide stars wavefront sensor for the E-ELT multi-conjugate adaptive optics module,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05020].

Brown, A.

J. W. Dawson, A. D. Drobshoff, R. J. Beach, M. J. Messerly, S. A. Payne, A. Brown, D. M. Pennington, D. J. Bamford, S. J. Sharpe, and D. J. Cook, “Multi-watt 589 nm fiber laser source,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, F.

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Phys. 6, 1110–1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ciliegi, P.

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

Clénet, Y.

T. Fusco, V. Michau, S. Meimon, Y. Clénet, M. Cohen, J. Paufique, E. Gendron, D. Gratadour, N. Hubin, J. Montri, C. Petit, C. Robert, and G. Rousset, “ATLAS: The LTAO module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02002].

Cohen, M.

T. Fusco, V. Michau, S. Meimon, Y. Clénet, M. Cohen, J. Paufique, E. Gendron, D. Gratadour, N. Hubin, J. Montri, C. Petit, C. Robert, and G. Rousset, “ATLAS: The LTAO module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02002].

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

Conan, J.-M.

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, and T. Fusco, “Tomographic wavefront error using the six-LGS constellation of TMT sensed with Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors” (personal communication, 2010; clelia.robert@onera.fr.

M. Lombini, L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and E. Marchetti, “A prototype of the laser guide stars wavefront sensor for the E-ELT multi-conjugate adaptive optics module,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05020].

L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, C. Robert, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and M. Lombini, “Laser guide stars for extremely large telescopes: efficient Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor design using the weighted centre-of-gravity algorithm,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 396, 1513–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Muller, C. Robert, V. Michau, T. Fusco, C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, N. Védrenne, and G. Rousset, “Anisoplanatism effects in Shack–Hartmann wave front sensing with laser guide stars on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05015].

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05010].

B. Neichel, T. Fusco, and J.-M. Conan, “Tomographic reconstruction for wide-field adaptive optics systems: Fourier domain analysis and fundamental limitations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 219–235 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, T. Fusco, and N. Védrenne, “Scintillation and phase anisoplanatism in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Vol. 23, 613–624 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Phys. 6, 1110–1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

O. Lardière, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and P. Hampton, “Radial thresholding to mitigate laser-guide-star aberrations on centre-of-gravity-based Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1461–1467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Conzelmann, R.

N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Phys. 6 , 1099–1109 (2005).

Cook, D. J.

J. W. Dawson, A. D. Drobshoff, R. J. Beach, M. J. Messerly, S. A. Payne, A. Brown, D. M. Pennington, D. J. Bamford, S. J. Sharpe, and D. J. Cook, “Multi-watt 589 nm fiber laser source,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cosentino, G.

L. Schreiber, L. Lombini, E. Diolaiti, C. Robert, I. Foppiani, G. Cosentino, G. Bregoli, and E. Marchetti, “Laser guide stars wavefront sensor prototype for the E-ELT: test results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77365B (2010).
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E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

M. Lombini, L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and E. Marchetti, “A prototype of the laser guide stars wavefront sensor for the E-ELT multi-conjugate adaptive optics module,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05020].

Cuby, J.-G.

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

D’Odorico, S.

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

Davies, R.

C. O’Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147–156 (2000).
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Dawson, J. W.

J. W. Dawson, A. D. Drobshoff, R. J. Beach, M. J. Messerly, S. A. Payne, A. Brown, D. M. Pennington, D. J. Bamford, S. J. Sharpe, and D. J. Cook, “Multi-watt 589 nm fiber laser source,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delabre, B.

N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Phys. 6 , 1099–1109 (2005).

Diolaiti, E.

L. Schreiber, L. Lombini, E. Diolaiti, C. Robert, I. Foppiani, G. Cosentino, G. Bregoli, and E. Marchetti, “Laser guide stars wavefront sensor prototype for the E-ELT: test results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77365B (2010).
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M. Lombini, L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and E. Marchetti, “A prototype of the laser guide stars wavefront sensor for the E-ELT multi-conjugate adaptive optics module,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05020].

L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, C. Robert, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and M. Lombini, “Laser guide stars for extremely large telescopes: efficient Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor design using the weighted centre-of-gravity algorithm,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 396, 1513–1521 (2009).
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Diolati, E.

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

Dipper, N.

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

Drobshoff, A. D.

J. W. Dawson, A. D. Drobshoff, R. J. Beach, M. J. Messerly, S. A. Payne, A. Brown, D. M. Pennington, D. J. Bamford, S. J. Sharpe, and D. J. Cook, “Multi-watt 589 nm fiber laser source,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021F (2006).
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Duff, J.

Eckart, A.

C. O’Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147–156 (2000).
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Ellerbroek, B.

L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of the time-constant laser-guide-star fratricide on NFIRAOS performance,” lianqiw@tmt.org.

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Esposito, S.

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and A. Riccardi, “Multiple LGSs to correct conical anisokinetism, “Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. ,” 128, 617–619 (1998).
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Foppiani, I.

L. Schreiber, L. Lombini, E. Diolaiti, C. Robert, I. Foppiani, G. Cosentino, G. Bregoli, and E. Marchetti, “Laser guide stars wavefront sensor prototype for the E-ELT: test results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77365B (2010).
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E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

M. Lombini, L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and E. Marchetti, “A prototype of the laser guide stars wavefront sensor for the E-ELT multi-conjugate adaptive optics module,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05020].

L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, C. Robert, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and M. Lombini, “Laser guide stars for extremely large telescopes: efficient Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor design using the weighted centre-of-gravity algorithm,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 396, 1513–1521 (2009).
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M. Tallon and R. Foy, “Adaptive telescope with laser probe—Isoplanatism and cone effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549–557 (1990).

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Fusco, T.

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, and T. Fusco, “Tomographic wavefront error using the six-LGS constellation of TMT sensed with Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors” (personal communication, 2010; clelia.robert@onera.fr.

N. Muller, C. Robert, V. Michau, T. Fusco, C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, N. Védrenne, and G. Rousset, “Anisoplanatism effects in Shack–Hartmann wave front sensing with laser guide stars on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05015].

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05010].

T. Fusco, V. Michau, S. Meimon, Y. Clénet, M. Cohen, J. Paufique, E. Gendron, D. Gratadour, N. Hubin, J. Montri, C. Petit, C. Robert, and G. Rousset, “ATLAS: The LTAO module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02002].

B. Neichel, T. Fusco, and J.-M. Conan, “Tomographic reconstruction for wide-field adaptive optics systems: Fourier domain analysis and fundamental limitations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 219–235 (2009).
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G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

S. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, and T. Fusco, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173–187 (2008).
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C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, T. Fusco, and N. Védrenne, “Scintillation and phase anisoplanatism in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Vol. 23, 613–624 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Phys. 6, 1110–1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, “Optimization of a Shack–Hartmann-based wavefront sensor for XAO systems,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155–1166 (2004).
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Gavel, D.

S. Thomas, D. Gavel, and R. Kibrick “Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data from Lick observatory,” Appl. Opt. 49, 394–402 (2010).
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S. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, and T. Fusco, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173–187 (2008).
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Gavel, D. T.

Gendron, E.

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

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Morris, S.

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

Morris, T.

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

Mouillet, D.

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, “Optimization of a Shack–Hartmann-based wavefront sensor for XAO systems,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155–1166 (2004).
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N. Muller, C. Robert, V. Michau, T. Fusco, C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, N. Védrenne, and G. Rousset, “Anisoplanatism effects in Shack–Hartmann wave front sensing with laser guide stars on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05015].

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G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

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E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

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Otarola, A.

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Ott, T.

C. O’Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147–156 (2000).
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Parr-Burman, P.

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

Paufique, J.

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Payne, S. A.

J. W. Dawson, A. D. Drobshoff, R. J. Beach, M. J. Messerly, S. A. Payne, A. Brown, D. M. Pennington, D. J. Bamford, S. J. Sharpe, and D. J. Cook, “Multi-watt 589 nm fiber laser source,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021F (2006).
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Pennington, D. M.

J. W. Dawson, A. D. Drobshoff, R. J. Beach, M. J. Messerly, S. A. Payne, A. Brown, D. M. Pennington, D. J. Bamford, S. J. Sharpe, and D. J. Cook, “Multi-watt 589 nm fiber laser source,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021F (2006).
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Petit, C.

T. Fusco, V. Michau, S. Meimon, Y. Clénet, M. Cohen, J. Paufique, E. Gendron, D. Gratadour, N. Hubin, J. Montri, C. Petit, C. Robert, and G. Rousset, “ATLAS: The LTAO module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02002].

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05010].

N. Muller, C. Robert, V. Michau, T. Fusco, C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, N. Védrenne, and G. Rousset, “Anisoplanatism effects in Shack–Hartmann wave front sensing with laser guide stars on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05015].

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

Poyneer, L.

Presta, R. W

Puech, M.

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Phys. 6, 1110–1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rabien, S.

C. O’Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147–156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and A. Riccardi, “Multiple LGSs to correct conical anisokinetism, “Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. ,” 128, 617–619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rapp, D. A.

Redfern, R. M.

C. O’Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147–156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riccardi, A.

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and A. Riccardi, “Multiple LGSs to correct conical anisokinetism, “Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. ,” 128, 617–619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

D. Gratadour, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, and F. Rigaut “Fratricide effect on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [01002].

C. A. Trujillo, F. Rigaut, D. Gratadour, and Gemini Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Team, “Gemini North laser adaptive optics performance from first science data,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 38, 1927–1933 (2007).

F. Rigaut, “Ground-conjugate wide field adaptive optics for ELTs,” in ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds. (ESO, 2002), No. 58, pp. 11–17.

F. Rigaut, E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677–684 (1992).

Robert, C.

L. Schreiber, L. Lombini, E. Diolaiti, C. Robert, I. Foppiani, G. Cosentino, G. Bregoli, and E. Marchetti, “Laser guide stars wavefront sensor prototype for the E-ELT: test results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77365B (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, and T. Fusco, “Tomographic wavefront error using the six-LGS constellation of TMT sensed with Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors” (personal communication, 2010; clelia.robert@onera.fr.

N. Muller, C. Robert, V. Michau, T. Fusco, C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, N. Védrenne, and G. Rousset, “Anisoplanatism effects in Shack–Hartmann wave front sensing with laser guide stars on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05015].

L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, C. Robert, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and M. Lombini, “Laser guide stars for extremely large telescopes: efficient Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor design using the weighted centre-of-gravity algorithm,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 396, 1513–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05010].

T. Fusco, V. Michau, S. Meimon, Y. Clénet, M. Cohen, J. Paufique, E. Gendron, D. Gratadour, N. Hubin, J. Montri, C. Petit, C. Robert, and G. Rousset, “ATLAS: The LTAO module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02002].

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, T. Fusco, and N. Védrenne, “Scintillation and phase anisoplanatism in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Vol. 23, 613–624 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

T. Fusco, V. Michau, S. Meimon, Y. Clénet, M. Cohen, J. Paufique, E. Gendron, D. Gratadour, N. Hubin, J. Montri, C. Petit, C. Robert, and G. Rousset, “ATLAS: The LTAO module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02002].

N. Muller, C. Robert, V. Michau, T. Fusco, C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, N. Védrenne, and G. Rousset, “Anisoplanatism effects in Shack–Hartmann wave front sensing with laser guide stars on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05015].

D. Gratadour, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, and F. Rigaut “Fratricide effect on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [01002].

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, “Optimization of a Shack–Hartmann-based wavefront sensor for XAO systems,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155–1166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, J. T.

Sanders, G. H.

J. E. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “TMT status report,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 745–761 (2006).

Sargoytchev, S.

Schnetler, H.

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

Schreiber, L.

L. Schreiber, L. Lombini, E. Diolaiti, C. Robert, I. Foppiani, G. Cosentino, G. Bregoli, and E. Marchetti, “Laser guide stars wavefront sensor prototype for the E-ELT: test results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77365B (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, C. Robert, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and M. Lombini, “Laser guide stars for extremely large telescopes: efficient Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor design using the weighted centre-of-gravity algorithm,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 396, 1513–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lombini, L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and E. Marchetti, “A prototype of the laser guide stars wavefront sensor for the E-ELT multi-conjugate adaptive optics module,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05020].

Sharpe, S. J.

J. W. Dawson, A. D. Drobshoff, R. J. Beach, M. J. Messerly, S. A. Payne, A. Brown, D. M. Pennington, D. J. Bamford, S. J. Sharpe, and D. J. Cook, “Multi-watt 589 nm fiber laser source,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021F (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sica, R. J.

Sparrow, C. T.

Spyromilio, J.

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” ESO Messenger 127, 11–19 (2007).

Stroebele, S.

N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Phys. 6 , 1099–1109 (2005).

Stuik, R.

N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Phys. 6 , 1099–1109 (2005).

Tallon, M.

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Bechet, and E. Thiébault, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tallon and R. Foy, “Adaptive telescope with laser probe—Isoplanatism and cone effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549–557 (1990).

Tallon-Bosc, I.

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Bechet, and E. Thiébault, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tarantola, A.

A. Tarantola and B. Valette, “Generalized nonlinear inverse problems solved using the least squares criterion,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 219–232 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Thiébault, E.

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Bechet, and E. Thiébault, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S.

S. Thomas, D. Gavel, and R. Kibrick “Analysis of on-sky sodium profile data from Lick observatory,” Appl. Opt. 49, 394–402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, and T. Fusco, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trujillo, C. A.

C. A. Trujillo, F. Rigaut, D. Gratadour, and Gemini Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Team, “Gemini North laser adaptive optics performance from first science data,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 38, 1927–1933 (2007).

Tyson, R.-K.

R.-K. Tyson,Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1998).

Valette, B.

A. Tarantola and B. Valette, “Generalized nonlinear inverse problems solved using the least squares criterion,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 219–232 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Védrenne, N.

N. Muller, C. Robert, V. Michau, T. Fusco, C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, N. Védrenne, and G. Rousset, “Anisoplanatism effects in Shack–Hartmann wave front sensing with laser guide stars on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05015].

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, V. Michau, T. Fusco, and N. Védrenne, “Scintillation and phase anisoplanatism in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A Vol. 23, 613–624 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

Waltjen, K. E.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of the time-constant laser-guide-star fratricide on NFIRAOS performance,” lianqiw@tmt.org.

Welsh, B. M.

Zamkotsian, F.

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Phys. 6, 1110–1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

F. Rigaut, E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677–684 (1992).

M. Tallon and R. Foy, “Adaptive telescope with laser probe—Isoplanatism and cone effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549–557 (1990).

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and A. Riccardi, “Multiple LGSs to correct conical anisokinetism, “Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. ,” 128, 617–619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. (1)

C. A. Trujillo, F. Rigaut, D. Gratadour, and Gemini Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Team, “Gemini North laser adaptive optics performance from first science data,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 38, 1927–1933 (2007).

C. R. Phys. (1)

E. Gendron, F. Assémat, F. Hammer, P. Jagourel, F. Chemla, P. Laporte, M. Puech, M. Marteaud, F. Zamkotsian, A. Liotard, J.-M. Conan, T. Fusco, and N. Hubin, “FALCON: multi-object AO,” C. R. Phys. 6, 1110–1117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Phys. 6 (1)

N. Hubin, R. Arsenault, R. Conzelmann, B. Delabre, M. Le Louarn, S. Stroebele, and R. Stuik, “Ground layer adaptive optics,” C. R. Phys. 6 , 1099–1109 (2005).

ESO Messenger (1)

R. Gilmozzi and J. Spyromilio, “The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT),” ESO Messenger 127, 11–19 (2007).

Exp. Astron. (1)

C. O’Sullivan, R. M. Redfern, N. Ageorges, H.-C. Holstenberg, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, S. Rabien, R. Davies, and A. Eckart, “Short timescale variability of the mesospheric sodium layer,” Exp. Astron. 10, 147–156 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (3)

S. Thomas, S. Adkins, D. Gavel, and T. Fusco, “Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 387, 173–187 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardière, R. Conan, C. Bradley, K. Jackson, and P. Hampton, “Radial thresholding to mitigate laser-guide-star aberrations on centre-of-gravity-based Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 398, 1461–1467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, C. Robert, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and M. Lombini, “Laser guide stars for extremely large telescopes: efficient Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor design using the weighted centre-of-gravity algorithm,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 396, 1513–1521 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

S. Adkins, O. Azucena, and J. Nelson, “The design and optimization of detectors for adaptive optics wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721E (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Dawson, A. D. Drobshoff, R. J. Beach, M. J. Messerly, S. A. Payne, A. Brown, D. M. Pennington, D. J. Bamford, S. J. Sharpe, and D. J. Cook, “Multi-watt 589 nm fiber laser source,” Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021F (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tallon, I. Tallon-Bosc, C. Bechet, and E. Thiébault, “Shack–Hartmann wavefront reconstruction with elongated sodium laser guide stars: improvements with priors and noise correlations,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70151N (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, M. Nicolle, G. Rousset, V. Michau, J.-L. Beuzit, and D. Mouillet, “Optimization of a Shack–Hartmann-based wavefront sensor for XAO systems,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1155–1166 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Nelson and G. H. Sanders, “TMT status report,” Proc. SPIE 6267, 745–761 (2006).

L. Schreiber, L. Lombini, E. Diolaiti, C. Robert, I. Foppiani, G. Cosentino, G. Bregoli, and E. Marchetti, “Laser guide stars wavefront sensor prototype for the E-ELT: test results,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77365B (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1)

A. Tarantola and B. Valette, “Generalized nonlinear inverse problems solved using the least squares criterion,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 219–232 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

D. Gratadour, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, and F. Rigaut “Fratricide effect on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [01002].

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, and T. Fusco, “Tomographic wavefront error using the six-LGS constellation of TMT sensed with Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensors” (personal communication, 2010; clelia.robert@onera.fr.

F. Rigaut, “Ground-conjugate wide field adaptive optics for ELTs,” in ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, E.Vernet, R.Ragazzoni, S.Esposito, and N.Hubin, eds. (ESO, 2002), No. 58, pp. 11–17.

N. Muller, C. Robert, V. Michau, T. Fusco, C. Petit, J.-M. Conan, N. Védrenne, and G. Rousset, “Anisoplanatism effects in Shack–Hartmann wave front sensing with laser guide stars on ELTs,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05015].

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications, Reprint ed. (Krieger, 1992).

C. Robert, J.-M. Conan, D. Gratadour, C. Petit, and T. Fusco, “Shack–Hartmann tomographic wavefront reconstruction using LGS: analysis of spot elongation and fratricide effect,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05010].

T. Fusco, V. Michau, S. Meimon, Y. Clénet, M. Cohen, J. Paufique, E. Gendron, D. Gratadour, N. Hubin, J. Montri, C. Petit, C. Robert, and G. Rousset, “ATLAS: The LTAO module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02002].

E. Diolati, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, E. Marchetti, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, M. Bellazzini, P. Ciliegi, F. Assémat, A. Barrufolo, V. Biolotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, S. D’Odorico, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, S. Meimon, and B. Neichel, “Towards the phase A review of MAORY, the multi-conjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02007].

G. Rousset, T. Fusco, E. Gendron, T. Morris, F. Assémat, C. Robert, R. Myers, F. Vidal, D. Gratadour, N. Dipper, B. Leroux, J.-G. Cuby, S. Morris, P. Jagourel, H. Schnetler, M. Cohen, D. Le Mignant, and P. Parr-Burman, “EAGLE multi-object AO concept study for the E-ELT,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [02008].

R.-K. Tyson,Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1998).

J.-M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” in ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation, M.H.Ulrich, ed. (ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings, 1988), No. 30, pp. 693–703.

L. Wang, A. Otarola, and B. Ellerbroek are preparing a manuscript to be called “Impact of the time-constant laser-guide-star fratricide on NFIRAOS performance,” lianqiw@tmt.org.

M. Lombini, L. Schreiber, I. Foppiani, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, and E. Marchetti, “A prototype of the laser guide stars wavefront sensor for the E-ELT multi-conjugate adaptive optics module,” in Proceedings 1st AO4ELT Conference, Paris—Adaptative Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes, Y.Clénet, J.-M.Conan, T.Fusco, and G.Rousset, eds. (EDP Sciences, 2009), [05020].

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System geometry for a two-guide-star and two-layer simple case. Altitude of layers is h 1 = 0 and h 2 = h . Two guide stars are located in directions α 1 and α 2 . Performance is evaluated at the center of the FoV: θ = 0 . The telescope pupil diameter is D at ground level. The meta-pupil related to the altitude turbulent layer has a diameter equal to D meta = | α 2 α 1 | h + D .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Elongation of the LGS image at a distance L from the launch site. Δ H represents the thickness of the sodium layer, H is the low altitude of the layer and θ elong = α 2 α 1 is the angular elongation. Note α 1 = a tan L H + Δ H and α 2 = a tan L H .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Layout of the elongated LGS images in the subaperture focal plane of a 21 m telescope (axes in pixels). The layout depends on the position of the launcher. Top: Central launching of six LGSs evenly spaced. The layout of each LGS is identically center-symmetrical, so superimposed. Bottom: Edge launching of one LGS. Elongation is not center-symmetrical and is two times larger than the central launching.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Detail on one subaperture of the LGS elongation pattern. The reference frame ( x , y ) is defined by the spot elongation direction and obtained by rotating the Cartesian frame ( x ̂ , y ̂ ) by an angle β.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LGS constellation angular diameter 7.2 arcmin ( FoV = 12 arcsec , scale = 0.75 pixel ), from left to right: Rayleigh background + sodium spot images of a 84 × 84 SH (in photons/pixel); number of Rayleigh photons per arcsec 2 and per 2 ms .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LGS constellation angular diameter 2 arcmin ( FoV = 12 arcsec , scale = 0.75 pixel ), from left to right: Rayleigh background + sodium spot images of a 84 × 84 SH (in photons/pixel); number of Rayleigh photons per arcsec 2 and per 2 ms .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sketch representing two LGS angle configurations (left: 2 arcmin , right: 7.2 arcmin ). Each oblique line is a laser beam. The gray area delimits the portion of the laser beams from which photons will be scattered along the line of sight of at least one subaperture of the sixth WFS.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wavefront error in radians squared (y-axis) as a function of the KL polynomial number (x-axis). Fratricide effect is excluded. Comparison of tomographic performances in the case of a 21 m telescope between central ( WFE = 73 nm ) and edge launching ( WFE = 81 nm ) . For comparison the ideal non-elongated case ( WFE = 47 nm ) is also plotted.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Examples of fratricide effects on a 21 m telescope with different asterisms: 2 arcmin (top), 4.2 arcmin (middle), 7.2 arcmin (bottom). The six images side by side give the fratricide background pattern for each of the six LGSs. Each image shows subapertures affected by Rayleigh scattering in the pupil plane of one WFS looking at one LGS.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Wavefront error in radians squared (y-axis) as a function of the KL polynomial number (x-axis). Comparison of tomographic performances in case of a 21 m telescope for central launching of six LGSs without ( WFE = 73 nm ) and with fratricide effect ( WFE = 92 nm ) .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

WCoG algorithm: OPD error as a function of elongation. Top: subaperture FoV non-truncated, i.e. 15 × 15 ; thin dashed curves represent the fit of the SH images simulations for three pixel scales; thick solid curve corresponds to analytical formulas of WCoG [Eqs. (12, 15, 16)]. Bottom: results obtained with SH simulation and a pixel scale of 0.75 arcsec pixel ; subaperture FoV is truncated to 9 × 9 (crosses) and compared to the non-truncated case (solid curve).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Correlation algorithm (threshold 50%): OPD error as a function of elongation. Subaperture FoV non-truncated, i.e. 15 × 15 . The thin dashed curves represent the fit of the numerical simulation results for three pixel scales. The solid curve corresponds to the analytical formulas of correlation Eqs. (12, 17, 19).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Correlation algorithm (parabolic fit): OPD error as a function of elongation. Subaperture FoV non-truncated, i.e. 15 × 15 . The thin dashed curves represent the fit of the numerical simulation results for three pixel scales. The solid curve corresponds to the analytical formulas of the thresholded correlation [Eqs. (12, 17, 19)].

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Parameters for an E-ELT 42 m Telescope Observation a

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Table 2 WFE as a Function of the LGS Constellation Angular Diameter a

Equations (20)

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PSD φ ( f ) = 0.023 ( 1 r 0 ) 5 3 ( f 2 + 1 L 0 2 ) 11 6 ,
PSD ϕ n = λ n PSD φ ,
λ n = C n 2 ( h n ) δ h n n = 1 N L C n 2 ( h n ) δ h n ,
φ ( r ) = m = 1 N mod a m K m ( r ) ,
φ θ = P θ L ϕ turb ,
s = M P α L ϕ turb + b .
ϕ ̂ turb = W tomo s .
WFE = σ res 2 = ϕ turb W tomo ( M P α L ϕ turb + b ) 2 ϕ , b .
W tomo MMSE = [ ( M P α L ) T ( C b ) 1 M P α L + C ϕ n 1 ] 1 ( M P α L ) T ( C b ) 1 .
θ elong L Δ H H 2 + H Δ H ,
C j = ( σ x j 2 cos 2 β j + σ y j 2 sin 2 β j σ x j 2 cos β j sin β j σ y j 2 cos β j sin β j σ x j 2 cos β j sin β j σ y j 2 cos β j sin β j σ x j 2 sin 2 β j + σ y j 2 cos 2 β j ) ,
σ x y 2 = A x y 1 N ph + B x y ( N r N ph ) 2 ,
A x WCoG = ( π N samp ) 2 1 2 ln 2 N T x 2 N W x 2 N W y ( N T x 2 + N W x 2 ) 3 ( N T y 2 + N W y 2 ) ( 2 N T x 2 + N W x 2 ) 3 2 ( 2 N T y 2 + N W y 2 ) 1 2 ,
B x WCoG = ( π N samp ) 2 π 32 ( ln 2 ) 2 ( N T x 2 + N W x 2 ) 3 ( N T y 2 + N W y 2 ) N W x 3 N W y ,
A x WCoG = 16 9 ( π N samp ) 2 1 2 ln 2 N T x 2 .
B x WCoG = ( π N samp ) 2 π 2 ( ln 2 ) 2 N T x 3 N T y .
A x Corr = ( π N samp ) 2 1 2 ln 2 N T x 2 ,
B x Corr = ( 2 π N samp ) 2 ( N T x 2 + N W x 2 ) N T x N T y .
B x Corr = 8 ( π N samp ) 2 N T x 3 N T y .
h ¯ = ( slab h 5 3 C n 2 d h slab C n 2 d h ) 3 5 .

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