Abstract

Laser beams projected from the ground to form sodium layer laser guide stars (LGSs) for adaptive optics (AO) systems experience scattering and absorption that reduce their intensity as they propagate upward through the atmosphere. Some fraction of the scattered light will be collected by the other wavefront sensors and causes additional background in parts of the pupil. This cross-talk between different LGS wavefront sensors is referred to as the fratricide effect. In this paper we quantify the magnitude of four different sources of scattering/absorption and backscattering, and we evaluate their impact on performance with various zenith angles and turbulence profiles for one particular AO system. The resulting wavefront error for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) multi-conjugate AO (MCAO) system, NFIRAOS, is on the order of 5to20nm RMS, provided that the mean background from the fratricide effect can be calibrated and subtracted with an accuracy of 80%. We also present the impact on system performance of momentary variations in LGS signal levels due to variations in cirrus absorption or laser power, and we show that this affects the performance more than does an equal variation in the level of the fratricide.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

S. S. Srivastava, N. K. Vyas, J. Rai, and B. Kartikeyan, “On the different approaches of Rayleigh optical depth determination,” Adv. Space Res. 44, 1058–1066 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gemini, http://sciopsedit.gemini.edu/sciops/telescopes-and-sites/observing-condition-constraints/extinction (2009).

2008 (4)

A. T. Young, http://mintaka.sdsu.edu/GF/explain/extinction/extintro.html (2008).

L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159–1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. I. G. Eguchi and Nawo Yokota, “Characteristics of cirrus clouds from icesat/glas observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L09810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics—From Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 2006).

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Le Louarn, N. N. Hubin, and R. Arsenault, “Adaptive optics for second-generation VLT instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 248–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. J. Sica, Z. A. Zylawy, and P. S. Argall, “Ozone corrections for Rayleigh-scatter temperature determinations in the middle atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18-7, 1223–1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1979 (1)

G. E. Shaw, “Aerosols at Mauna Loa: optical properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 862–869 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere: Scattering by Molecules and Particles (1976).

1966 (1)

U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplement (U.S. Government Print Office, 1966).

1957 (1)

H. C. V. de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).

Adkins, S.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arcidiacono, C.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Argall, P. S.

R. J. Sica, Z. A. Zylawy, and P. S. Argall, “Ozone corrections for Rayleigh-scatter temperature determinations in the middle atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18-7, 1223–1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arriagada, G.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, R.

M. Le Louarn, N. N. Hubin, and R. Arsenault, “Adaptive optics for second-generation VLT instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 248–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atwood, J.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bec, M.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bellazzini, M.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biliotti, V.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boccas, M.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouchez, A. H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Boyer, C.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bregoli, G.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. G.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Bucholtz, A.

Busoni, L.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Byrnes, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R. D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Chan, S.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. C. Y.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Ciliegi, P.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J.-M.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Contos, A. R.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Cosentino, G.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

D’Odorico, S.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

d’Orgeville, C.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danforth, P. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

de Hulst, H. C. V.

H. C. V. de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, 1957).

Diolaiti, E.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebbers, A.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eguchi, T. I. G.

T. I. G. Eguchi and Nawo Yokota, “Characteristics of cirrus clouds from icesat/glas observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L09810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Esposito, S.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farinato, J.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foppiani, I.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, L.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159–1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grace, K.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, S. K.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Herriot, G.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hickson, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hileman, E.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N. N.

M. Le Louarn, N. N. Hubin, and R. Arsenault, “Adaptive optics for second-generation VLT instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 248–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Innocenti, G.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Irarrazaval, B.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

James, E.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, E. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Joyce, D.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karewicz, S.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kartikeyan, B.

S. S. Srivastava, N. K. Vyas, J. Rai, and B. Kartikeyan, “On the different approaches of Rayleigh optical depth determination,” Adv. Space Res. 44, 1058–1066 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafon, R. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Le Louarn, M.

M. Le Louarn, N. N. Hubin, and R. Arsenault, “Adaptive optics for second-generation VLT instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 248–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le Mignant, D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Leckie, B.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Liang, M.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lombini, M.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Max, C. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

McCartney, E. J.

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere: Scattering by Molecules and Particles (1976).

Neichel, B.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pandis, S. N.

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics—From Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 2006).

Pennington, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Petit, C.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfrommer, T.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quiros-Pacheco, F.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rai, J.

S. S. Srivastava, N. K. Vyas, J. Rai, and B. Kartikeyan, “On the different approaches of Rayleigh optical depth determination,” Adv. Space Res. 44, 1058–1066 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, L.

E. Diolaiti, J.-M. Conan, I. Foppiani, M. Lombini, C. Petit, C. Robert, L. Schreiber, P. Ciliegi, E. Marchetti, M. Bellazzini, L. Busoni, S. Esposito, T. Fusco, N. Hubin, F. Quiros-Pacheco, A. Baruffolo, S. D’Odorico, J. Farinato, B. Neichel, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, V. Biliotti, G. Bregoli, G. Cosentino, and G. Innocenti, “A preliminary overview of the multiconjugate adaptive optics module for the E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150U (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics—From Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, 2006).

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, “Aerosols at Mauna Loa: optical properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 862–869 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, M.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sica, R. J.

R. J. Sica, Z. A. Zylawy, and P. S. Argall, “Ozone corrections for Rayleigh-scatter temperature determinations in the middle atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18-7, 1223–1228 (2001).
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Sinquin, J.-C.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, S. S.

S. S. Srivastava, N. K. Vyas, J. Rai, and B. Kartikeyan, “On the different approaches of Rayleigh optical depth determination,” Adv. Space Res. 44, 1058–1066 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stomski, P. J.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Summers, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

van Dam, M. A.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Veran, J.-P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vyas, N. K.

S. S. Srivastava, N. K. Vyas, J. Rai, and B. Kartikeyan, “On the different approaches of Rayleigh optical depth determination,” Adv. Space Res. 44, 1058–1066 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welle, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

M. Boccas, F. Rigaut, M. Bec, B. Irarrazaval, E. James, A. Ebbers, C. d’Orgeville, K. Grace, G. Arriagada, S. Karewicz, M. Sheehan, J. White, and S. Chan, “Laser guide star upgrade of Altair at Gemini North,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62723L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wizinowich, P. L.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, and D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: overview,” Psychol. Forsch. 118, 297–309 (2006).

Yokota, Nawo

T. I. G. Eguchi and Nawo Yokota, “Characteristics of cirrus clouds from icesat/glas observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L09810 (2007).
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Young, A. T.

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Zylawy, Z. A.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

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[CrossRef]

M. Le Louarn, N. N. Hubin, and R. Arsenault, “Adaptive optics for second-generation VLT instruments,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 248–259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Veran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress toward developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150R (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temperature and pressure distribution of the U.S. standard atmosphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Volume-scattering coefficient and optical depth for Rayleigh, ozone Chappius band, and aerosol scattering computed above the TMT MK13N site.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the LLT beam intensity function, the subaperture function, the detector pixel influence function (magnified 100 times), and the function P i j k l for a sample subaperture. The top two rows are for a 15 km layer, and the bottom two rows are for a 30 km layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Back-scatter images for the NFIRAOS LGS WFS parameters in units of photons/frame/pixel.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total back-scatter image in units of photons/frame/pixel and their histogram.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 U.S. Standard Air Model

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Table 2 Total Optical Depth Contributions from Rayleigh, Ozone Chappius Band, Aerosol Scattering, and Cirrus Clouds

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Table 3 Impact of Fratricide on NFIRAOS Performance with MK13N 25% and 50% C n 2 Profile a

Tables Icon

Table 4 NFIRAOS Performance Variations with Different Sodium Return Signal Levels for MK13N Profile a

Equations (48)

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σ ( λ ) = 24 π 3 ( n s 2 1 ) 2 λ 4 N s 2 ( n s 2 + 2 ) 2 ( 6 + 3 ρ n 6 7 ρ n ) ,
F k = 6 + 3 ρ n 6 7 ρ n ,
β ( λ , h ) = N ( h ) σ ( λ ) ,
d I I = β ( λ , h ) d h ,
I ( h ) = I ( h 0 ) exp [ h 0 h β ( λ , h ) d h ] .
τ ( λ , h 0 ) = h 0 β ( λ , h ) d h ,
τ ( λ , h 0 ) = h t h 0 β ( λ , h ) d h ,
P ray ( θ ) = 3 4 ( 1 + cos 2 θ ) .
P ray ( θ ) = 3 4 ( 1 + 2 γ ) [ ( 1 + 3 γ ) + ( 1 γ ) cos 2 θ ] ,
γ = ρ n 2 ρ n .
β ( λ , h , θ ) = β ( λ , h ) P ray ( θ , λ ) 4 π .
P ray ( θ ) = 0.73 × ( 1.0418 + 0.986 cos 2 θ ) .
β s ( λ ) = N s σ ( λ ) .
σ ( λ = 589 nm ) = 3.304 × 10 27 cm 2 .
N s = 2.54743 × 10 19 cm 3 ,
β s ( λ = 589 nm ) = 8.406519 × 10 3 km 1 .
β ( λ , h ) = β s ( λ ) N ( h ) N s = β s ( λ ) P ( h ) P s T s T ( h ) ,
T = T i + Γ i ( h h i ) ,
d P d h = g ρ = g P R T = g R P T i + Γ i ( h h i ) ,
d P P = g R d h T i + Γ i ( h h i ) .
P P i = { ( 1 + Γ i ( h h i ) T i ) g R Γ i = ( T T i ) g R Γ i , Γ i 0 exp [ g ( h h i ) R T i ] , Γ i = 0 } .
β ( h ) = 0.00599 exp ( h 6.9491 ) ,
N O 3 ( h ) = 5.7 × 10 18 exp ( { [ log ( h ) 3.25 ] 0.26 } 2 ) m 3 ,
σ O 3 = 4.8 × 10 25 m 2 .
e τ = 10 m 2.5 ,
τ = 0.9210 m .
I ( x , h ) = e τ ( h ) i = 1 N I i ( x , h ) = e τ ( h ) i = 1 N ρ i L i ( x ) ,
L i ( x ) = circ [ x ( r i + h θ i ) R LLT ] exp [ ( x ( r i + h θ i ) ) 2 2 σ 2 ] ,
τ ( h ) = h t h d h β ( h ) .
R ( x , h ) = e τ ( h ) β ( h , π ) I ( x , h ) ,
P j k l = γ t d ϕ d j k l ( ϕ ) d x S j k ( x ) d h R ( x + h ϕ , h ) ,
P j k l = γ t d ϕ d j k ( ϕ ϕ j k l ) d x S 0 ( x x k ) d h e 2 τ ( h ) β ( h , π ) i = 1 N ρ i L i ( x + h ϕ ) = γ t i = 1 N ρ i d h e 2 τ ( h ) β ( h , π ) d ϕ d j k ( ϕ ) d x S 0 ( x ) L i ( x + x k + h ϕ + h ϕ j k l ) ,
ϕ j k l = r j x k H + ϕ l ,
P i j k l ( h ) = γ t d ϕ d j k ( ϕ ) d x S 0 ( x ) L i ( x + x k + h ϕ + h ϕ j k l ) .
P i j k l ( h ) = γ t d ϕ d j k ( ϕ ) d κ S ̂ 0 ( κ ) d x e 2 π i κ x L i ( x + h ϕ + x k + h ϕ j k l ) = γ t d κ S ̂ 0 ( κ ) L ̂ i ( κ ) d ϕ d j k ( ϕ ) e 2 π i κ ( h ϕ ) exp [ 2 π i κ ( x k + h ϕ j k l ) ] = γ t F 1 [ S ̂ 0 ( κ ) L ̂ i ( κ ) d ̂ j k ( h κ ) ] ( x k h ϕ j k l ) .
P i j k l ( h ) = γ t F 1 { 2 π σ 2 exp [ 2 σ 2 π 2 | κ | 2 ] d 2 sinc ( k x d ) sinc ( k y d ) Δ 2 sinc [ h ( k x cos θ + k y sin θ ) Δ ] sinc [ h ( k x sin θ k y cos θ ) Δ ] exp [ 2 π 2 ϕ blur 2 h 2 ( k x 2 + k y 2 ) ] } ( r i + h θ i x k h ϕ j k l ) .
L i ( x ) = exp [ ( x ( r i + h θ i ) ) 2 σ 2 ] ,
L ̂ i ( κ ) = 2 π σ 2 exp [ 2 σ 2 π 2 | κ | 2 2 π i κ ( r i + h θ i ) ] ,
S 0 ( x ) = ( x d ) ( y d ) .
S ̂ 0 ( κ ) = d 2 sinc ( k x d ) sinc ( k y d ) ,
sinc ( x ) sin ( π x ) π x .
d j k ( ϕ r a ) = ( ϕ r Δ ) ( ϕ a Δ ) 1 2 π ϕ blur 2 × exp [ ( ϕ r 2 + ϕ a 2 ) ( 2 ϕ blur 2 ) ] .
d ̂ ( u r a ) = Δ 2 sinc ( u r Δ ) sinc ( u a Δ ) exp [ 2 π 2 ϕ blur 2 ( u r 2 + u a 2 ) ] .
ϕ r a = R α T ϕ x y ,
R α = [ cos α sin α sin α cos α ] .
d j k ( ϕ x y ) = d j k ( R α T ϕ x y ) ,
d ̂ j k ( u x y ) = d ( R ϕ r a ) d j k ( ϕ r a ) exp [ 2 π i ( R ϕ r a ) T u x y ] = | R α 1 | d ϕ r a d j k ( ϕ r a ) exp [ 2 π i ϕ r a T ( R T u x y ) ] = d ̂ j k ( R α T u x y ) ,
d ̂ j k ( u x y ) = Δ 2 sinc [ ( u x cos θ + u y sin θ ) Δ ] sinc [ ( u x sin θ u y cos θ ) Δ ] × exp [ 2 π 2 ( u x 2 + u y 2 ) ϕ blur 2 ] .

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