J. Lin and X.-C. Yuan, “Application of orbital angular momentum in optical measurement,” Proc. SPIE 74300, 74300G (2009).

[CrossRef]

J. Masajada, M. Leniec, S. Drobczyński, H. Thienpont, and B. Kress, “Micro-step localization using double charge optical vortex interferometer,” Opt. Express 17, 16144–16159 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. O’Holleran, M. R. Dennis, and M. J. Padgett, “Topology of light’s darkness,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 143902 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Sendra, H. Rabal, M. Trivi, and R. Arizaga, “Numerical model for simulation of dynamic speckle reference patterns,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3693–3700 (2009).

[CrossRef]

G. H. Sendra, H. J. Rabal, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Vortex analysis in dynamic speckle images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2634–2639 (2009).

[CrossRef]

M. Chen and F. S. Roux, “Influence of the least-squares phase on optical vortices in strongly scintillated beams,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013824 (2009).

[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, B. Hu, P. Sebbah, and A. Z. Genack, “Speckle evolution of diffusive and localized waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063902 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. V. Berry and M. R. Dennis, “Topological events on wave dislocation lines: birth and death of loops, and reconnection,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40, 65–74 (2007).

[CrossRef]

G. Foo, D. M. Palacios, and J. Grover A. Swartzlander, “Optical vortex coronagraph,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3308–3310 (2005).

[CrossRef]

C. Paterson, “Atmospheric turbulence and orbital angular momentum of single photons for optical communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901-1 (2005).

[CrossRef]

W. Wang, S. G. Hanson, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Experimental investigation of local properties and statistics of optical vortices in random wave fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103902 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts, 2005).

M. Dennis, “Local phase structure of wave dislocation lines: twist and twirl,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S202–S208 (2004).

[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. R. Dennis, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Knotted threads of darkness,” Nature 432, 165–165 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 12, 5448–5456 (2004).

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. R. Dennis, “Topological singularities in wave fields,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bristol, 2001).

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

I. Freund, “Saddles, singularities, and extrema in random phase fields,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2348–2360 (1995).

[CrossRef]

I. Freund, N. Shvartsman, and V. Freilikher, “Optical dislocation networks in highly random media,” Opt. Commun. 101, 247–264 (1993).

[CrossRef]

M. Berry, “Disruption of wavefronts: statistics of dislocations in incoherent Gaussian random waves,” J. Phys. A 11, 27–37 (1978).

[CrossRef]

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 336, 165–190 (1974).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Devaney and G. C. Sherman, “Plane-wave representations for scalar wave fields,” SIAM Rev. 15, 765–786 (1973).

[CrossRef]

G. Sendra, H. Rabal, M. Trivi, and R. Arizaga, “Numerical model for simulation of dynamic speckle reference patterns,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3693–3700 (2009).

[CrossRef]

G. H. Sendra, H. J. Rabal, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Vortex analysis in dynamic speckle images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2634–2639 (2009).

[CrossRef]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 12, 5448–5456 (2004).

M. Berry, “Disruption of wavefronts: statistics of dislocations in incoherent Gaussian random waves,” J. Phys. A 11, 27–37 (1978).

[CrossRef]

M. V. Berry and M. R. Dennis, “Topological events on wave dislocation lines: birth and death of loops, and reconnection,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40, 65–74 (2007).

[CrossRef]

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 336, 165–190 (1974).

[CrossRef]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Leach, M. R. Dennis, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Knotted threads of darkness,” Nature 432, 165–165 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 12, 5448–5456 (2004).

M. Dennis, “Local phase structure of wave dislocation lines: twist and twirl,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S202–S208 (2004).

[CrossRef]

K. O’Holleran, M. R. Dennis, and M. J. Padgett, “Topology of light’s darkness,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 143902 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. V. Berry and M. R. Dennis, “Topological events on wave dislocation lines: birth and death of loops, and reconnection,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40, 65–74 (2007).

[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. R. Dennis, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Knotted threads of darkness,” Nature 432, 165–165 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. R. Dennis, “Topological singularities in wave fields,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bristol, 2001).

A. J. Devaney and G. C. Sherman, “Plane-wave representations for scalar wave fields,” SIAM Rev. 15, 765–786 (1973).

[CrossRef]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 12, 5448–5456 (2004).

I. Freund, N. Shvartsman, and V. Freilikher, “Optical dislocation networks in highly random media,” Opt. Commun. 101, 247–264 (1993).

[CrossRef]

I. Freund, “Saddles, singularities, and extrema in random phase fields,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2348–2360 (1995).

[CrossRef]

N. Shvartsman and I. Freund, “Vortices in random wave fields: nearest neighbor anticorrelations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1008–1011 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

I. Freund, “Optical vortices in Gaussian random wave fields: statistical probability densities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1644–1652 (1994).

[CrossRef]

I. Freund, N. Shvartsman, and V. Freilikher, “Optical dislocation networks in highly random media,” Opt. Commun. 101, 247–264 (1993).

[CrossRef]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Zhang, B. Hu, P. Sebbah, and A. Z. Genack, “Speckle evolution of diffusive and localized waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063902 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 12, 5448–5456 (2004).

W. Wang, S. G. Hanson, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Experimental investigation of local properties and statistics of optical vortices in random wave fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103902 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Zhang, B. Hu, P. Sebbah, and A. Z. Genack, “Speckle evolution of diffusive and localized waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063902 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Leach, M. R. Dennis, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Knotted threads of darkness,” Nature 432, 165–165 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Lin and X.-C. Yuan, “Application of orbital angular momentum in optical measurement,” Proc. SPIE 74300, 74300G (2009).

[CrossRef]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Wang, S. G. Hanson, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Experimental investigation of local properties and statistics of optical vortices in random wave fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103902 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 336, 165–190 (1974).

[CrossRef]

K. O’Holleran, M. R. Dennis, and M. J. Padgett, “Topology of light’s darkness,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 143902 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. O’Holleran, M. R. Dennis, and M. J. Padgett, “Topology of light’s darkness,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 143902 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Leach, M. R. Dennis, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Knotted threads of darkness,” Nature 432, 165–165 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 12, 5448–5456 (2004).

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 12, 5448–5456 (2004).

C. Paterson, “Atmospheric turbulence and orbital angular momentum of single photons for optical communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901-1 (2005).

[CrossRef]

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

G. Sendra, H. Rabal, M. Trivi, and R. Arizaga, “Numerical model for simulation of dynamic speckle reference patterns,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3693–3700 (2009).

[CrossRef]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Zhang, B. Hu, P. Sebbah, and A. Z. Genack, “Speckle evolution of diffusive and localized waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063902 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Sendra, H. Rabal, M. Trivi, and R. Arizaga, “Numerical model for simulation of dynamic speckle reference patterns,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3693–3700 (2009).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Devaney and G. C. Sherman, “Plane-wave representations for scalar wave fields,” SIAM Rev. 15, 765–786 (1973).

[CrossRef]

N. Shvartsman and I. Freund, “Vortices in random wave fields: nearest neighbor anticorrelations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1008–1011 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

I. Freund, N. Shvartsman, and V. Freilikher, “Optical dislocation networks in highly random media,” Opt. Commun. 101, 247–264 (1993).

[CrossRef]

W. Wang, T. Yokozeki, R. Ishijima, and M. Takeda, “Optical vortex metrology based on the core structures of phase singularities in Laguerre–Gauss transform of a speckle pattern,” Opt. Express 14, 10195–10206 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Wang, S. G. Hanson, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Experimental investigation of local properties and statistics of optical vortices in random wave fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103902 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Sendra, H. Rabal, M. Trivi, and R. Arizaga, “Numerical model for simulation of dynamic speckle reference patterns,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3693–3700 (2009).

[CrossRef]

G. H. Sendra, H. J. Rabal, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Vortex analysis in dynamic speckle images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2634–2639 (2009).

[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 12, 5448–5456 (2004).

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Wang, T. Yokozeki, R. Ishijima, and M. Takeda, “Optical vortex metrology based on the core structures of phase singularities in Laguerre–Gauss transform of a speckle pattern,” Opt. Express 14, 10195–10206 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. Wang, S. G. Hanson, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Experimental investigation of local properties and statistics of optical vortices in random wave fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103902 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Lin and X.-C. Yuan, “Application of orbital angular momentum in optical measurement,” Proc. SPIE 74300, 74300G (2009).

[CrossRef]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Zhang, B. Hu, P. Sebbah, and A. Z. Genack, “Speckle evolution of diffusive and localized waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063902 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Dennis, “Local phase structure of wave dislocation lines: twist and twirl,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S202–S208 (2004).

[CrossRef]

I. Freund, “Optical vortices in Gaussian random wave fields: statistical probability densities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1644–1652 (1994).

[CrossRef]

J. M. Martin and S. M. Flatté, “Simulation of point-source scintillation through three-dimensional random media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 838–847 (1990).

[CrossRef]

G. H. Sendra, H. J. Rabal, R. Arizaga, and M. Trivi, “Vortex analysis in dynamic speckle images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2634–2639 (2009).

[CrossRef]

D. L. Fried, “Branch point problem in adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2759–2768 (1998).

[CrossRef]

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, and M. A. Al-Habash, “Theory of optical scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1417–1429 (1999).

[CrossRef]

M. Chen and F. S. Roux, “Accelerating the annihilation of an optical vortex dipole in a Gaussian beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1279–1286 (2008).

[CrossRef]

M. Berry, “Disruption of wavefronts: statistics of dislocations in incoherent Gaussian random waves,” J. Phys. A 11, 27–37 (1978).

[CrossRef]

M. V. Berry and M. R. Dennis, “Topological events on wave dislocation lines: birth and death of loops, and reconnection,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40, 65–74 (2007).

[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. R. Dennis, J. Courtial, and M. J. Padgett, “Knotted threads of darkness,” Nature 432, 165–165 (2004).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

I. Freund, N. Shvartsman, and V. Freilikher, “Optical dislocation networks in highly random media,” Opt. Commun. 101, 247–264 (1993).

[CrossRef]

G. Sendra, H. Rabal, M. Trivi, and R. Arizaga, “Numerical model for simulation of dynamic speckle reference patterns,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3693–3700 (2009).

[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 12, 5448–5456 (2004).

W. Wang, T. Yokozeki, R. Ishijima, and M. Takeda, “Optical vortex metrology based on the core structures of phase singularities in Laguerre–Gauss transform of a speckle pattern,” Opt. Express 14, 10195–10206 (2006).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Masajada, M. Leniec, S. Drobczyński, H. Thienpont, and B. Kress, “Micro-step localization using double charge optical vortex interferometer,” Opt. Express 17, 16144–16159 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Leach, B. Jack, J. Romero, M. Ritsch-Marte, R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, and M. J. Padgett, “Violation of a bell inequality in two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state-spaces,” Opt. Express 17, 8287–8293 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Chen and F. S. Roux, “Influence of the least-squares phase on optical vortices in strongly scintillated beams,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 013824 (2009).

[CrossRef]

I. Freund, “Saddles, singularities, and extrema in random phase fields,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 2348–2360 (1995).

[CrossRef]

W. Wang, S. G. Hanson, Y. Miyamoto, and M. Takeda, “Experimental investigation of local properties and statistics of optical vortices in random wave fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103902 (2005).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Zhang, B. Hu, P. Sebbah, and A. Z. Genack, “Speckle evolution of diffusive and localized waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063902 (2007).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. O’Holleran, M. R. Dennis, and M. J. Padgett, “Topology of light’s darkness,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 143902 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. Paterson, “Atmospheric turbulence and orbital angular momentum of single photons for optical communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901-1 (2005).

[CrossRef]

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826–829 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Shvartsman and I. Freund, “Vortices in random wave fields: nearest neighbor anticorrelations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1008–1011 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 336, 165–190 (1974).

[CrossRef]

J. Lin and X.-C. Yuan, “Application of orbital angular momentum in optical measurement,” Proc. SPIE 74300, 74300G (2009).

[CrossRef]

A. J. Devaney and G. C. Sherman, “Plane-wave representations for scalar wave fields,” SIAM Rev. 15, 765–786 (1973).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts, 2005).

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

M. R. Dennis, “Topological singularities in wave fields,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Bristol, 2001).