Abstract

We estimated the number of colors perceived by color normal and color-deficient observers when looking at the theoretic limits of object-color stimuli. These limits, the optimal color stimuli, were computed for a color normal observer and CIE standard illuminant D65, and the resultant colors were expressed in the CIELAB and DIN99d color spaces. The corresponding color volumes for abnormal color vision were computed using models simulating for normal trichromatic observers the appearance for dichromats and anomalous trichomats. The number of colors perceived in each case was then computed from the color volumes enclosed by the optimal colors also known as MacAdam limits. It was estimated that dichromats perceive less than 1% of the colors perceived by normal trichromats and that anomalous trichromats perceive 50%–60% for anomalies in the medium-wavelength-sensitive and 60%–70% for anomalies in the long-wavelength-sensitive cones. Complementary estimates obtained similarly for the spectral locus of monochromatic stimuli suggest less impairment for color-deficient observers, a fact that is explained by the two-dimensional nature of the locus.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  48. S. M. C. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, and D. H. Foster, “Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484–1490 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  51. A. L. Nagy and R. M. Boynton, “Large-field color naming of dichromates with rods bleached,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1259–1265 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  57. F. Vienot, H. Brettel, and J. D. Mollon, “Digital video colourmaps for checking the legibility of displays by dichromats,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 243–252 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  62. R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold colour-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  63. D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB colour-difference formula,” in 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC 97) (Color Association of China, 1997), pp. 446–449.
  64. K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour-differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2010

I. Marín-Franch and D. H. Foster, “Number of perceptually distinct surface colors in natural scenes,” J. Vision (2010) (to be published).

2009

E. Perales, “About the optimal colours and their applications in colour vision and colour technology,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Alicante, 2009).

E. Perales, E. Chorro, V. Viqueira, and F. M. Martínez-Verdú, “Estimation of the real colour gamut,” in 11th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC 2009) (Colour Society of Australia, 2009), p. 71.

J. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. Nascimento, “Color rendering of art paintings under CIE illuminants for normal and color-deficient observers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1668–1677 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Correlated color temperature preferred by observers for illumination of artistic paintings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 623–630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. Nascimento, “The number of discernible colors in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2918–2924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “The number of discernible colors perceived by dichromats in natural scenes and the effects of colored lenses,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 493–499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. M. Linhares, P. A. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “The number of discernible colours perceived by protanomalous and deuteranomalous in natural scenes,” Perception 37, 62–62 (2008).

2007

2006

E. Perales, F. Martínez-Verdú, V. Viqueira, M. J. Luque, and P. Capilla, “Computing the number of distinguishable colors under several illuminants and light sources,” in Third IS&T European Conferences on Colour Graphics, Imaging and Vision (The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 414–419.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 320–330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Kovalev, “Mining dichromatic colours from video,” Lect. Notes Artif. Int. 4065, 431–443 (2006).

E. Perales, F. Martinez-Verdu, V. Viqueira, M. J. Luque, and P. Capilla, “Computing the number of distinguishable colors under several illuminants and light sources,” in Third IS&T European Conferences on Colour Graphics, Imaging and Vision (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2006), pp. 414–419.

L. T. Sharpe, E. de Luca, T. Hansen, H. Jagle, and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Advantages and disadvantages of human dichromacy,” J. Vision 6, 213–223 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wen, “Display gamut comparison with number of discernible colors,” J. Electron. Imaging 15, 043001–043008 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Rasche, R. Geist, and J. Westall, “Detail preserving reproduction of color images for monochromats and dichromats,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Appl. 25, 22–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Wachtler, U. Dohrmann, and R. Hertel, “Modeling color percepts of dichromats,” Vision Res. 44, 2843–2855 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Capilla, M. J. Luque, and M. A. Diez-Ajenjo, “Looking for the dichromatic version of a colour vision model,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 906–919 (2004).
[CrossRef]

CIE, “Colorimetry,” CIE Publ 15:2004 (CIE, Vienna, 2004).

2003

R. G. Kuehni, Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present (Wiley-Interscience, 2003).

2002

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282–290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Moroney, “A hypothesis regarding the poor blue constancy of CIELAB,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 371–378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. C. Nascimento, F. P. Ferreira, and D. H. Foster, “Statistics of spatial cone-excitation ratios in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1484–1490 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. D. Mollon and B. C. Regan, “Simulating the perceptual world of the anomalous trichromat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, S97–S97 (2001).

2000

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 691–700 (2000).

1999

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision, K.R.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 3–51.

F. Vienot, H. Brettel, and J. D. Mollon, “Digital video colourmaps for checking the legibility of displays by dichromats,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 243–252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour-differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78–92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. L. Ruderman, T. W. Cronin, and C. C. Chiao, “Statistics of cone responses to natural images: implications for visual coding,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2036–2045 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Pointer, “On the number of discernible colours,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Pointer and G. G. Attridge, “The number of discernible colours,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 52–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Knowles and H. J. A. Dartnall, “The photobiology of vision,” in The Eye, Vol. 2B, H.Davson, ed. (Academic, 1997), pp. 53–101.

H. Brettel, F. Viénot, and J. D. Mollon, “Computerized simulation of color appearance for dichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2647–2655 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zaidi, “Decorrelation of L- and M-cone signals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3430–3431 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB colour-difference formula,” in 8th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC 97) (Color Association of China, 1997), pp. 446–449.

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Adaptation and the color statistics of natural images,” Vision Res. 37, 3283–3298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

F. Vienot, H. Brettel, L. Ott, A. Benmbarek, and J. D. Mollon, “What do color-blind people see?” Nature 376, 127–128 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

H. Xu, “Color-rendering capacity of light,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 267–269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. Krauskopf and K. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165–2175 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Merbs and J. Nathans, “Absorption-spectra of the hybrid pigments responsible for anomalous color-vision,” Science 258, 464–466 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Morgan, A. Adam, and J. D. Mollon, “Dichromates detect color-camouflaged objects that are not detected by trichromates,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 248, 291–295 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMarco, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichromates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1465–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold colour-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Krastel and J. D. Moreland, “Colour vision deficiencies in ophthalmic diseases,” in Inherited and Acquired Colour Vision Deficiencies: Fundamental Aspects and Clinical Studie, D.H.Foster, ed. (Macmillan, 1991), pp. 115–172.

1986

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25–42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

G. Buchsbaum and A. Gottschalk, “Trichromacy, opponent colors coding and optimum color information-transmission in the retina,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 220, 89–113 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).

1980

1979

A. L. Nagy and R. M. Boynton, “Large-field color naming of dichromates with rods bleached,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1259–1265 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Congenital color defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune and Stratton, New York, 1979), pp. 183–241.

J. Birch, J. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnea, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.

1978

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125–128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

1972

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments,” Vision Res. 12, 2059–2071 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1949

D. B. Judd, “Color perceptions of deuteranopic and protanopic observers,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 41, 247–271 (1949).

1947

1939

D. B. Judd and K. L. Kelly, “Method of designating colors,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 23, 355–381 (1939).

1935

D. L. MacAdam, “Maximum visual efficiency of colored materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 316–367 (1935).

D. L. MacAdam, “Theory of the maximum visual efficiency of colored materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25, 249–252 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1929

N. D. Nyberg, “Zum Aufbau des Farbenkörpers im Raume aller Lichtempfindungen,” Z. Phys. A 52, 406–419 (1929).

1927

R. Luther, “Aus dem Gebiet der Farbreizmetrik,” Z. Tech. Phys. (Leipzig) 8, 540–558 (1927).

1920

E. Schrodinger, “Theorie der pigmente von grosster leuchtkraft,” Annalen Physik 62, 603–622 (1920).
[CrossRef]

1882

J. von Kries, “Die Gesichtsempfindungen und ihre Analyse,” Archiv fur Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin (Suppl. Physiologische Abteilung), 1–178 (1882).

Adam, A.

M. J. Morgan, A. Adam, and J. D. Mollon, “Dichromates detect color-camouflaged objects that are not detected by trichromates,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 248, 291–295 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alman, D. H.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold colour-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Attridge, G. G.

M. R. Pointer and G. G. Attridge, “The number of discernible colours,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 52–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balonon-Rosen, M. R.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold colour-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Benmbarek, A.

F. Vienot, H. Brettel, L. Ott, A. Benmbarek, and J. D. Mollon, “What do color-blind people see?” Nature 376, 127–128 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold colour-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297–316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Birch, J.

J. Birch, J. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnea, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979), pp. 243–348.

Boynton, R. M.

Brettel, H.

F. Vienot, H. Brettel, and J. D. Mollon, “Digital video colourmaps for checking the legibility of displays by dichromats,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 243–252 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Brettel, F. Viénot, and J. D. Mollon, “Computerized simulation of color appearance for dichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2647–2655 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Vienot, H. Brettel, L. Ott, A. Benmbarek, and J. D. Mollon, “What do color-blind people see?” Nature 376, 127–128 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchsbaum, G.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rösch–MacAdam color solid in the CIELAB color space under illuminant D65 for normal and color-deficient observers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Rösch–MacAdam color solid in the DIN99d color space under illuminant D65 for normal and color-deficient observers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between the MacAdam limits for the constant lightness plane L * = 50 associated with normal and color-deficient observers in the CIELAB (left) and DIN99d (right) color spaces. Top: normal observer [black (outer) line]), protanomal [red (middle) line], and deuteranomal observer [green (inner) line]. Bottom: tritanope [blue line (across center) and blue dots (diagonal)], deuteranope (green line and green dots), and protanope (red line and red dots). The red and green lines and dots are almost exactly superimposed. The insets represent amplifications of the central part of the corresponding graphs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral locus of monochromatic stimuli represented in the CIELAB color space as perceived by normal, dicromats, and anomalous observers. The orientation of these graphs is different from those in Figs. 1, 2 for better visualization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral locus of monochromatic stimuli represented in the DIN99d color space as perceived by normal, dicromats, and anomalous observers. The orientation of these graphs is different from those in Figs. 1, 2 for better visualization.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Color differences in DIN99d for the pairs BFD-P [61], RIT-DuPont [62], Leeds [63], and Witt [64] expressed as a function of the corresponding color differences expressed in the CIELAB color space.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of Discernible Colors Estimated for the Rösch–MacAdam Color Solid and for the Rösch–MacAdam Color Surface Expressed in the CIELAB Color Space for Normal and Color-Deficient Observers

Tables Icon

Table 2 Number of Discernible Colors Estimated for the Rösch–MacAdam Color Solid and for the Rösch–MacAdam Color Surface Expressed in the DIN99d Color Space for Normal and Color-Deficient Observers

Tables Icon

Table 3 Number of Discernible Colors Estimated for the Spectral Locus of Monochromatic Stimuli Expressed in the CIELAB and DIN99d Color Spaces for Normal and Color–Deficient Observers

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