Abstract

A promising maskless surface-plasmon-interference nanoscale lithographic technique is proposed and demonstrated experimentally in this paper. One-dimensional (grating-type) and two-dimensional (pillar-type) nanocale features were patterned on the photoresist layer using a 364nm illumination wavelength source with a single exposure, by employing a custom-made prism layer configuration. Large-area patterns of grating lines and pillars with feature size 90nm were realized experimentally using this configuration.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Okazaki, “Resolution limits of optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2829-2833 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. J. Blaikie and S. J. McNab, “Evanescent interferometric lithography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1692-1698 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. K. Chua, V. M. Murukeshan, S. K. Tan, and Q. Y. Lin, “Four beams evanescent waves interference lithography for patterning of two dimensional features,” Opt. Express 15, 3437-3451 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, J. Zhou, N. Lafferty, and A. Estroff, “Evanescent wave imaging in optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE. 6154, 61540A (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Lim, S. Kim, H. Kim, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Interference of SP waves and plasmon coupled waveguide modes for the patterning of thin film,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 305-311 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Guo, J. Du, Y. Guo, and J. Yao, “Large-area surface-plasmon polariton interference lithography,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2613-2615 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, “Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two dimensional manipulation of SPs,” Nano Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Heltzel, S. Theppakuttai, S. C. Chen, and J. R. Howell, “Surface plasmon based nanopatterning assisted by gold nanospheres,” Nanotechnology 19, 025305 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Piglmayer, R. Denk, and D. Bauerle, “Laser-induced surface patterning by means of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4693-4695 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. M. Murukeshan and K. V. Sreekanth, “Excitation of gap modes in a metal particle-surface system for sub-30 nm plasmonic lithography,” Opt. Lett. 34, 845-847 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing SPs by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165418 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  18. A. Passian, A. Wig, L. Lereu, P. G. Evans, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Probing large area SP interference in thin metal films using photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 100, 429-436 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

2009 (2)

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two dimensional manipulation of SPs,” Nano Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Murukeshan and K. V. Sreekanth, “Excitation of gap modes in a metal particle-surface system for sub-30 nm plasmonic lithography,” Opt. Lett. 34, 845-847 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. Heltzel, S. Theppakuttai, S. C. Chen, and J. R. Howell, “Surface plasmon based nanopatterning assisted by gold nanospheres,” Nanotechnology 19, 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lim, S. Kim, H. Kim, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Interference of SP waves and plasmon coupled waveguide modes for the patterning of thin film,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. K. Chua, V. M. Murukeshan, S. K. Tan, and Q. Y. Lin, “Four beams evanescent waves interference lithography for patterning of two dimensional features,” Opt. Express 15, 3437-3451 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, “Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, J. Zhou, N. Lafferty, and A. Estroff, “Evanescent wave imaging in optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE. 6154, 61540A (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, J. Du, Y. Guo, and J. Yao, “Large-area surface-plasmon polariton interference lithography,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2613-2615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing SPs by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

A. Passian, A. Wig, L. Lereu, P. G. Evans, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Probing large area SP interference in thin metal films using photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 100, 429-436 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Piglmayer, R. Denk, and D. Bauerle, “Laser-induced surface patterning by means of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4693-4695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1991 (1)

S. Okazaki, “Resolution limits of optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2829-2833 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bauerle, D.

K. Piglmayer, R. Denk, and D. Bauerle, “Laser-induced surface patterning by means of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4693-4695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blaikie, R. J.

Chen, S. C.

A. Heltzel, S. Theppakuttai, S. C. Chen, and J. R. Howell, “Surface plasmon based nanopatterning assisted by gold nanospheres,” Nanotechnology 19, 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M.

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, “Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chua, J. K.

Denk, R.

K. Piglmayer, R. Denk, and D. Bauerle, “Laser-induced surface patterning by means of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4693-4695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

Estroff, A.

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, J. Zhou, N. Lafferty, and A. Estroff, “Evanescent wave imaging in optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE. 6154, 61540A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P. G.

A. Passian, A. Wig, L. Lereu, P. G. Evans, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Probing large area SP interference in thin metal films using photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 100, 429-436 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Y.

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, J. Zhou, N. Lafferty, and A. Estroff, “Evanescent wave imaging in optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE. 6154, 61540A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing SPs by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. Wig, L. Lereu, P. G. Evans, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Probing large area SP interference in thin metal films using photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 100, 429-436 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, X.

Guo, Y.

Heltzel, A.

A. Heltzel, S. Theppakuttai, S. C. Chen, and J. R. Howell, “Surface plasmon based nanopatterning assisted by gold nanospheres,” Nanotechnology 19, 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howell, J. R.

A. Heltzel, S. Theppakuttai, S. C. Chen, and J. R. Howell, “Surface plasmon based nanopatterning assisted by gold nanospheres,” Nanotechnology 19, 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishihara, T.

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.

Y. Lim, S. Kim, H. Kim, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Interference of SP waves and plasmon coupled waveguide modes for the patterning of thin film,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Y. Lim, S. Kim, H. Kim, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Interference of SP waves and plasmon coupled waveguide modes for the patterning of thin film,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. C.

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, “Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Y. Lim, S. Kim, H. Kim, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Interference of SP waves and plasmon coupled waveguide modes for the patterning of thin film,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H.

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, “Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, N.

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, J. Zhou, N. Lafferty, and A. Estroff, “Evanescent wave imaging in optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE. 6154, 61540A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Y. Lim, S. Kim, H. Kim, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Interference of SP waves and plasmon coupled waveguide modes for the patterning of thin film,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two dimensional manipulation of SPs,” Nano Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lereu, A. L.

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing SPs by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lereu, L.

A. Passian, A. Wig, L. Lereu, P. G. Evans, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Probing large area SP interference in thin metal films using photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 100, 429-436 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, Y.

Y. Lim, S. Kim, H. Kim, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Interference of SP waves and plasmon coupled waveguide modes for the patterning of thin film,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q. Y.

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two dimensional manipulation of SPs,” Nano Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Meriaudeau, F.

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing SPs by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. Wig, L. Lereu, P. G. Evans, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Probing large area SP interference in thin metal films using photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 100, 429-436 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murukeshan, V. M.

Okazaki, S.

S. Okazaki, “Resolution limits of optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2829-2833 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Passian, A.

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing SPs by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. Wig, L. Lereu, P. G. Evans, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Probing large area SP interference in thin metal films using photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 100, 429-436 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piglmayer, K.

K. Piglmayer, R. Denk, and D. Bauerle, “Laser-induced surface patterning by means of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4693-4695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Seo, S.

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, “Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shao, D. B.

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, J. Zhou, N. Lafferty, and A. Estroff, “Evanescent wave imaging in optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE. 6154, 61540A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sreekanth, K. V.

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two dimensional manipulation of SPs,” Nano Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. K.

Theppakuttai, S.

A. Heltzel, S. Theppakuttai, S. C. Chen, and J. R. Howell, “Surface plasmon based nanopatterning assisted by gold nanospheres,” Nanotechnology 19, 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thundat, T.

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing SPs by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. Wig, L. Lereu, P. G. Evans, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Probing large area SP interference in thin metal films using photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 100, 429-436 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two dimensional manipulation of SPs,” Nano Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q. H.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wig, A.

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing SPs by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. Wig, L. Lereu, P. G. Evans, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Probing large area SP interference in thin metal films using photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 100, 429-436 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two dimensional manipulation of SPs,” Nano Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, J. Du, Y. Guo, and J. Yao, “Large-area surface-plasmon polariton interference lithography,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2613-2615 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two dimensional manipulation of SPs,” Nano Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, J. Zhou, N. Lafferty, and A. Estroff, “Evanescent wave imaging in optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE. 6154, 61540A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Piglmayer, R. Denk, and D. Bauerle, “Laser-induced surface patterning by means of microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4693-4695 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

Y. Lim, S. Kim, H. Kim, J. Jung, and B. Lee, “Interference of SP waves and plasmon coupled waveguide modes for the patterning of thin film,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 44, 305-311 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

S. Okazaki, “Resolution limits of optical lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2829-2833 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, “Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, “Broad band two dimensional manipulation of SPs,” Nano Lett. 9, 462-466 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, “Plasmonic nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 4, 1085-1088 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, “Surface plasmon interference nanolithography,” Nano Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

A. Heltzel, S. Theppakuttai, S. C. Chen, and J. R. Howell, “Surface plasmon based nanopatterning assisted by gold nanospheres,” Nanotechnology 19, 025305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, A. Wig, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Imaging standing SPs by photon tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 165418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE. (1)

B. W. Smith, Y. Fan, J. Zhou, N. Lafferty, and A. Estroff, “Evanescent wave imaging in optical lithography,” Proc. SPIE. 6154, 61540A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

A. Passian, A. Wig, L. Lereu, P. G. Evans, F. Meriaudeau, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, “Probing large area SP interference in thin metal films using photon scanning tunneling microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 100, 429-436 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental SP interference lithography setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SP resonance angle calculation using the FDTD method: reflectance versus incident angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM image of the exposure pattern transferred onto the photoresist film: large-area 1D grating lines patterned at exposure time 1 s .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) AFM image of the developed grating lines in a 1 μ m × 1 μ m exposed area on the photoresist. (b) Sectional analysis along the line drawn in (a); periodic patterns with minimum line width of 89 nm on a 172 nm period were obtained.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

2D AFM images of the exposure pattern transferred onto the photoresist film: large-area dot arrays at exposure time of 1 s .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3D AFM images of the exposure pattern transferred onto the photoresist film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) AFM image of the developed dot array in a 3 μ m × 3 μ m exposed area on the photoresist. (b) Sectional analysis along the line drawn in (a); a periodic dot array with minimum spot size of 93 nm and period 173 nm was realized.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| | ψ 1 + ψ 2 | | 2 = 2 | ψ 0 | 2 [ 1 + cos ( 4 π ε d sin θ Sp λ ) x ] ,
Δ x = λ 2 ε d sin θ SP .

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