Abstract

Light radiated from foveal photoreceptors was analyzed in the eye’s pupil at 470nm and 532nm. The reflectance of the inner limiting membrane was then measured at 6deg from the fovea for the same wavelengths, allowing us to determine the macular pigment (MP) density Ddir using the directional reflectance technique. In addition we measured the MP density Dnd using the nondirectional reflectance technique (26 subjects). The mean values of Ddir and Dnd were 0.419±0.097 and 0.195±0.042D.U., respectively (sample field of 2deg). They were highly correlated (p<0.0001). Comparison of Ddir and Dnd implies that 57±12% of the light reflected from the fovea comes from layers anterior to MP at 470nm. The mean directionality factors ρ that we have measured at 470nm and 532nm were equal to 0.239±0.028 and 0.210±0.028mm2, respectively. They were correlated (p<0.0001) and followed the spectral dependence suggested by Marcos.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

S. Beatty, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, and U. Chakravarthy, “Macular pigment and age-related macular degeneration: longitudinal data and better techniques of measurement are needed,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 843-845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kanis, R. P. L. Wisse, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Foveal cone-photoreceptor integrity in aging macula disorder,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 2077-2081 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. van de Kraats and D. van Norren, “Directional and non-directional spectral reflection from the human fovea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024010 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, M. J. Kanis, S. W. Genders, and D. van Norren, “Lutein and zeaxanthin measured separately in the living human retina with fundus reflectometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 5568-5573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, N. Röösli, E. Weyermann, M. R. Heldner, K. Höhne, and S. Wolf, “Ethnic differences in macular pigment density and distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3783-3787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bone, B. Brener, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment, photopigments, and melanin: distributions in young subjects determined by four-wavelength reflectometry,” Vision Res. 47, 3259-3268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 709-714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, C. Keilhauer, P. Salvetti, and G. Staurenghi, “Bimodal spatial distribution of macular pigment: evidence of a gender relationship,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 521-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Guided light and diffraction model of human-eye photoreceptors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2318-2328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “On the age dependency of the macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 81, 602-609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

N. P. A. Zagers, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “Wavelength dependence of reflectometric cone photoreceptor directionality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 18-23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wüstemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 647-651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

N. P. A. Zagers, J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “Simultaneous measurement of foveal spectral reflectance and cone photoreceptor directionality,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4686-4696 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wüstemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, “A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. V. M. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322-3326 (2000).

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, and J. C. He, “Model for cone directionality reflectometric measurements based on scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2012-2022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394-2404 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “The pathway of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

J.-M. Gorrand and F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999-1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, and A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human cone photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329-2338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105-110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 313-320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

G. S. Brindley and E. N. Willmer, “The reflection of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 116, 350-356 (1952).

Artal, P.

Barth, T.

H. Wüstemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, “A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaanse, M.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. V. M. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

Beatty, S.

S. Beatty, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, and U. Chakravarthy, “Macular pigment and age-related macular degeneration: longitudinal data and better techniques of measurement are needed,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 843-845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beausencourt, E.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394-2404 (1998).

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

M. J. Kanis, R. P. L. Wisse, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Foveal cone-photoreceptor integrity in aging macula disorder,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 2077-2081 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 709-714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “On the age dependency of the macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 81, 602-609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. A. Zagers, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “Wavelength dependence of reflectometric cone photoreceptor directionality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 18-23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. P. A. Zagers, J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “Simultaneous measurement of foveal spectral reflectance and cone photoreceptor directionality,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4686-4696 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. V. M. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322-3326 (2000).

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “The pathway of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, B. Brener, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment, photopigments, and melanin: distributions in young subjects determined by four-wavelength reflectometry,” Vision Res. 47, 3259-3268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105-110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, B.

R. A. Bone, B. Brener, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment, photopigments, and melanin: distributions in young subjects determined by four-wavelength reflectometry,” Vision Res. 47, 3259-3268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brindley, G. S.

G. S. Brindley and E. N. Willmer, “The reflection of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 116, 350-356 (1952).

Burns, S. A.

Cains, A.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105-110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakravarthy, U.

S. Beatty, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, and U. Chakravarthy, “Macular pigment and age-related macular degeneration: longitudinal data and better techniques of measurement are needed,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 843-845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, P. T. V. M.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. V. M. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

Delori, F. C.

Doly, M.

Elsner, A. E.

Genders, S. W.

J. van de Kraats, M. J. Kanis, S. W. Genders, and D. van Norren, “Lutein and zeaxanthin measured separately in the living human retina with fundus reflectometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 5568-5573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gibert, J. C.

R. A. Bone, B. Brener, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment, photopigments, and melanin: distributions in young subjects determined by four-wavelength reflectometry,” Vision Res. 47, 3259-3268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goger, D. G.

Goldbohm, R. A.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322-3326 (2000).

Gorrand, J.-M.

Hammond, B. R.

He, J. C.

Heldner, M. R.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, N. Röösli, E. Weyermann, M. R. Heldner, K. Höhne, and S. Wolf, “Ethnic differences in macular pigment density and distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3783-3787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Höhne, K.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, N. Röösli, E. Weyermann, M. R. Heldner, K. Höhne, and S. Wolf, “Ethnic differences in macular pigment density and distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3783-3787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. R.

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, “Directional and spectral reflectance of the rat retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 639-647 (1999).

Iglesias, I.

Jahn, C.

H. Wüstemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 647-651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wüstemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, “A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kanis, M. J.

J. van de Kraats, M. J. Kanis, S. W. Genders, and D. van Norren, “Lutein and zeaxanthin measured separately in the living human retina with fundus reflectometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 5568-5573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kanis, R. P. L. Wisse, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Foveal cone-photoreceptor integrity in aging macula disorder,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 2077-2081 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keilhauer, C.

Klöpping, W. A. A.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322-3326 (2000).

Knighton, R. W.

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, “Directional and spectral reflectance of the rat retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 639-647 (1999).

Landrum, J. T.

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105-110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

Moessner, A.

H. Wüstemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 647-651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nestler, A.

H. Wüstemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, “A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pflibsen, K. P.

Röösli, N.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, N. Röösli, E. Weyermann, M. R. Heldner, K. Höhne, and S. Wolf, “Ethnic differences in macular pigment density and distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3783-3787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, P.

Snodderly, D. M.

Staurenghi, G.

Tiemeijer, L. F.

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 313-320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valen, S.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van de Kraats, J.

J. van de Kraats, M. J. Kanis, S. W. Genders, and D. van Norren, “Lutein and zeaxanthin measured separately in the living human retina with fundus reflectometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 5568-5573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kanis, R. P. L. Wisse, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Foveal cone-photoreceptor integrity in aging macula disorder,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 2077-2081 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. van de Kraats and D. van Norren, “Directional and non-directional spectral reflection from the human fovea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024010 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. P. A. Zagers, J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “Simultaneous measurement of foveal spectral reflectance and cone photoreceptor directionality,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4686-4696 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322-3326 (2000).

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “The pathway of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Kuijk, F. J. G. M.

S. Beatty, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, and U. Chakravarthy, “Macular pigment and age-related macular degeneration: longitudinal data and better techniques of measurement are needed,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 843-845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Norel, J.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322-3326 (2000).

van Norren, D.

J. van de Kraats, M. J. Kanis, S. W. Genders, and D. van Norren, “Lutein and zeaxanthin measured separately in the living human retina with fundus reflectometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 5568-5573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kanis, R. P. L. Wisse, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Foveal cone-photoreceptor integrity in aging macula disorder,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 2077-2081 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. van de Kraats and D. van Norren, “Directional and non-directional spectral reflection from the human fovea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024010 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 709-714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “On the age dependency of the macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 81, 602-609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. A. Zagers and D. van Norren, “Absorption of the eye lens and macular pigment derived from the reflectance of cone photoreceptors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2257-2268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. P. A. Zagers, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “Wavelength dependence of reflectometric cone photoreceptor directionality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 18-23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. P. A. Zagers, J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “Simultaneous measurement of foveal spectral reflectance and cone photoreceptor directionality,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4686-4696 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. V. M. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322-3326 (2000).

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “The pathway of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 313-320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vohnsen, B.

Weiter, J. J.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394-2404 (1998).

Weyermann, E.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, N. Röösli, E. Weyermann, M. R. Heldner, K. Höhne, and S. Wolf, “Ethnic differences in macular pigment density and distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3783-3787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willemse-Assink, J. J. M.

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. V. M. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

Willmer, E. N.

G. S. Brindley and E. N. Willmer, “The reflection of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 116, 350-356 (1952).

Wisse, R. P. L.

M. J. Kanis, R. P. L. Wisse, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Foveal cone-photoreceptor integrity in aging macula disorder,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 2077-2081 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, S.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, N. Röösli, E. Weyermann, M. R. Heldner, K. Höhne, and S. Wolf, “Ethnic differences in macular pigment density and distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3783-3787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Wüstemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 647-651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wüstemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, “A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf-Schnurrbusch, U. E. K.

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, N. Röösli, E. Weyermann, M. R. Heldner, K. Höhne, and S. Wolf, “Ethnic differences in macular pigment density and distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3783-3787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Wüstemeyer, H.

H. Wüstemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 647-651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wüstemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, “A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zagers, N. P. A.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “On the age dependency of the macular pigment optical density,” Exp. Eye Res. 81, 602-609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (2)

H. Wüstemeyer, C. Jahn, A. Nestler, T. Barth, and S. Wolf, “A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 240, 666-671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wüstemeyer, A. Moessner, C. Jahn, and S. Wolf, “Macular pigment density in healthy subjects quantified with a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 241, 647-651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (9)

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 709-714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. E. K. Wolf-Schnurrbusch, N. Röösli, E. Weyermann, M. R. Heldner, K. Höhne, and S. Wolf, “Ethnic differences in macular pigment density and distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 48, 3783-3787 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. van de Kraats, M. J. Kanis, S. W. Genders, and D. van Norren, “Lutein and zeaxanthin measured separately in the living human retina with fundus reflectometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 5568-5573 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. J. M. Willemse-Assink, M. Bastiaanse, P. T. V. M. de Jong, and D. van Norren, “Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 1928-1932 (2002).

R. W. Knighton and X. R. Huang, “Directional and spectral reflectance of the rat retinal nerve fiber layer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 639-647 (1999).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, E. Beausencourt, and J. J. Weiter, “Foveal cone photopigment distribution: small alterations associated with macular pigment distribution,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 2394-2404 (1998).

T. T. J. M. Berendschot, R. A. Goldbohm, W. A. A. Klöpping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel, and D. van Norren, “Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 41, 3322-3326 (2000).

M. J. Kanis, R. P. L. Wisse, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, J. van de Kraats, and D. van Norren, “Foveal cone-photoreceptor integrity in aging macula disorder,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 2077-2081 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Beatty, F. J. G. M. van Kuijk, and U. Chakravarthy, “Macular pigment and age-related macular degeneration: longitudinal data and better techniques of measurement are needed,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 49, 843-845 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. van de Kraats and D. van Norren, “Directional and non-directional spectral reflection from the human fovea,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024010 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (11)

S. Marcos and S. A. Burns, “Cone spacing and waveguide properties from cone directionality measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 995-1004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Gorrand and F. C. Delori, “Reflectance and curvature of the inner limiting membrane at the foveola,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1229-1237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, and J. C. He, “Model for cone directionality reflectometric measurements based on scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2012-2022 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, J. C. He, and A. E. Elsner, “Variations in photoreceptor directionality across the central retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2033-2040 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, S. Wu, F. C. Delori, and A. E. Elsner, “Direct measurement of human cone photoreceptor alignment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2329-2338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. P. A. Zagers, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “Wavelength dependence of reflectometric cone photoreceptor directionality,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 18-23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. P. A. Zagers and D. van Norren, “Absorption of the eye lens and macular pigment derived from the reflectance of cone photoreceptors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2257-2268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, “Guided light and diffraction model of human-eye photoreceptors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2318-2328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, C. Keilhauer, P. Salvetti, and G. Staurenghi, “Bimodal spatial distribution of macular pigment: evidence of a gender relationship,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 521-538 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Gorrand and M. Doly, “Alignment parameters of foveal cones,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1260-1267 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectroscopy: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212-1230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

G. S. Brindley and E. N. Willmer, “The reflection of light from the macular and peripheral fundus oculi in man,” J. Physiol. (London) 116, 350-356 (1952).

Vision Res. (5)

D. van Norren and L. F. Tiemeijer, “Spectral reflectance of the human eye,” Vision Res. 26, 313-320 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, B. Brener, and J. C. Gibert, “Macular pigment, photopigments, and melanin: distributions in young subjects determined by four-wavelength reflectometry,” Vision Res. 47, 3259-3268 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, and D. van Norren, “The pathway of light measured in fundus reflectometry,” Vision Res. 36, 2229-2247 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Gorrand and F. C. Delori, “A reflectometric technique for assessing photoreceptor alignment,” Vision Res. 35, 999-1010 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone, J. T. Landrum, and A. Cains, “Optical density spectra of the macular pigment in vivo and in vitro,” Vision Res. 32, 105-110 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

“American National Standards for safe use of lasers,” in ANSI 136 1-2000 (The Laser Institute of America, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Directional component (at the fovea). (a) Light is guided backward along the photoreceptor and radiated from the myoid toward the eye’s pupil. In addition a diffuse component uniformly fills the pupil. O, center of the eye’s pupil; I, point where the photoreceptor axis intersects the pupil; J, center of the entrance pupil. (b) Distribution of light in the eye’s pupil. The arrow indicates the position where light enters the eye. The surfacic flux in the pupil is described by the sum of a Gaussian function (amplitude Q) and a constant (amplitude C F ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Specular reflection of the ILM (in the perifovea). (a) We assume that the ILM is close to a spherical mirror inside the retinal area A. The beam coming from J illuminates the retinal area A and is reflected by the ILM. This mirror forms an image J 1 that is conjugate to J. The beam goes through the eye’s pupil around the point J 2 (spot A 2 ). (b) Distribution of light in the eye’s pupil. The arrow indicates the position where light enters the eye. Light backscattered from the RNFL has an extension which is smaller than the eye’s pupil, but much larger than the area A 2 of the ILM reflex; it remains roughly constant along A 2 . C P , amplitude of the nondirectional component.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of MPD estimates derived from the directional ( D dir ) and nondirectional ( D nd ) reflectance methods (26 subjects). The solid curve represents a linear fit to the data. Sample field, 2 deg .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Directionality factor ρ ( 470 ) as a function of ρ ( 532 ) at the fovea (26 subjects). Each point is the average of three measurements. Sample field, 2 deg .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Model of a reflector anterior to MP. R * F is the nondirectional reflectance that would be measured if there were no reflector anterior to MP. R a is the reflectance of the layers anterior to MP. The directional component passes twice through MP. O, center of the eye’s pupil; I, point where the photoreceptor axis intersects the pupil.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Crosses represent the theoretical curve derived from the model [Eq. (19)] and best fitted to the MPD data (26 subjects). Sample field, 2 deg .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean Parameters for the Group of 26 Subjects

Tables Icon

Table 2 Macular Pigment Studies’ Comparison

Equations (22)

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S F ( x , y , λ ) = C F ( λ ) + Q ( λ ) × 10 ρ ( λ ) [ ( x x 0 ) 2 + ( y y 0 ) 2 ] ,
F dir = Q ( λ ) 10 ρ ( λ ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) d x d y ,
F dir = π log e 10 Q ( λ ) ρ ( λ ) .
T F ( λ ) = τ 2 ( λ ) 10 2 D F ( 460 ) K mp ( λ ) ,
F dir ( λ ) = F inc ( λ ) T F ( λ ) R phot ( λ ) ,
T F ( λ ) = π log e 10 1 F inc ( λ ) Q ( λ ) ρ ( λ ) 1 R phot ( λ ) .
T F ( λ 2 ) T F ( λ 1 ) = F inc ( λ 1 ) F inc ( λ 2 ) ρ ( λ 1 ) Q ( λ 1 ) Q ( λ 2 ) ρ ( λ 2 ) .
2 [ K mp ( λ 1 ) K mp ( λ 2 ) ] D F ( 460 ) = log ρ ( λ 1 ) Q ( λ 2 ) Q ( λ 1 ) ρ ( λ 2 ) + log F inc ( λ 1 ) τ ( λ 1 ) F inc ( λ 2 ) τ ( λ 2 ) .
S P ( x , y , λ ) = C P ( λ ) + S rnfl ( x , y , λ ) + S spec ( x , y , λ ) ,
F spec = S spec ( x , y , λ ) d x d y .
F spec * ( λ ) = F inc ( λ ) T P ( λ ) R spec ( λ ) ,
T P ( λ ) = τ 2 ( λ ) 10 2 D P ( 460 ) K mp ( λ ) ,
T P ( λ 2 ) T P ( λ 1 ) = F inc ( λ 1 ) F inc ( λ 2 ) F spec * ( λ 2 ) F spec * ( λ 1 ) .
2 [ K mp ( λ 1 ) K mp ( λ 2 ) ] D P ( 460 ) = log F spec * ( λ 2 ) F spec * ( λ 1 ) + log F inc ( λ 1 ) τ ( λ 1 ) F inc ( λ 2 ) τ ( λ 2 ) .
D dir = 0.5 K mp ( λ 1 ) K mp ( λ 2 ) [ log Q ( λ 2 ) Q ( λ 1 ) ρ ( λ 1 ) ρ ( λ 2 ) log F spec * ( λ 2 ) F spec * ( λ 1 ) ] .
D nd = 0.5 K mp ( λ 1 ) K mp ( λ 2 ) [ log C F ( λ 2 ) C F ( λ 1 ) log C P ( λ 2 ) C P ( λ 1 ) ] .
D nd * ( 460 ) = D mp ( 460 ) + k log [ 1 R a ( 470 ) R F ( 470 ) ] ,
R a ( 470 ) R F ( 470 ) = 1 10 ( 1 k ) [ D mp ( 460 ) D nd * ( 460 ) ] .
D nd = D dir + k log [ 1 R a ( 470 ) R a ( 470 ) + 10 [ ( D dir k ) log ζ ] ] ,
ρ ( λ ) = α + β ( 532 λ ) 2 .
α = ( 1 0.281 ) [ 1.281 ρ ( 532 ) ρ ( 470 ) ] ,
β = ( 1 0.281 ) [ ρ ( 470 ) ρ ( 532 ) ] .

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