Abstract

Color rendering indices are used to access the quality of lighting but, in addition to other well-known limitations, are not defined for color deficient observers. We evaluated the quality of lighting for normal and color deficient observers in the context of art paintings by estimating the number of colors they perceive when looking at the paintings. Hyperspectral data from 11 oil paintings were analyzed to compute the number of discernible colors when the paintings were assumed rendered under 55 CIE illuminants. Models of color perception for normal and color deficient observers were applied in the estimates. It was found that the number of discernible colors for normal and color deficient observers had low correlation with traditional color rendering indices and that some three-band illuminants, like HP4, were found to be good for most cases, except for tritanopes. These results suggest that it may be possible to obtain good lighting conditions for normal and color deficient observers with an appropriate choice of the light source.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (4)

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Correlated color temperature preferred by observers for illumination of artistic paintings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 623-630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 192-202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. Nascimento, “The number of discernible colors in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2918-2924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “The number of discernible colors perceived by dichromats in natural scenes and the effects of colored lenses,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 493-499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, J. A. Carvalhal, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Psychophysical estimation of the best illumination for appreciation of Renaissance paintings,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 669-674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, S. M. C. Nascimento, and M. J. Foster, “Frequency of metamerism in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2359-2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Aldaba, J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, S. M. C. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Visual sensitivity to color errors in images of natural scenes,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 555-559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, M. Scuello, and S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: adjusting the illuminant,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, U306-U306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. S. Berns, “The science of digitizing paintings for color-accurate image archives: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 45, 305-325 (2001).

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 691-700 (2000).

1999 (1)

C. van Trigt, “Color rendering, a reassessment,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 197-206 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. R. Pointer and G. G. Attridge, “The number of discernible colours,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 52-54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1993 (1)

H. Xu, “Color-rendering capacity of light,” Color Res. Appl. 18, 267-269 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

R. G. Davis and D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27-38 (1990).

1986 (1)

M. R. Pointer, “Measuring colour rendering--a new approach,” Light. Res. Technol. 18, 175-184 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. Schanda, “A combined colour preference-colour rendering index,” Light. Res. Technol. 17, 31-34 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. J. Vos, “Colorimetric and photometric properties of a 2° fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 125-128 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, “Red-green blindness confined to one eye,” Vision Res. 16, 691-702 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the colour-preference index,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 17, 48-52 (1974).

1972 (2)

W. A. Thornton, “Color-discrimination index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 191-194 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments,” Vision Res. 12, 2059-2071 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” Illuminating Engineering 62, 593-598 (1967).

1948 (1)

D. B. Judd, “Color perceptions of deuteranopic and protanopic observers,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 41, 247-271 (1948).

Abramov, I.

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, and S. Weintra, “Museum lighting: Optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 121-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: Why are some illuminants preferred?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 306-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, M. Scuello, and S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: adjusting the illuminant,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, U306-U306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aldaba, M. A.

M. A. Aldaba, J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, S. M. C. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Visual sensitivity to color errors in images of natural scenes,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 555-559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amano, K.

M. A. Aldaba, J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, S. M. C. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Visual sensitivity to color errors in images of natural scenes,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 555-559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, S. M. C. Nascimento, and M. J. Foster, “Frequency of metamerism in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2359-2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Attridge, G. G.

M. R. Pointer and G. G. Attridge, “The number of discernible colours,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 52-54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, “The science of digitizing paintings for color-accurate image archives: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 45, 305-325 (2001).

Birch, J.

J. Birch, J. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Brettel, H.

Capilla, P.

Carvalhal, J. A.

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, J. A. Carvalhal, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Psychophysical estimation of the best illumination for appreciation of Renaissance paintings,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 669-674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carvalhal, M. J. A. T.

M. J. A. T. Carvalhal, “Digitalização de pintura artística com imagiografia hiperespectral,” M.Sc. Thesis (University of Minho, Braga, 2004).

Chisholm, J. A.

J. Birch, J. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Chorro, E.

Cui, G.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dartnall, H. J. A.

A. Knowles and H. J. A. Dartnall, “The characterization of visual pigments by absorption spectroscopy,” in The Photobiology of Vision, 2nd ed., H.Davson, ed. (Academic,1997).

Davis, R. G.

R. G. Davis and D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27-38 (1990).

de Fez, D.

DeMarco, P.

Diez-Ajenjo, M. A.

Fairchild, M. D.

M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2005), p. 385.

Foster, D. H.

M. A. Aldaba, J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, S. M. C. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Visual sensitivity to color errors in images of natural scenes,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 555-559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, S. M. C. Nascimento, and M. J. Foster, “Frequency of metamerism in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2359-2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. J.

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 192-202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilabert, E.

Ginthner, D. N.

R. G. Davis and D. N. Ginthner, “Correlated color temperature, illuminance level, and the Kruithof curve,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 19, 27-38 (1990).

Gordon, J.

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, and S. Weintra, “Museum lighting: Optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 121-127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: Why are some illuminants preferred?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 306-311 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, M. Scuello, and S. Weintraub, “Museum lighting: adjusting the illuminant,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, U306-U306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jagle, H.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision, K.R.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 3-51.

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” Illuminating Engineering 62, 593-598 (1967).

D. B. Judd, “Color perceptions of deuteranopic and protanopic observers,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 41, 247-271 (1948).

Kinnear, P.

J. Birch, J. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Knowles, A.

A. Knowles and H. J. A. Dartnall, “The characterization of visual pigments by absorption spectroscopy,” in The Photobiology of Vision, 2nd ed., H.Davson, ed. (Academic,1997).

Krastel, H.

H. Krastel and J. D. Moreland, “Colour vision deficiencies in ophthalmic diseases,” in Inherited and Acquired Colour Vision Deficiencies: Fundamental Aspects and Clinical Studies, D.H.Foster, ed. (Macmillan, 1991), pp. 115-172.

Lennie, P.

D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, “Red-green blindness confined to one eye,” Vision Res. 16, 691-702 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linhares, J. M.

Linhares, J. M. M.

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Correlated color temperature preferred by observers for illumination of artistic paintings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 623-630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “The number of discernible colors perceived by dichromats in natural scenes and the effects of colored lenses,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 493-499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Aldaba, J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, S. M. C. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Visual sensitivity to color errors in images of natural scenes,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 555-559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, J. A. Carvalhal, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Psychophysical estimation of the best illumination for appreciation of Renaissance paintings,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 669-674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luque, M. J.

MacLeod, D. I. A.

D. I. A. MacLeod and P. Lennie, “Red-green blindness confined to one eye,” Vision Res. 16, 691-702 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malo, J.

Marre, M.

J. Birch, J. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Martinez-Verdu, F.

Mollon, J. D.

Moreland, J. D.

H. Krastel and J. D. Moreland, “Colour vision deficiencies in ophthalmic diseases,” in Inherited and Acquired Colour Vision Deficiencies: Fundamental Aspects and Clinical Studies, D.H.Foster, ed. (Macmillan, 1991), pp. 115-172.

Nascimento, S. M.

Nascimento, S. M. C.

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Correlated color temperature preferred by observers for illumination of artistic paintings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 623-630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “The number of discernible colors perceived by dichromats in natural scenes and the effects of colored lenses,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 493-499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Aldaba, J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, S. M. C. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Visual sensitivity to color errors in images of natural scenes,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 555-559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, J. A. Carvalhal, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Psychophysical estimation of the best illumination for appreciation of Renaissance paintings,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 669-674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, S. M. C. Nascimento, and M. J. Foster, “Frequency of metamerism in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2359-2372 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nathans, J.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Jagle, and J. Nathans, “Opsin genes, cone photopigments, color vision, and color blindness,” in Color Vision, K.R.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 3-51.

Neitz, J.

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 691-700 (2000).

Neitz, M.

M. Neitz and J. Neitz, “Molecular genetics of color vision and color vision defects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 691-700 (2000).

Perales, E.

Pinckers, A. J. L. G.

J. Birch, J. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

Pinto, P. D.

J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “The number of discernible colors perceived by dichromats in natural scenes and the effects of colored lenses,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 493-499 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Correlated color temperature preferred by observers for illumination of artistic paintings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 623-630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, and S. M. Nascimento, “The number of discernible colors in natural scenes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2918-2924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Aldaba, J. M. M. Linhares, P. D. Pinto, S. M. C. Nascimento, K. Amano, and D. H. Foster, “Visual sensitivity to color errors in images of natural scenes,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 555-559 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Pinto, J. M. M. Linhares, J. A. Carvalhal, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Psychophysical estimation of the best illumination for appreciation of Renaissance paintings,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 669-674 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pointer, M. R.

M. R. Pointer and G. G. Attridge, “The number of discernible colours,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 52-54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Pointer, “Measuring colour rendering--a new approach,” Light. Res. Technol. 18, 175-184 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

P. DeMarco, J. Pokorny, and V. C. Smith, “Full-spectrum cone sensitivity functions for X-chromosome-linked anomalous trichromats,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1465-1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of color-blind observers and the cone photopigments,” Vision Res. 12, 2059-2071 (1972).
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J. Birch, J. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

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J. Birch, J. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

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M. Scuello, I. Abramov, J. Gordon, S. Weintraub, and S. Weintra, “Museum lighting: Optimizing the illuminant,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 121-127 (2004).
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J. Birch, J. A. Chisholm, P. Kinnear, M. Marre, A. J. L. G. Pinckers, J. Pokorny, V. C. Smith, and G. Verriest, “Acquired color vision defects,” in Congenital and Acquired Color Vision Defects, J.Pokorny, V.C.Smith, G.Verriest, and A.J. L. G.Pinckers, eds. (Grune & Stratton, 1979).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thumbnail of the 11 oil paintings analyzed in this work (adapted from [4]).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Color gamut of each painting represented in CIE ( a * , b * ) and CIE ( C * a b , L * ) when assumed rendered under the CIE illuminant A. (a)–(k) represent the gamuts in the CIE ( a * , b * ) of the paintings as labeled in Fig. 1; (m)–(w) represent the corresponding information in CIE ( C * a b , L * ) ; (l) and (x) represent the data for all the paintings in CIE ( a * , b * ) and CIE ( C * a b , L * ) , respectively. The representation of the eight colored samples used to compute the CRI and assumed rendered under CIE standard illuminant A are shown by crosses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized spectral power of some of the CIE illuminants used in this work. CIE standard illuminant A was used as comparison illuminant in all computations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chromaticity coordinates of the 55 CIE illuminants used in this work represented in the CIE 1931 ( x , y ) chromaticity diagram. Arrows indicate some of the best and worst illuminants estimated for normal and color deficient observers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative variations on the number of discernible colors for each illuminant for (a) a normal, (b) a tritanopic, (c) a deuteranopic, (d) a protanopic, (e) a deuteranomalous, and (f) a protanomalous observer (open symbols). Estimates were computed assuming CIE standard illuminant A as the reference illuminant. Each data point denotes the average across paintings, and error bars represent standard deviation. Arrows indicate, in each case, the points corresponding to the illuminant producing the maximum and minimum variations in the number of discernible colors. Also represented (gray solid symbols) is the ratio of the general color rendering index R a between each of the illuminants tested and the corresponding index for illuminant A ( R A a ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Color gamut of painting K (see Fig. 1) rendered under the best (light gray symbols) and worst (dark gray symbols) illuminants for normals, dichromats, and anomalous trichromats.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ratio between the color rendering index R a for each of the illuminants and the corresponding value for illuminant A R A a as a function of the relative variations on the number of discernible colors for (a) a normal, (b) a tritanopic, (c) a deuteranopic, (d) a protanopic, (e) a deuteranomalous, and (f) a protanomalous observer. The straight line represents an unweighted linear regression, and the proportion of variance R 2 accounted for in the regression is given.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Open symbols represent the average CIE ( a * , b * ) color coordinates for the paintings of Fig. 1 rendered by each 21 CIE illuminant D (in the range 25,000 K to 3,600 K ), illuminant A, C, 27 FL illuminants and 5 HP illuminants, for (a) a normal, (b) a tritanopic, (c) a deuteranopic, (d) a protanopic, (e) a deuteranomalous, and (f) a protanomalous observer. Solid gray symbols represent the average CIE ( a * , b * ) color coordinates for normal observers. Data corresponding to the reference illuminant (illuminant A), the best illuminant, and the worst illuminant are represented.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 9 but with data represented in CIE ( C * a b , L * ) .

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