Abstract

The color of a material, such as solution of a dye, can change by changing parameters like pH, temperature, illumination direction, and illumination type. Dichromatism—a color change due to the difference in thickness of the material—has long been known as a property of only a few materials. Here we show that dichromatism is a common property of many substances and materials, and we introduce a method for its quantification. We defined dichromaticity index (DI) as the difference in hue angle (Δhab) between the color of the sample at the dilution, where the chroma is maximal, and the color of four times more diluted (or thinner) and four times more concentrated (or thicker) sample. The two hue angle differences are called dichromaticity index toward lighter (DIL) and dichromaticity index toward darker (DID), respectively. High dichromaticity was found for materials that were previously known as dichromatic (pumpkin oil, bromophenol).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nature Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Kreft and M. Kreft, “Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour,” Naturwiss. 94, 935-939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, Y. Lee, B. Lim, S. Rhee, and H. Yang, “Metameric effect between dental porcelain and porcelain repairing resin composite,” Dent. Mater. 23, 374-379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. P. Oulton and T. Young, “Colour specification at the design to production interface,” Int. J. Clothing Sci. Technol 16, 274-284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. G. Kuehni, “Ciede2000, milestone or final answer?” Color Res. Appl. 27, 126-127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Melgosa, M. J. Rivas, E. Hita, and F. Vienot, “Are we able to distinguish color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 25, 356-367 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Wagner, S. Haslbeck, L. Stievano, S. Calogero, Q. A. Pankhurst, and K.-P. Martinek, “Before striking gold in gold-ruby glass,” Nature 407, 691-692 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. G. Kuehni, “Towards an improved uniform color space,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 253-265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Petzold and L. T. Sharpe, “Hue memory and discrimination in young children,” Vision Res. 38, 3759-3772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

Y. Liu, J. Shigley, E. Fritsch, and S. Hemphill, “The alexandrite effect in gemstones,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 186-191 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. Dunwoody, “Methodological consideration in color research,” Percept. Mot. Skills 72, 1125-1126 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. J. Barber and I. C. Freestone, “An investigation of the origin of the color of the lycurgus cup by analytical transmission electron-microscopy,” Archaeometry 32, 33-45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. R. Seghi, E. R. Hewlett, and J. Kim, “Visual and instrumental colorimetric assessments of small color differences on translucent dental porcelain,” J. Dent. Res. 68, 1760-1764 (1989) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

S. P. Richer, A. C. Little, and A. J. Adams, “Effect of ophthalmic filter thickness on predicted monocular dichromatic luminance and chromaticity discrimination,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61, 666-673 (1984).
[PubMed]

1980 (1)

K. Schmetzer, H. Bank, and E. Gubelin, “The alexandrite effect in minerals: chrysoberyl, garnet, corundum, fluorite,” Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Abh. 138, 147-164 (1980).

1975 (1)

W. Fink, M. A. Res, J. Bednarik, and W. Schneider, “Visual dichroism in glasses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8, 1560-1566 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

I. G. Kennard and D. H. Howell, “Types of coloring in minerals,” Am. Mineral. 26, 405-421 (1941).

Adams, A. J.

S. P. Richer, A. C. Little, and A. J. Adams, “Effect of ophthalmic filter thickness on predicted monocular dichromatic luminance and chromaticity discrimination,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61, 666-673 (1984).
[PubMed]

Bank, H.

K. Schmetzer, H. Bank, and E. Gubelin, “The alexandrite effect in minerals: chrysoberyl, garnet, corundum, fluorite,” Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Abh. 138, 147-164 (1980).

Barber, D. J.

D. J. Barber and I. C. Freestone, “An investigation of the origin of the color of the lycurgus cup by analytical transmission electron-microscopy,” Archaeometry 32, 33-45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bednarik, J.

W. Fink, M. A. Res, J. Bednarik, and W. Schneider, “Visual dichroism in glasses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8, 1560-1566 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, R. M.

Calogero, S.

F. E. Wagner, S. Haslbeck, L. Stievano, S. Calogero, Q. A. Pankhurst, and K.-P. Martinek, “Before striking gold in gold-ruby glass,” Nature 407, 691-692 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capilla, P.

M. J. Luque and P. Capilla, “Adaptación cromática y apariencia del color,” in Fundamentos de Colorimetría, P.Capilla, J.M.Artigas, and J.Pujol, eds. (Universidad de Valencia, 2002), pp. 55-70.

Cui, G.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dunwoody, L.

L. Dunwoody, “Methodological consideration in color research,” Percept. Mot. Skills 72, 1125-1126 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, W.

W. Fink, M. A. Res, J. Bednarik, and W. Schneider, “Visual dichroism in glasses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8, 1560-1566 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Freestone, I. C.

D. J. Barber and I. C. Freestone, “An investigation of the origin of the color of the lycurgus cup by analytical transmission electron-microscopy,” Archaeometry 32, 33-45 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fritsch, E.

Y. Liu, J. Shigley, E. Fritsch, and S. Hemphill, “The alexandrite effect in gemstones,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 186-191 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, K.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gubelin, E.

K. Schmetzer, H. Bank, and E. Gubelin, “The alexandrite effect in minerals: chrysoberyl, garnet, corundum, fluorite,” Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Abh. 138, 147-164 (1980).

Ha, N. Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nature Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haslbeck, S.

F. E. Wagner, S. Haslbeck, L. Stievano, S. Calogero, Q. A. Pankhurst, and K.-P. Martinek, “Before striking gold in gold-ruby glass,” Nature 407, 691-692 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemphill, S.

Y. Liu, J. Shigley, E. Fritsch, and S. Hemphill, “The alexandrite effect in gemstones,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 186-191 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hewlett, E. R.

R. R. Seghi, E. R. Hewlett, and J. Kim, “Visual and instrumental colorimetric assessments of small color differences on translucent dental porcelain,” J. Dent. Res. 68, 1760-1764 (1989) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hita, E.

M. Melgosa, M. J. Rivas, E. Hita, and F. Vienot, “Are we able to distinguish color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 25, 356-367 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Howell, D. H.

I. G. Kennard and D. H. Howell, “Types of coloring in minerals,” Am. Mineral. 26, 405-421 (1941).

Ishikawa, K.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nature Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nature Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kennard, I. G.

I. G. Kennard and D. H. Howell, “Types of coloring in minerals,” Am. Mineral. 26, 405-421 (1941).

Kim, J.

R. R. Seghi, E. R. Hewlett, and J. Kim, “Visual and instrumental colorimetric assessments of small color differences on translucent dental porcelain,” J. Dent. Res. 68, 1760-1764 (1989) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, Y. Lee, B. Lim, S. Rhee, and H. Yang, “Metameric effect between dental porcelain and porcelain repairing resin composite,” Dent. Mater. 23, 374-379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kishida, H.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, H.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kreft, M.

S. Kreft and M. Kreft, “Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour,” Naturwiss. 94, 935-939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreft, S.

S. Kreft and M. Kreft, “Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour,” Naturwiss. 94, 935-939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, “Ciede2000, milestone or final answer?” Color Res. Appl. 27, 126-127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “Towards an improved uniform color space,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 253-265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

S. Kim, Y. Lee, B. Lim, S. Rhee, and H. Yang, “Metameric effect between dental porcelain and porcelain repairing resin composite,” Dent. Mater. 23, 374-379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, B.

S. Kim, Y. Lee, B. Lim, S. Rhee, and H. Yang, “Metameric effect between dental porcelain and porcelain repairing resin composite,” Dent. Mater. 23, 374-379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Little, A. C.

S. P. Richer, A. C. Little, and A. J. Adams, “Effect of ophthalmic filter thickness on predicted monocular dichromatic luminance and chromaticity discrimination,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61, 666-673 (1984).
[PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, J. Shigley, E. Fritsch, and S. Hemphill, “The alexandrite effect in gemstones,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 186-191 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luque, M. J.

M. J. Luque and P. Capilla, “Adaptación cromática y apariencia del color,” in Fundamentos de Colorimetría, P.Capilla, J.M.Artigas, and J.Pujol, eds. (Universidad de Valencia, 2002), pp. 55-70.

Martinek, K.-P.

F. E. Wagner, S. Haslbeck, L. Stievano, S. Calogero, Q. A. Pankhurst, and K.-P. Martinek, “Before striking gold in gold-ruby glass,” Nature 407, 691-692 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melgosa, M.

M. Melgosa, M. J. Rivas, E. Hita, and F. Vienot, “Are we able to distinguish color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 25, 356-367 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morita, Y.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Naito, A.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakasuji, K.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, S.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nature Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, Y.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nature Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, D. P.

D. P. Oulton and T. Young, “Colour specification at the design to production interface,” Int. J. Clothing Sci. Technol 16, 274-284 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pankhurst, Q. A.

F. E. Wagner, S. Haslbeck, L. Stievano, S. Calogero, Q. A. Pankhurst, and K.-P. Martinek, “Before striking gold in gold-ruby glass,” Nature 407, 691-692 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petzold, A.

A. Petzold and L. T. Sharpe, “Hue memory and discrimination in young children,” Vision Res. 38, 3759-3772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Res, M. A.

W. Fink, M. A. Res, J. Bednarik, and W. Schneider, “Visual dichroism in glasses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8, 1560-1566 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, S.

S. Kim, Y. Lee, B. Lim, S. Rhee, and H. Yang, “Metameric effect between dental porcelain and porcelain repairing resin composite,” Dent. Mater. 23, 374-379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richer, S. P.

S. P. Richer, A. C. Little, and A. J. Adams, “Effect of ophthalmic filter thickness on predicted monocular dichromatic luminance and chromaticity discrimination,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61, 666-673 (1984).
[PubMed]

Rigg, B.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, M. J.

M. Melgosa, M. J. Rivas, E. Hita, and F. Vienot, “Are we able to distinguish color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 25, 356-367 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmetzer, K.

K. Schmetzer, H. Bank, and E. Gubelin, “The alexandrite effect in minerals: chrysoberyl, garnet, corundum, fluorite,” Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Abh. 138, 147-164 (1980).

Schneider, W.

W. Fink, M. A. Res, J. Bednarik, and W. Schneider, “Visual dichroism in glasses,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8, 1560-1566 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Seghi, R. R.

R. R. Seghi, E. R. Hewlett, and J. Kim, “Visual and instrumental colorimetric assessments of small color differences on translucent dental porcelain,” J. Dent. Res. 68, 1760-1764 (1989) .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekine, A.

Y. Morita, S. Suzuki, K. Fukui, S. Nakazawa, H. Kitagawa, H. Kishida, H. Okamoto, A. Naito, A. Sekine, Y. Ohashi, M. Shiro, K. Sasaki, D. Shiomi, K. Sato, T. Takui, and K. Nakasuji, “Thermochromism in an organic crystal based on the coexistence of sigma- and pi-dimers,” Nature Mater. 7, 48-51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, L. T.

A. Petzold and L. T. Sharpe, “Hue memory and discrimination in young children,” Vision Res. 38, 3759-3772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shigley, J.

Y. Liu, J. Shigley, E. Fritsch, and S. Hemphill, “The alexandrite effect in gemstones,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 186-191 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shiomi, D.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flowchart of the Dichromaticity Index Calculator software algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Graphical output of the Dichromaticity Index Calculator computer algorithm for a typical dichromatic substance, pumpkin seed oil. Top left: absorption spectrum of pumpkin oil. Top right: CIE diagram of the x and y chromaticity coordinates. The inside curve marks the varying thickness of the layer or the dilution of the pumpkin seed oil. The central dot at the line origin represents white color. Color category regions with hue centers are marked by large empty circles (clockwise from lower-left: blue, green, yellow, orange, red). In the top-right, bottom-left, and bottom-right panels, the color positions of every twofold thickness of the layer are marked by small empty circles. Green squares mark the dilution/thickness with the maximum chroma, and plus signs mark the dilution/thickness with 50% transmission. Note that the latter marks are overlaid in all panels of the figure. The bottom-left panel shows the CIELAB color space diagram of increasing thickness/concentration of the pumpkin oil. Straight lines are vectors showing hue (angle) and chroma (length) of the color at maximal chroma (toward the square mark) and the colors of the fourfold less/more diluted or thick pumpkin oil ( DI L and DI D ). Note that DI D is 44.1       deg , and DI L corresponds to 8.97   deg but is not visible on the image, since it is hidden behind the curve. The bottom-right panel shows chroma at each dilution step.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Graphical output of the Dichromaticity Index Calculator computer algorithm for a nondichromatic substance, oxygenized hemoglobin. Top left: absorption spectrum of oxygenized hemoglobin. Top right: CIE diagram of the x and y chromaticity coordinates, as in Fig. 2. Bottom left: CIE a * b * diagram of increasing thickness/concentration of oxygenized hemoglobin. Straight lines are vectors showing hue (angle) and chroma (length) of the color at maximal chroma (toward the square mark) and the colors of fourfold less/more diluted or thick oxygenized hemoglobin ( DI L and DI D ). Note that DI D is 5.63 deg and DI L corresponds to 1.17 deg . The bottom-right panel shows chroma at each dilution step.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bar chart of dichromaticity values DI L and DI D for a selection of colored solutions. Note low dichromaticity values for hemoglobin and high DI D value for pumpkin oil. Bromophenol blue has different dichromaticity values, which are dependent on pH.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dichromaticity ( DI L and DI D ) and Related Parameters of Selected Substances, Calculated from Their VIS Absorption Spectra by the Computer Algorithm Dichromaticity Index Calculator a

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