Abstract

Dipole radiation in and near planar stratified dielectric media is studied theoretically within the context of fluorescence microscopy, as fluorescent emitters are generally modeled by electric dipoles. Although the main emphasis of this study is placed on the closed-form representations of the field components of fluorescent emitters in layered environments in near- and far-field regions, the underlying motive is to understand the limits of spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy in studying the dipole orientation of fluorophores. Since accurate calculations of the field components of arbitrarily polarized electric dipoles in layered environments are computationally very time-consuming, a method for finding their closed-form representations is proposed using the closed-form potential Green's functions previously developed for microwave applications. The method is verified on typical geometries used in spectral self-interference microscopy experiments, where a dipole emitter is positioned over a slab of SiO2 on top of a Si substrate. In addition to facilitating efficient calculation of near and intermediate fields of fluorescent emitters, closed-form Green's functions for fields would also play a crucial role in developing efficient and rigorous computational analysis and design tools for optical passive devices such as optical antennas by significantly improving the computational cost of the numerical solution of the integral equation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

M. Dogan, A. Yalcin, S. Jain, M. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy for subcellular Imaging” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 217-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Davis and P. S. Carney, “Robust determination of the anisotropic polarizability of nanoparticles using coherent confocal microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2102-2113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

J. Kerssemakers, J. Howard, H. Hess, and S. Diez, “The distance that kinesin-1 holds its cargo from the microtubule surface measured by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 15812-15817 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Moiseev, M. S. Ünlü, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and C. R. Cantor, “DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 2623-2628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. I. Aksun and G. Dural, “Clarification of issues on the closed-form Green's functions in stratified media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-53, 3644-3653 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Crane, V. Kiessling, and L. K. Tamm, “Measuring lipid asymmetry in planar supported bilayers by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy,” Langmuir 21, 1377-1388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. E. Colin, “Hertzian dipole radiating over a lossy earth or sea: Some early and late 20th-century controversies,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 46, 64-79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, I. Aksun, M. Dogan, B. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, and M. S. Ünlü, “Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5311-5315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Böhmer and J. Enderlein, “Orientation imaging of single molecules by wide-field epifluorescence microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 554-559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Enderlein and M. Böhmer, “Influence of interface-dipole interactions on the efficiency of fluorescence light collection near surfaces,” Opt. Lett. 28, 941-943 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Swan, L. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, B. Davis, S. B. Ippolito, W. C. Karl, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “Towards nanometer-scale resolution in fluorescence microscopy using spectral self-interference,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 294-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. Levine, A. Kulik, and W. S. Bacsa, “Optical space and time coherence near surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 233404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

D. Braun and P. Fromherz, “Fluorescence interferometry of neuronal cell adhesion on microstructured silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5241-5244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Braun and P. Fromherz, “Fluorescence interference-contrast microscopy of cell adhesion on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 65, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Bacsa and A. Kulik, “Interference scanning optical probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3507-3509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. I. Aksun, “A robust approach for the derivation of closed-form Green's functions,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-44, 651-658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambacher and P. Fromherz, “Fluorescence interference-contrast microscopy on oxidized silicon using a monomolecular dye layer,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 63, 207-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. Dural and M. I. Aksun, “Closed-form Green's functions for general sources and stratified media,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-43, 1545-1552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. I. Aksun and R. Mittra, “Derivation of closed-form Green's functions for a general microstrip geometry,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-40, 2055-2062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. A. Michalski and D. Zheng, “Electromagnetic scattering and radiation by surfaces of arbitrary shape in layered media: I. Theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 38, 335-344 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

Y. Hua and T. K. Sarkar, “Generalized pencil-of-function method for extracting poles of an EM system from its transient response,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 229-234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1980

W. Lukosz, “Theory of optical-environment-dependent spontaneous-emission rates for emitters in thin layers,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 3030-3038 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

1978

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1-65 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

1974

K. H. Drexhage, “Interaction of light with monomolecular dye layers,” Prog. Opt. 12, 163-232 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1890

O. Wiener, “Stehende Lichtwellen und die Schwingungrichtung polarisirten Lichtes,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 40, 203-243 (1890).
[CrossRef]

Aksun, I.

L. A. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, I. Aksun, M. Dogan, B. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, and M. S. Ünlü, “Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5311-5315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aksun, M. I.

M. I. Aksun and G. Dural, “Clarification of issues on the closed-form Green's functions in stratified media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-53, 3644-3653 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Aksun, “A robust approach for the derivation of closed-form Green's functions,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-44, 651-658 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Dural and M. I. Aksun, “Closed-form Green's functions for general sources and stratified media,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-43, 1545-1552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Aksun and R. Mittra, “Derivation of closed-form Green's functions for a general microstrip geometry,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-40, 2055-2062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bacsa, W. S.

B. Levine, A. Kulik, and W. S. Bacsa, “Optical space and time coherence near surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 233404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Bacsa and A. Kulik, “Interference scanning optical probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3507-3509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Behringer, E. R.

Böhmer, M.

Braun, D.

D. Braun and P. Fromherz, “Fluorescence interferometry of neuronal cell adhesion on microstructured silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5241-5244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Braun and P. Fromherz, “Fluorescence interference-contrast microscopy of cell adhesion on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 65, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cantor, C. R.

L. Moiseev, M. S. Ünlü, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and C. R. Cantor, “DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 2623-2628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, I. Aksun, M. Dogan, B. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, and M. S. Ünlü, “Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5311-5315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Swan, L. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, B. Davis, S. B. Ippolito, W. C. Karl, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “Towards nanometer-scale resolution in fluorescence microscopy using spectral self-interference,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 294-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carney, P. S.

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1-65 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chew, W. C.

W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media, series on Electromagnetic Waves (IEEE Press, 1995).

Colin, R. E.

R. E. Colin, “Hertzian dipole radiating over a lossy earth or sea: Some early and late 20th-century controversies,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 46, 64-79 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crane, J. M.

J. M. Crane, V. Kiessling, and L. K. Tamm, “Measuring lipid asymmetry in planar supported bilayers by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy,” Langmuir 21, 1377-1388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, B.

Diez, S.

J. Kerssemakers, J. Howard, H. Hess, and S. Diez, “The distance that kinesin-1 holds its cargo from the microtubule surface measured by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 15812-15817 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dogan, M.

M. Dogan, A. Yalcin, S. Jain, M. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy for subcellular Imaging” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 217-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Vamivakas, S. B. Ippolito, A. K. Swan, M. S. Ünlü, M. Dogan, E. R. Behringer, and B. B. Goldberg, “Phase-sensitive detection of dipole radiation in a fiber-based high numerical aperture optical system,” Opt. Lett. 32, 970-972 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, I. Aksun, M. Dogan, B. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, and M. S. Ünlü, “Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5311-5315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drexhage, K. H.

K. H. Drexhage, “Interaction of light with monomolecular dye layers,” Prog. Opt. 12, 163-232 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Dural, G.

M. I. Aksun and G. Dural, “Clarification of issues on the closed-form Green's functions in stratified media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-53, 3644-3653 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Dural and M. I. Aksun, “Closed-form Green's functions for general sources and stratified media,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-43, 1545-1552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Enderlein, J.

Felsen, N.

N. Felsen and L. B. Marcuvitz, Radiation and Scattering of Waves (Wiley, 1994).

Fromherz, P.

D. Braun and P. Fromherz, “Fluorescence interferometry of neuronal cell adhesion on microstructured silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5241-5244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Braun and P. Fromherz, “Fluorescence interference-contrast microscopy of cell adhesion on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 65, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambacher and P. Fromherz, “Fluorescence interference-contrast microscopy on oxidized silicon using a monomolecular dye layer,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 63, 207-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gardiol, F. E.

J. R. Mosig and F. E. Gardiol, “A dynamical radiation model for microstrip structures,” in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, P.W.Hawkes, ed. (Academic, 1982), pp. 139-237.

Goldberg, B. B.

M. Dogan, A. Yalcin, S. Jain, M. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy for subcellular Imaging” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 217-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Vamivakas, S. B. Ippolito, A. K. Swan, M. S. Ünlü, M. Dogan, E. R. Behringer, and B. B. Goldberg, “Phase-sensitive detection of dipole radiation in a fiber-based high numerical aperture optical system,” Opt. Lett. 32, 970-972 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Davis, A. K. Swan, M. S. Ünlü, W. C. Karl, B. B. Goldberg, J. C. Schotland, and P. S. Carney, “Spectral self-interference microscopy for low signal nanoscale imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3587-3599 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Moiseev, M. S. Ünlü, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and C. R. Cantor, “DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 2623-2628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, I. Aksun, M. Dogan, B. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, and M. S. Ünlü, “Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5311-5315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Swan, L. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, B. Davis, S. B. Ippolito, W. C. Karl, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “Towards nanometer-scale resolution in fluorescence microscopy using spectral self-interference,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 294-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, M. B.

M. Dogan, A. Yalcin, S. Jain, M. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy for subcellular Imaging” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 217-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, “Orientational imaging of single molecules by annular illumination,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482-4485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hess, H.

J. Kerssemakers, J. Howard, H. Hess, and S. Diez, “The distance that kinesin-1 holds its cargo from the microtubule surface measured by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 15812-15817 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Howard, J.

J. Kerssemakers, J. Howard, H. Hess, and S. Diez, “The distance that kinesin-1 holds its cargo from the microtubule surface measured by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 15812-15817 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hua, Y.

Y. Hua and T. K. Sarkar, “Generalized pencil-of-function method for extracting poles of an EM system from its transient response,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 37, 229-234 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ippolito, S. B.

A. N. Vamivakas, S. B. Ippolito, A. K. Swan, M. S. Ünlü, M. Dogan, E. R. Behringer, and B. B. Goldberg, “Phase-sensitive detection of dipole radiation in a fiber-based high numerical aperture optical system,” Opt. Lett. 32, 970-972 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Swan, L. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, B. Davis, S. B. Ippolito, W. C. Karl, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “Towards nanometer-scale resolution in fluorescence microscopy using spectral self-interference,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 294-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jain, S.

M. Dogan, A. Yalcin, S. Jain, M. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, M. S. Ünlü, and B. B. Goldberg, “Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy for subcellular Imaging” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 217-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karl, W. C.

B. Davis, A. K. Swan, M. S. Ünlü, W. C. Karl, B. B. Goldberg, J. C. Schotland, and P. S. Carney, “Spectral self-interference microscopy for low signal nanoscale imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3587-3599 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Swan, L. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, B. Davis, S. B. Ippolito, W. C. Karl, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “Towards nanometer-scale resolution in fluorescence microscopy using spectral self-interference,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 294-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kerssemakers, J.

J. Kerssemakers, J. Howard, H. Hess, and S. Diez, “The distance that kinesin-1 holds its cargo from the microtubule surface measured by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 15812-15817 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiessling, V.

J. M. Crane, V. Kiessling, and L. K. Tamm, “Measuring lipid asymmetry in planar supported bilayers by fluorescence interference contrast microscopy,” Langmuir 21, 1377-1388 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kulik, A.

B. Levine, A. Kulik, and W. S. Bacsa, “Optical space and time coherence near surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 233404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Bacsa and A. Kulik, “Interference scanning optical probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3507-3509 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. E.

Lambacher, A.

A. Lambacher and P. Fromherz, “Fluorescence interference-contrast microscopy on oxidized silicon using a monomolecular dye layer,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 63, 207-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levine, B.

B. Levine, A. Kulik, and W. S. Bacsa, “Optical space and time coherence near surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 233404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

Marcuvitz, L. B.

N. Felsen and L. B. Marcuvitz, Radiation and Scattering of Waves (Wiley, 1994).

Michalski, K. A.

K. A. Michalski and D. Zheng, “Electromagnetic scattering and radiation by surfaces of arbitrary shape in layered media: I. Theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 38, 335-344 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mittra, R.

M. I. Aksun and R. Mittra, “Derivation of closed-form Green's functions for a general microstrip geometry,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-40, 2055-2062 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moiseev, L.

L. Moiseev, M. S. Ünlü, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and C. R. Cantor, “DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 2623-2628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Swan, L. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, B. Davis, S. B. Ippolito, W. C. Karl, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Ünlü, “Towards nanometer-scale resolution in fluorescence microscopy using spectral self-interference,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 294-300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moiseev, L. A.

L. A. Moiseev, C. R. Cantor, I. Aksun, M. Dogan, B. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, and M. S. Ünlü, “Spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5311-5315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mosig, J. R.

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