Abstract

The evolution of color categorization is investigated using computer simulations of agent population categorization games. Various realistic observer types are implemented based on Farnsworth–Munsell 100 Hue Test human performance data from normal and anomalous trichromats, dichromats, and humans with four retinal photopigments. Results show that (i) a small percentage of realistically modeled deficient agents greatly affects the shared categorization solutions of the entire population in terms of color category boundary locations; (ii) for realistically modeled populations, dichromats have the strongest influence on the color categorization; their characteristic forms of color confusion affect (i.e., attract or repel) color boundary locations and accord with our findings for homogeneous dichromat populations [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 1414–1423 (2009) ]; (iii) adding anomalous trichromats or trichromat “experts” does not destabilize the solutions or substantially alter solution structure. The results provide insights regarding the mechanisms that may constrain universal tendencies in human color categorization systems.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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