Abstract

The different hemifields in the retina are known to vary in photoreceptor density as well as in the number of photoreceptors converging onto one ganglion cell. The effect of these differences among the retinal hemifields at 10° retinal eccentricity was investigated using a color-naming procedure to derive perceptive field sizes for the hue terms of blue, green, yellow, and red. Color-naming data were obtained under two conditions: (1) after a bleach condition, chosen to minimize rod contribution, and (2) after 30min dark adaptation, chosen to maximize rod contribution. Perceptive field sizes measured in the bleach condition were consistent with degree of neural convergence of cones to ganglion cells across the retina rather than differences in cone density. Rod densities relative to cone densities correlated with the size of perceptive fields in the no-bleach condition, i.e., the greater the rod:cone ratio, the larger the perceptive field.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  44. D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Dark adapted rod suppression of cone flicker detection: Evaluation of receptoral and postreceptoral mechanisms,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 531-537 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 399-404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Dark adapted rod suppression of cone flicker detection: Evaluation of receptoral and postreceptoral mechanisms,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 531-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Parry, D. J. McKeefry, and I. J. Murray, “Variant and invariant color perception in the near peripheral retina,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1586-1597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

M. A. Pitts, L. J. Troup, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Chromatic perceptive field sizes change with retinal illuminance,” J. Vision 5, 435-443 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Troup, M. A. Pitts, V. J. Volbrecht, and J. L. Nerger, “Effect of stimulus intensity on the sizes of chromatic perceptive fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2137-2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Hornstein, P. Verweij, P. H. Li, and J. Schnapf, “Gap-junctional coupling and absolute sensitivity of photoreceptors in the macaque retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 11201-11209 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vision Res. 42, 1651-1662 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Rod influences on hue perception: Effect of background light level,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S60-S64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Bloomfield and R. F. Dacheux, “Rod vision: Pathways and processing in the mammalian retina,” Prog. Retina Eye Res. 20, 351-384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

L. T. Sharpe and A. Stockman, “Rod pathways: the importance of seeing nothing,” TINS 22, 497-504 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813-2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Stabell and U. Stabell, “Peripheral colour vision: Effects of rod intrusion at different eccentricities,” Vision Res. 36, 3407-3414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Describing color appearance: Hue and saturation scaling,” Percept. Psychophys. 56, 27-41 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Abramov, J. Gordon, and H. Chan, “Color appearance in the peripheral retina: Effects of stimulus size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 404-414 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

N. W. Daw, R. J. Jensen, and W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in mammalian retinae,” TINS 13, 110-115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5-25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534-4537 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vision Res. 27, 191-200 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. A. Johnson, “Color vision in the peripheral retina,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63, 97-103 (1986).
[PubMed]

1983 (2)

J. M. Valeton and D. Van Norren, “Light adaptation of primate cones: an analysis based on extracellular data,” Vision Res. 23, 1539-1547 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864-878 (1983).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

A. Ransom-Hogg and L. Spillmann, “Perceptive field size in fovea and periphery of the light- and dark-adapted retina,” Vision Res. 20, 221-228 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (2)

J. Gordon and I. Abramov, “Color vision in the peripheral retina. II. Hue and saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 202-207 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enroth-Cugell, B. G. Hertz, and P. Lennie, “Convergence of rod and cone signals in the cat's retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 269, 297-318 (1977).

1972 (1)

W. A. H. Rushton and D. S. Powell, “The rhodopsin content and the visual threshold of human rods,” Vision Res. 12, 1073-1081 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (2)

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447-471 (1971).

F. Dannheim and S. M. Drance, “Studies of spatial summation of central retinal areas in normal people of all ages,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 311-319 (1971).
[PubMed]

1970 (1)

M. E. Wilson, “Invariant features of spatial summation with changing locus in the visual field,” J. Physiol. (London) 207, 611-622 (1970).

1967 (1)

D. J. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vision Res. 7, 805-809 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (2)

G. Westheimer, “The Maxwellian view,” Vision Res. 6, 669-682 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gouras and K. Link, “Rod and cone interactions in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 184, 499-510 (1966).

1965 (2)

V. D. Glezer, “The receptive fields of the retina,” Vision Res. 5, 497-525 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Westheimer, “Spatial interaction in the human retina during scotopic vision,” J. Physiol. (London) 181, 881-894 (1965).

1957 (1)

H. B. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, and S. W. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat's retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 137, 338-354 (1957).

Abramov, I.

Allen, K. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5-25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, “Rhodopsin kinetics in the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 217, 447-471 (1971).

Angel, C. L.

C. L. Angel, “The effect of rods on perceptive field size at 10° eccentricity in the four retinal quadrants,” doctoral dissertation (Colorado State University, 2002).

Ayde, C. J.

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, and S. W. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat's retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 137, 338-354 (1957).

Bloomfield, S. A.

S. A. Bloomfield and R. F. Dacheux, “Rod vision: Pathways and processing in the mammalian retina,” Prog. Retina Eye Res. 20, 351-384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. R.

B. J. Winer, D. R. Brown, and K. M. Michels, Statistical Principles in Experimental Design (McGraw-Hill, 1991).

Brunken, W. J.

N. W. Daw, R. J. Jensen, and W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in mammalian retinae,” TINS 13, 110-115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buck, S. L.

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vision Res. 42, 1651-1662 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Rod influences on hue perception: Effect of background light level,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S60-S64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and R. Knight, “Stimulus duration affects rod influence on hue perception,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J.D.Mollon, J.Pokorny, and K.Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2003), pp. 179-186.
[CrossRef]

Cao, D.

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals,” Visual Neurosci. 25, 399-404 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Cao, A. J. Zele, and J. Pokorny, “Dark adapted rod suppression of cone flicker detection: Evaluation of receptoral and postreceptoral mechanisms,” Visual Neurosci. 23, 531-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H.

Creutzfeldt, D.

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vision Res. 27, 191-200 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio and K. A. Allen, “Topography of ganglion cells in human retina,” J. Comp. Neurol. 300, 5-25 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dacheux, R. F.

S. A. Bloomfield and R. F. Dacheux, “Rod vision: Pathways and processing in the mammalian retina,” Prog. Retina Eye Res. 20, 351-384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dannheim, F.

F. Dannheim and S. M. Drance, “Studies of spatial summation of central retinal areas in normal people of all ages,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 311-319 (1971).
[PubMed]

Daw, N. W.

N. W. Daw, R. J. Jensen, and W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in mammalian retinae,” TINS 13, 110-115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeValois, K. K.

R. L. DeValois and K. K. DeValois, “Neural coding of color,” in Handbook of Perception, Vol. 5, E.C.Carterette and M.P.Friedman, eds. (Academic, 1975), pp. 93-140.

DeValois, R. L.

R. L. DeValois and K. K. DeValois, “Neural coding of color,” in Handbook of Perception, Vol. 5, E.C.Carterette and M.P.Friedman, eds. (Academic, 1975), pp. 93-140.

Doyal, J. A.

Drance, S. M.

F. Dannheim and S. M. Drance, “Studies of spatial summation of central retinal areas in normal people of all ages,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 6, 311-319 (1971).
[PubMed]

Enroth-Cugell, C.

C. Enroth-Cugell, B. G. Hertz, and P. Lennie, “Convergence of rod and cone signals in the cat's retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 269, 297-318 (1977).

Fitzhugh, R.

H. B. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, and S. W. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat's retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 137, 338-354 (1957).

Glezer, V. D.

V. D. Glezer, “The receptive fields of the retina,” Vision Res. 5, 497-525 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J.

Gouras, P.

P. Gouras and K. Link, “Rod and cone interactions in dark-adapted monkey ganglion cells,” J. Physiol. (London) 184, 499-510 (1966).

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertz, B. G.

C. Enroth-Cugell, B. G. Hertz, and P. Lennie, “Convergence of rod and cone signals in the cat's retina,” J. Physiol. (London) 269, 297-318 (1977).

Hornstein, E. P.

E. P. Hornstein, P. Verweij, P. H. Li, and J. Schnapf, “Gap-junctional coupling and absolute sensitivity of photoreceptors in the macaque retina,” J. Neurosci. 25, 11201-11209 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurley, J. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurvich, L. M.

D. J. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vision Res. 7, 805-809 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inui, T.

Jameson, D. J.

D. J. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, “Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control,” Vision Res. 7, 805-809 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, R. J.

N. W. Daw, R. J. Jensen, and W. J. Brunken, “Rod pathways in mammalian retinae,” TINS 13, 110-115 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, M. A.

M. A. Johnson, “Color vision in the peripheral retina,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 63, 97-103 (1986).
[PubMed]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kani, K.

Kaplan, E.

K. Purpura, E. Kaplan, and R. M. Shapley, “Background light and the contrast gain of primate P and M retinal ganglion cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 4534-4537 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klock, I. B.

C. A. Curcio, K. A. Allen, K. R. Sloan, C. L. Lerea, J. B. Hurley, I. B. Klock, and A. H. Milam, “Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with anti-blue opsin,” J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610-624 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, R.

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Time-dependent changes of rod influence on hue perception,” Vision Res. 42, 1651-1662 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Knight and S. L. Buck, “Rod influences on hue perception: Effect of background light level,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S60-S64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Buck and R. Knight, “Stimulus duration affects rod influence on hue perception,” in Normal and Defective Colour Vision, J.D.Mollon, J.Pokorny, and K.Knoblauch, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2003), pp. 179-186.
[CrossRef]

Kremers, J.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813-2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuffler, S. W.

H. B. Barlow, R. Fitzhugh, and S. W. Kuffler, “Change of organization in the receptive fields of the cat's retina during dark adaptation,” J. Physiol. (London) 137, 338-354 (1957).

Lee, B. B.

B. B. Lee, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, and J. Kremers, “Rod inputs to macaque ganglion cells,” Vision Res. 37, 2813-2828 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Virsu, B. B. Lee, and D. Creutzfeldt, “Mesopic spectral responses and the Purkinje shift of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus cells,” Vision Res. 27, 191-200 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Virsu and B. B. Lee, “Light adaptation in cells of macaque lateral geniculate nucleus and its relation to human light adaptation,” J. Neurophysiol. 50, 864-878 (1983).
[PubMed]

Lennie, P.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Each panel provides examples of Michaelis–Menten growth functions fitted to mean percent hue data across observers from the no-bleach (filled circles) and bleach (open circles) conditions for the nasal retina. Each panel illustrates a different hue term (blue, green, yellow, red), and wavelengths specified in each panel represent the spectral location of the percent maxima for that hue term.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean k values across observers are plotted as a function of wavelength for the no-bleach (filled circles) and bleach (open circles) conditions for the perception of blue and yellow. Each column presents the k values associated with a particular hue, and each row indicates the retinal location at 10° eccentricity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean k values are presented for the perception of red and green. Data are plotted the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean perceptive field size across wavelengths and observers is plotted as a function of retinal location. The top (bottom) panel is from the no-bleach (bleach) condition. Different shades of the bars denote the different hues.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean percent yellow across observers is plotted as a function of stimulus size. Data are from the bleach condition for a 630 nm stimulus in the nasal retina. The Michaelis–Menten growth function is fitted to the data to derive the negative k value.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean Red Perceptive Field Sizes (deg)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Three Different Methods a for Computing Perceptive Field Size Applied to the Data of This Study

Tables Icon

Table 3 Study Comparison of Mean Perceptive Field Sizes (3k)

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ ( % hue or % saturation = ( ( 2 × arcsine ( square root ( untransformed % hue or % saturation 100 ) ) ) π ) × 100 ) ] ,

Metrics