Abstract

We use closed-loop deformable mirror telemetry from Altair and Keck adaptive optics (AO) to determine whether atmospheric turbulence follows the frozen flow hypothesis. Using telemetry from AO systems, our algorithms (based on the predictive Fourier control framework) detect frozen flow >94% of the time. Usually one to three layers are detected. Between 20% and 40% of the total controllable phase power is due to frozen flow. Velocity vector RMS variability is less than 0.5ms (per axis) on 10-s intervals, indicating that the atmosphere is stable enough for predictive control to measure and adapt to prevailing atmospheric conditions before they change.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Le Roux, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsar, H.-F. Raynaud, L. M. Mugnier, and T. Fusco, “Optimal control law for classical and multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1261-1276 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. M. Johansson and D. T. Gavel, “Simulation of stellar speckle imaging,” Proc. SPIE 1237, 372-383 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, 4th ed. (McGraw Hill, 2002).

2008 (2)

L. A. Poyneer and D. Dillon, “MEMS adaptive optics for the Gemini Planet Imager: control methods and validation,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880H (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Petit, J. M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H. F. Raynaud, and T. Fusco, “First laboratory validation of vibration filtering with LQG control law for adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 16, 87-97 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer and B. A. Macintosh, “Optimal Fourier control performance and speckle behavior in high-contrast imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 14, 7499-7514 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

O. Guyon, “Limits of adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging,” Astrophys. J. 629, 592-614 (2005). Revised version at http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0505086.
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer and J.-P. Véran, “Optimal modal Fourier transform wave-front control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1515-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Frigo and S. G. Johnson, “The design and implementation of FFTW3,” Proc. IEEE 93, 216-231 (2005). (Special issue: “Program Generation, Optimization, and Platform Adaptation.”)
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

E. Gendron and P. Lena, “Single layer atmospheric turbulence demonstrated by adaptive optics observations,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 239, 221-228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. M. Johansson and D. T. Gavel, “Simulation of stellar speckle imaging,” Proc. SPIE 1237, 372-383 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baudoz, P.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beuzit, J.-L.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brase, J. M.

Britton, M. C.

M. C. Britton, “Arroyo,” Proc. SPIE 5497, 290-300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buck, J. R.

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and J. R. Buck, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, 1999).

Charton, J.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J. M.

Conan, J.-M.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Le Roux, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsar, H.-F. Raynaud, L. M. Mugnier, and T. Fusco, “Optimal control law for classical and multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1261-1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, D.

L. A. Poyneer and D. Dillon, “MEMS adaptive optics for the Gemini Planet Imager: control methods and validation,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880H (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doelman, N.

Dohlen, K.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Downing, M.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doyon, R.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, J.

J. A. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, F. J. Rigaut, G. Herriot, L. Jolissaint, D. Frenette, J. Dunn, and M. Smith, “Evaluation of the on-sky performance of altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 67-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erikson, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feautrier, P.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedrigo, E.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frenette, D.

J. A. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, F. J. Rigaut, G. Herriot, L. Jolissaint, D. Frenette, J. Dunn, and M. Smith, “Evaluation of the on-sky performance of altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 67-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frigo, M.

M. Frigo and S. G. Johnson, “The design and implementation of FFTW3,” Proc. IEEE 93, 216-231 (2005). (Special issue: “Program Generation, Optimization, and Platform Adaptation.”)
[CrossRef]

Fusco, T.

C. Petit, J. M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H. F. Raynaud, and T. Fusco, “First laboratory validation of vibration filtering with LQG control law for adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 16, 87-97 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Le Roux, J.-M. Conan, C. Kulcsar, H.-F. Raynaud, L. M. Mugnier, and T. Fusco, “Optimal control law for classical and multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1261-1276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D. T.

D. T. Gavel and D. Wiberg, “Towards Strehl-optimizing adaptive optics controllers,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 890-901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer, D. T. Gavel, and J. M. Brase, “Fast wave-front reconstruction in large adaptive optics systems with use of the Fourier transform,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2100-2111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Johansson and D. T. Gavel, “Simulation of stellar speckle imaging,” Proc. SPIE 1237, 372-383 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, E.

E. Gendron and P. Lena, “Single layer atmospheric turbulence demonstrated by adaptive optics observations,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 239, 221-228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gigan, P.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, R. C.

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 2002).

Graham, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, “Limits of adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging,” Astrophys. J. 629, 592-614 (2005). Revised version at http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0505086.
[CrossRef]

Herriot, G.

J. A. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, F. J. Rigaut, G. Herriot, L. Jolissaint, D. Frenette, J. Dunn, and M. Smith, “Evaluation of the on-sky performance of altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 67-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hinnen, K.

Hubin, N.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, E. M.

E. M. Johansson and D. T. Gavel, “Simulation of stellar speckle imaging,” Proc. SPIE 1237, 372-383 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

M. Frigo and S. G. Johnson, “The design and implementation of FFTW3,” Proc. IEEE 93, 216-231 (2005). (Special issue: “Program Generation, Optimization, and Platform Adaptation.”)
[CrossRef]

Jolissaint, L.

J. A. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, F. J. Rigaut, G. Herriot, L. Jolissaint, D. Frenette, J. Dunn, and M. Smith, “Evaluation of the on-sky performance of altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 67-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, M.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kulcsar, C.

Kulcsár, C.

Larkin, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, B.

Lena, P.

E. Gendron and P. Lena, “Single layer atmospheric turbulence demonstrated by adaptive optics observations,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 239, 221-228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer and B. Macintosh, “Spatially filtered wave-front sensor for high-order adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 810-819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

Mignant, D. L.

Morzinski, K.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mouillet, D.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mugnier, L. M.

Oppenheim, A. V.

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and J. R. Buck, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, 1999).

Oppenheimer, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Papoulis, A.

A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, 4th ed. (McGraw Hill, 2002).

Petit, C.

C. Petit, J. M. Conan, C. Kulcsár, H. F. Raynaud, and T. Fusco, “First laboratory validation of vibration filtering with LQG control law for adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 16, 87-97 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phillion, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, S. U.

A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, 4th ed. (McGraw Hill, 2002).

Poyneer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

Puget, P.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rabou, P.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raynaud, H. F.

Raynaud, H.-F.

Rigaut, F. J.

J. A. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, F. J. Rigaut, G. Herriot, L. Jolissaint, D. Frenette, J. Dunn, and M. Smith, “Evaluation of the on-sky performance of altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 67-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saddlemyer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, J.-F.

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, R. W.

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and J. R. Buck, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, 1999).

Schöck, M.

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

J. A. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, F. J. Rigaut, G. Herriot, L. Jolissaint, D. Frenette, J. Dunn, and M. Smith, “Evaluation of the on-sky performance of altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 67-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soummer, R.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spillar, E. J.

Stoesz, J. A.

J. A. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, F. J. Rigaut, G. Herriot, L. Jolissaint, D. Frenette, J. Dunn, and M. Smith, “Evaluation of the on-sky performance of altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 67-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, S.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M. A.

Véran, J.-P.

L. A. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, and J.-P. Véran, “Fourier transform wavefront control with adaptive prediction of the atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2645-2660 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
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L. A. Poyneer and J.-P. Véran, “Optimal modal Fourier transform wave-front control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1515-1526 (2005).
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J. A. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, F. J. Rigaut, G. Herriot, L. Jolissaint, D. Frenette, J. Dunn, and M. Smith, “Evaluation of the on-sky performance of altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 67-78 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, M.

Wallace, J. K.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
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D. T. Gavel and D. Wiberg, “Towards Strehl-optimizing adaptive optics controllers,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 890-901 (2002).
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T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

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R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 2002).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

O. Guyon, “Limits of adaptive optics for high-contrast imaging,” Astrophys. J. 629, 592-614 (2005). Revised version at http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0505086.
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Astrophys. Space Sci. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. Frigo and S. G. Johnson, “The design and implementation of FFTW3,” Proc. IEEE 93, 216-231 (2005). (Special issue: “Program Generation, Optimization, and Platform Adaptation.”)
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (7)

L. A. Poyneer and D. Dillon, “MEMS adaptive optics for the Gemini Planet Imager: control methods and validation,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880H (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, J. K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J.-P. Véran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fusco, C. Petit, G. Rousset, J.-F. Sauvage, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, J. Charton, P. Baudoz, M. Kasper, E. Fedrigo, P. Rabou, P. Feautrier, M. Downing, P. Gigan, J.-M. Conan, J.-L. Beuzit, N. Hubin, F. Wildi, and P. Puget, “Design of the extreme AO system for SPHERE, the planet finder instrument of the VLT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720K (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Gavel and D. Wiberg, “Towards Strehl-optimizing adaptive optics controllers,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 890-901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Stoesz, J.-P. Véran, F. J. Rigaut, G. Herriot, L. Jolissaint, D. Frenette, J. Dunn, and M. Smith, “Evaluation of the on-sky performance of altair,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 67-78 (2004).
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M. C. Britton, “Arroyo,” Proc. SPIE 5497, 290-300 (2004).
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E. M. Johansson and D. T. Gavel, “Simulation of stellar speckle imaging,” Proc. SPIE 1237, 372-383 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, 4th ed. (McGraw Hill, 2002).

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (Prentice Hall, 2002).

A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and J. R. Buck, Discrete-Time Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, 1999).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of hybrid continuous/discrete-time AO control loop for a single Fourier mode. The phase aberration ϕ ( t ) is corrected in closed loop in the presence of measurement noise v [ t ] . The WFS dynamics are represented by H w f s ( s ) , the DM dynamics by H d m ( s ) , and the controller delay by exp ( s τ ) . The discrete-time control law is C ( z ) .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal PSDs of mid-frequency Fourier modes for (top), (middle) minute-long Altair observations and (bottom) a half-minute Keck AO observation. Note the clear presence of peaks not at 0 Hz and the lack of symmetry. The amount of total power in those peaks ranges from 26.1% to 72.0%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histograms of fraction of atmospheric power in the PSD peaks, for (top) all 10 - s observations over 117 nights with Altair and (bottom) all 10 - s Keck observations over five nights. In both cases, a moderate amount of total phase power is in the peaks, while for a specific mid-frequency Fourier mode much more power is in the peaks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Process of determining layers from peaks found. Color scales represent temporal frequency of the peak in hertz. (Any spatial frequency where no peak was found is illustrated as f t = 0 .) Across each row, there are four square panes, each of which shows the f x , f y Fourier modes for Altair. In the “Peaks found” row, the sets are sorted in the order in which the peaks were found for each mode. The yellow/blue areas in Set 4 are due to Layer 2 aliasing. In the “Peaks found (rescaled)” row, the color scale has been reduced. In “Peaks matched,” only the peaks that correspond to strongly found layers via the wind map are shown. Note how the aliases are excluded. In “Peaks sorted,” the peaks are moved from sets to layers. Set 1 contains peaks that belong to either Layer 1 or Layer 2. In “Theoretical peaks” the peak frequencies are given for a perfect detection of each layer. (These layers are the ones found in the wind map of Fig. 5.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wind map showing likelihood (0 to 1) of a layer of frozen flow existing at a specific velocity vector, as observed by Altair.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Number of layers strongly detected in 10 - s observations, for 117 different nights with Altair and five nights with Keck AO. At least one layer is strongly detected 94% of the time. For both AO systems, 1–3 layers are found > 70 % of the time, indicating that high-order prediction is not usually necessary.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Distribution of wind velocity for layers detected with likelihood > 35 % . Though half the layers have speed 10 m s or less, there is a long tail to higher speeds. The Altair data are well fitted by a shifted log-normal distribution (see text for parameters).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Distribution of the sample variance of the velocity vectors for Altair at 10 - s intervals. Well-fitted by a chi-squared distribution, the RMS motion is between 0.38 and 0.50 m s .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Pointing/rotation adjusted wind maps showing likelihood (0 to 1) of a layer of frozen flow existing at a specific velocity vector, as measured by Keck AO 1 h apart. (Top) initial observation; (bottom) observation 1 h later, at different pointing. Note the strong similarity between the two wind maps, indicating that stability of layer velocities can exist on time scales of 1 h .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Mapping of strongly detected layer wind velocities, for 10 - s measurements, corresponding to the wind maps shown in Fig. 9. Solid data points, initial target; open data points, target 1 h later. All velocities adjusted for pointing/rotation. (Left panel) upper right quadrant, (right panel) lower right quadrant of velocity vector space.

Equations (9)

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D [ k , l ] = ( 1 m = 0 N 1 n = 0 N 1 a [ m , n ] ) 1 2 m = 0 N 1 n = 0 N 1 d [ m , n ] a [ m , n ] exp ( j 2 π [ m k + n l ] N ) .
P ̂ ( ω ) = 1 N intervals i = 0 N intervals 1 P ̂ i ( ω ) ,
P ̂ i ( ω ) = 1 S 1 t = 0 S 1 h [ t ] 2 t = 0 S 1 Φ i [ k , l , t ] h [ t ] exp ( j ω t ) 2 ,
P ̂ d ( ω ) = H dm ( s ) H delay C ( z ) 1 + H wfs ( s ) H dm ( s ) H delay ( s ) C ( z ) 2 [ P ϕ ( ω ) H wfs ( s ) 2 + P v ( ω ) ] ,
f t = v x f x + v y f y = v x k + v y l N d .
a [ t ] = α a [ t 1 ] + w [ t ] .
P ϕ ( ω ) = σ a 2 1 α exp ( j ω ) 2 .
P ϕ ( ω ) = i = 0 L σ a i 2 1 α i exp ( j ω ) 2 ,
p ( v ) = 1 ( v 3 ) σ 2 π exp ( [ ln ( v 3 ) μ ] 2 2 σ 2 ) if v > 3 .

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