Abstract

The growing need for ocean observation systems has stimulated considerable interest within the research community in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. Sensors and ad hoc sensor networks are the emerging tools for performing extensive data-gathering operations on land, and solutions in the subsea setting are being sought. Efficient communication from the sensors and within the network is critical, but the underwater environment is extremely challenging. Addressing the special features of underwater wireless communication in sensor networks, we propose a novel non-line-of-sight network concept in which the link is implemented by means of back-reflection of the propagating optic signal at the ocean-air interface and derive a mathematical model of the channel. Point-to-multipoint links can be achieved in an energy efficient manner and broadcast broadband communications, such as video transmissions, can be executed. We show achievable bit error rates as a function of sensor node separation and demonstrate the feasibility of this concept using state-of-the-art silicon photomultiplier detectors.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC (IEEE, 2006) pp. 228-235.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Partan, J. Kurose, and B. N. Levine, “A survey of practical issues in underwater networks,” in Proceedings of the First ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks, WUWNet (ACM, 2006), pp. 17-24.
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Szewczyk, E. Osterweil, J. Polastre, M. Hamilton, A. Mainwaring, and D. Estrin, “Habitat monitoring with sensor networks,” Commun. ACM 47, 34-40 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks 3, 257-279 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Detweiller, I. Vasilescu, and D. Rus, “An underwater sensor network with dual communications, sensing and mobility,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2007--Europe (IEEE, 2007), 4302445.
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2008 (1)

2007 (4)

D. Kedar, “Multiaccess interference in a non-line-of-sight ultraviolet optical wireless sensor network,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5895-5901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Eraerds, M. Legre, A. Rochas, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “SiPM for fast photon-counting and multiphoton detection,” Opt. Express 15, 14539-14549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ehrich Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and E. Russ, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95, 48-74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Optical plankton: an optical oceanic probing scheme,” J. Appl. Remote Sensing 1, 013541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks 3, 257-279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. Szewczyk, E. Osterweil, J. Polastre, M. Hamilton, A. Mainwaring, and D. Estrin, “Habitat monitoring with sensor networks,” Commun. ACM 47, 34-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Onorato, A. R. Osborne, M. Serio, L. Cavaleri, C. Brandini, and C. T. Stansberg, “Observation of strongly non-Gaussian statistics for random sea surface gravity waves in wave flume experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 167302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

T. D. Dickey, “Emerging ocean observations for interdisciplinary data assimilation systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 40-41, 5-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Plant, “A new interpretation of sea-surface slope probability density functions,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, pp. 11-1-11-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Premoze and M. Ashikhmin, “Rendering natural waters,” Comput. Graph. 20, 189-199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

G. W. Petty and K. B. Katsaros, “The response of the SSM/I to the marine environment. Part II: a parameterization of the effect of the sea surface slope distribution on emission and reflection,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 11, 617-628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. E. Steele and M. D. Earle, “Directional ocean wave spectra using buoy azimuth, pitch and roll derived from magnetic field components,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 16, 427-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Slopes of the sea surface deduced from photographs of sun glitter,” Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. 6, 401-488 (1956).

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks 3, 257-279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnon, S.

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Optical plankton: an optical oceanic probing scheme,” J. Appl. Remote Sensing 1, 013541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Non-line-of-sight optical wireless sensor network operating in multiscattering channel,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8454-8461 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arnon, “Optical wireless communication,” in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, R.G.Driggers, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003) pp. 1866-1886.

Ashikhmin, M.

S. Premoze and M. Ashikhmin, “Rendering natural waters,” Comput. Graph. 20, 189-199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brandini, C.

M. Onorato, A. R. Osborne, M. Serio, L. Cavaleri, C. Brandini, and C. T. Stansberg, “Observation of strongly non-Gaussian statistics for random sea surface gravity waves in wave flume experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 167302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bukata, R. P.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

Cavaleri, L.

M. Onorato, A. R. Osborne, M. Serio, L. Cavaleri, C. Brandini, and C. T. Stansberg, “Observation of strongly non-Gaussian statistics for random sea surface gravity waves in wave flume experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 167302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chave, A.

N. Farr, A. Chave, L. Freitag, J. Preisig, S. White, D. Yoerger, and P. Titterton, “Optical modem technology for seafloor observatories,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 928-934.

Churnside, J. H.

Corke, P.

I. Vasilescu, K. Kotay, D. Rus, P. Corke, and M. Dunbabin, “Data collection, storage and retrieval with an underwater sensor network,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, (ACM, 2005), pp. 154-165.
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Slopes of the sea surface deduced from photographs of sun glitter,” Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. 6, 401-488 (1956).

Detweiller, C.

C. Detweiller, I. Vasilescu, and D. Rus, “An underwater sensor network with dual communications, sensing and mobility,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2007--Europe (IEEE, 2007), 4302445.

Dickey, T. D.

T. D. Dickey, “Emerging ocean observations for interdisciplinary data assimilation systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 40-41, 5-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dunbabin, M.

I. Vasilescu, K. Kotay, D. Rus, P. Corke, and M. Dunbabin, “Data collection, storage and retrieval with an underwater sensor network,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, (ACM, 2005), pp. 154-165.
[CrossRef]

Earle, M. D.

K. E. Steele and M. D. Earle, “Directional ocean wave spectra using buoy azimuth, pitch and roll derived from magnetic field components,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 16, 427-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Eraerds, P.

Estrin, D.

R. Szewczyk, E. Osterweil, J. Polastre, M. Hamilton, A. Mainwaring, and D. Estrin, “Habitat monitoring with sensor networks,” Commun. ACM 47, 34-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farr, N.

N. Farr, A. Chave, L. Freitag, J. Preisig, S. White, D. Yoerger, and P. Titterton, “Optical modem technology for seafloor observatories,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 928-934.

Fratantoni, D. M.

N. Ehrich Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and E. Russ, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95, 48-74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, L.

N. Farr, A. Chave, L. Freitag, J. Preisig, S. White, D. Yoerger, and P. Titterton, “Optical modem technology for seafloor observatories,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 928-934.

Fry, E. S.

Gisin, N.

Hamilton, M.

R. Szewczyk, E. Osterweil, J. Polastre, M. Hamilton, A. Mainwaring, and D. Estrin, “Habitat monitoring with sensor networks,” Commun. ACM 47, 34-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, F.

Heidemann, J.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC (IEEE, 2006) pp. 228-235.
[CrossRef]

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elselvier, 1976).

Jerome, J. H.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

Katsaros, K. B.

G. W. Petty and K. B. Katsaros, “The response of the SSM/I to the marine environment. Part II: a parameterization of the effect of the sea surface slope distribution on emission and reflection,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 11, 617-628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kedar, D.

Kondratyev, K. Y.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

Kotay, K.

I. Vasilescu, K. Kotay, D. Rus, P. Corke, and M. Dunbabin, “Data collection, storage and retrieval with an underwater sensor network,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, (ACM, 2005), pp. 154-165.
[CrossRef]

Kurose, J.

J. Partan, J. Kurose, and B. N. Levine, “A survey of practical issues in underwater networks,” in Proceedings of the First ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks, WUWNet (ACM, 2006), pp. 17-24.
[CrossRef]

Legre, M.

Lekien, F.

N. Ehrich Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and E. Russ, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95, 48-74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, N. Ehrich

N. Ehrich Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and E. Russ, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95, 48-74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Levine, B. N.

J. Partan, J. Kurose, and B. N. Levine, “A survey of practical issues in underwater networks,” in Proceedings of the First ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks, WUWNet (ACM, 2006), pp. 17-24.
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC (IEEE, 2006) pp. 228-235.
[CrossRef]

Mainwaring, A.

R. Szewczyk, E. Osterweil, J. Polastre, M. Hamilton, A. Mainwaring, and D. Estrin, “Habitat monitoring with sensor networks,” Commun. ACM 47, 34-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melodia, T.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks 3, 257-279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moser, H.-G.

H.-G. Moser, “Silicon photomultipliers, a new device for low light level photon detection,” in AIP Conference Proceedings, Calorimetry in High Energy Physics: XII International Conference (AIP, 2006), pp. 867, 98-105.

Munk, W.

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Slopes of the sea surface deduced from photographs of sun glitter,” Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. 6, 401-488 (1956).

Onorato, M.

M. Onorato, A. R. Osborne, M. Serio, L. Cavaleri, C. Brandini, and C. T. Stansberg, “Observation of strongly non-Gaussian statistics for random sea surface gravity waves in wave flume experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 167302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osborne, A. R.

M. Onorato, A. R. Osborne, M. Serio, L. Cavaleri, C. Brandini, and C. T. Stansberg, “Observation of strongly non-Gaussian statistics for random sea surface gravity waves in wave flume experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 167302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osterweil, E.

R. Szewczyk, E. Osterweil, J. Polastre, M. Hamilton, A. Mainwaring, and D. Estrin, “Habitat monitoring with sensor networks,” Commun. ACM 47, 34-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paley, D. A.

N. Ehrich Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and E. Russ, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95, 48-74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, M. K.

V. Rodoplu and M. K. Park, “An energy-efficient MAC protocol for underwater wireless acoustic networks,” in Proceedings of Marine Technology Society/IEEE Oceans Conference 2005 (IEEE, 2005), 1639918.

Partan, J.

J. Partan, J. Kurose, and B. N. Levine, “A survey of practical issues in underwater networks,” in Proceedings of the First ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks, WUWNet (ACM, 2006), pp. 17-24.
[CrossRef]

Petty, G. W.

G. W. Petty and K. B. Katsaros, “The response of the SSM/I to the marine environment. Part II: a parameterization of the effect of the sea surface slope distribution on emission and reflection,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 11, 617-628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Paper SIO Reference 72-78, Scripps Institute of Oceanography (1972).

Plant, W. J.

W. J. Plant, “A new interpretation of sea-surface slope probability density functions,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, pp. 11-1-11-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polastre, J.

R. Szewczyk, E. Osterweil, J. Polastre, M. Hamilton, A. Mainwaring, and D. Estrin, “Habitat monitoring with sensor networks,” Commun. ACM 47, 34-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pompili, D.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks 3, 257-279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pozdnyakov, D. V.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

Preisig, J.

N. Farr, A. Chave, L. Freitag, J. Preisig, S. White, D. Yoerger, and P. Titterton, “Optical modem technology for seafloor observatories,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 928-934.

Premoze, S.

S. Premoze and M. Ashikhmin, “Rendering natural waters,” Comput. Graph. 20, 189-199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quan, X.

Radic, S.

Rochas, A.

Rodoplu, V.

V. Rodoplu and M. K. Park, “An energy-efficient MAC protocol for underwater wireless acoustic networks,” in Proceedings of Marine Technology Society/IEEE Oceans Conference 2005 (IEEE, 2005), 1639918.

Rus, D.

C. Detweiller, I. Vasilescu, and D. Rus, “An underwater sensor network with dual communications, sensing and mobility,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2007--Europe (IEEE, 2007), 4302445.

I. Vasilescu, K. Kotay, D. Rus, P. Corke, and M. Dunbabin, “Data collection, storage and retrieval with an underwater sensor network,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, (ACM, 2005), pp. 154-165.
[CrossRef]

Russ, E.

N. Ehrich Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and E. Russ, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95, 48-74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sepulchre, R.

N. Ehrich Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and E. Russ, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95, 48-74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serio, M.

M. Onorato, A. R. Osborne, M. Serio, L. Cavaleri, C. Brandini, and C. T. Stansberg, “Observation of strongly non-Gaussian statistics for random sea surface gravity waves in wave flume experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 167302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

Smart, J. H.

J. H. Smart, “Underwater Optical Communication systems Part 1: variability of water optical parameters,” in Proceedings of IEEE Military Communications Conference, MILCOM (IEEE, 2005), 1605832.

Stansberg, C. T.

M. Onorato, A. R. Osborne, M. Serio, L. Cavaleri, C. Brandini, and C. T. Stansberg, “Observation of strongly non-Gaussian statistics for random sea surface gravity waves in wave flume experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 167302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steele, K. E.

K. E. Steele and M. D. Earle, “Directional ocean wave spectra using buoy azimuth, pitch and roll derived from magnetic field components,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 16, 427-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Syed, A.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC (IEEE, 2006) pp. 228-235.
[CrossRef]

Szewczyk, R.

R. Szewczyk, E. Osterweil, J. Polastre, M. Hamilton, A. Mainwaring, and D. Estrin, “Habitat monitoring with sensor networks,” Commun. ACM 47, 34-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Titterton, P.

N. Farr, A. Chave, L. Freitag, J. Preisig, S. White, D. Yoerger, and P. Titterton, “Optical modem technology for seafloor observatories,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 928-934.

Vasilescu, I.

C. Detweiller, I. Vasilescu, and D. Rus, “An underwater sensor network with dual communications, sensing and mobility,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2007--Europe (IEEE, 2007), 4302445.

I. Vasilescu, K. Kotay, D. Rus, P. Corke, and M. Dunbabin, “Data collection, storage and retrieval with an underwater sensor network,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, (ACM, 2005), pp. 154-165.
[CrossRef]

White, S.

N. Farr, A. Chave, L. Freitag, J. Preisig, S. White, D. Yoerger, and P. Titterton, “Optical modem technology for seafloor observatories,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 928-934.

Wills, J.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC (IEEE, 2006) pp. 228-235.
[CrossRef]

Ye, W.

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC (IEEE, 2006) pp. 228-235.
[CrossRef]

Yoerger, D.

N. Farr, A. Chave, L. Freitag, J. Preisig, S. White, D. Yoerger, and P. Titterton, “Optical modem technology for seafloor observatories,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 928-934.

Zbinden, H.

Ad Hoc Networks (1)

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Networks 3, 257-279 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. (1)

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Slopes of the sea surface deduced from photographs of sun glitter,” Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. 6, 401-488 (1956).

Commun. ACM (1)

R. Szewczyk, E. Osterweil, J. Polastre, M. Hamilton, A. Mainwaring, and D. Estrin, “Habitat monitoring with sensor networks,” Commun. ACM 47, 34-40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Graph. (1)

S. Premoze and M. Ashikhmin, “Rendering natural waters,” Comput. Graph. 20, 189-199 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. (1)

K. E. Steele and M. D. Earle, “Directional ocean wave spectra using buoy azimuth, pitch and roll derived from magnetic field components,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 16, 427-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Remote Sensing (1)

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, “Optical plankton: an optical oceanic probing scheme,” J. Appl. Remote Sensing 1, 013541 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

G. W. Petty and K. B. Katsaros, “The response of the SSM/I to the marine environment. Part II: a parameterization of the effect of the sea surface slope distribution on emission and reflection,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 11, 617-628 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

W. J. Plant, “A new interpretation of sea-surface slope probability density functions,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, pp. 11-1-11-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Syst. (1)

T. D. Dickey, “Emerging ocean observations for interdisciplinary data assimilation systems,” J. Mar. Syst. 40-41, 5-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Onorato, A. R. Osborne, M. Serio, L. Cavaleri, C. Brandini, and C. T. Stansberg, “Observation of strongly non-Gaussian statistics for random sea surface gravity waves in wave flume experiments,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 167302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

N. Ehrich Leonard, D. A. Paley, F. Lekien, R. Sepulchre, D. M. Fratantoni, and E. Russ, “Collective motion, sensor networks, and ocean sampling,” Proc. IEEE 95, 48-74 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

J. Heidemann, W. Ye, J. Wills, A. Syed, and Y. Li, “Research challenges and applications for underwater sensor networking,” in Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC (IEEE, 2006) pp. 228-235.
[CrossRef]

J. Partan, J. Kurose, and B. N. Levine, “A survey of practical issues in underwater networks,” in Proceedings of the First ACM International Workshop on Underwater Networks, WUWNet (ACM, 2006), pp. 17-24.
[CrossRef]

C. Detweiller, I. Vasilescu, and D. Rus, “An underwater sensor network with dual communications, sensing and mobility,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2007--Europe (IEEE, 2007), 4302445.

V. Rodoplu and M. K. Park, “An energy-efficient MAC protocol for underwater wireless acoustic networks,” in Proceedings of Marine Technology Society/IEEE Oceans Conference 2005 (IEEE, 2005), 1639918.

I. Vasilescu, K. Kotay, D. Rus, P. Corke, and M. Dunbabin, “Data collection, storage and retrieval with an underwater sensor network,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, (ACM, 2005), pp. 154-165.
[CrossRef]

NOAA's National Data Buoy Center, http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/wave.shtml.

S. Arnon, “Optical wireless communication,” in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, R.G.Driggers, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003) pp. 1866-1886.

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elselvier, 1976).

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, K. Y. Kondratyev, and D. V. Pozdnyakov, Optical Properties and Remote Sensing of Inland and Coastal Waters (CRC Press, 1995).

J. H. Smart, “Underwater Optical Communication systems Part 1: variability of water optical parameters,” in Proceedings of IEEE Military Communications Conference, MILCOM (IEEE, 2005), 1605832.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” Paper SIO Reference 72-78, Scripps Institute of Oceanography (1972).

N. Farr, A. Chave, L. Freitag, J. Preisig, S. White, D. Yoerger, and P. Titterton, “Optical modem technology for seafloor observatories,” in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans Conference 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 928-934.

H.-G. Moser, “Silicon photomultipliers, a new device for low light level photon detection,” in AIP Conference Proceedings, Calorimetry in High Energy Physics: XII International Conference (AIP, 2006), pp. 867, 98-105.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Line-of-sight (LOS) communication scenario.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflective communication scenario.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Graph showing reflectivity at the ocean–air surface as a function of incidence angle θ i using parameters in Table 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Graph showing probability density function of surface slope angle for three wind speeds.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graph showing angular distribution of power reception resulting from reflection from a smooth sea surface. Incident photon direction is measured from seabed surface, reflected photon direction is measured from sea-surface normal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Graph showing angular distribution of power reception resulting from reflection from a simulated wavy sea surface. Incident photon direction is measured from seabed surface, reflected photon direction is measured from sea-surface normal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Graph showing number of received photons as a function of sensor node separation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Graph showing BER as a function of sensor node separation

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Hermite Polynomials of Order n

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Table 2 Parameters Used in Numerical Calculations a

Equations (17)

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c ( λ ) = α ( λ ) + β ( λ ) .
n w ( S , Temp , λ ) = n 0 + ( n 1 + n 2 Temp + n 3 Temp 2 ) S + n 4 Temp 2 + n 5 + n 6 S + n 7 Temp λ + n 8 λ 2 + n 9 λ 3 ,
P R ̱ los = P T η T η R exp [ c ( λ ) d cos ( θ ) ] A Rec cos ( θ ) 2 π d 2 [ 1 cos ( θ 0 ) ] ,
R s = [ n W cos ( θ i ) n A cos ( θ t ) n W cos ( θ i ) + n A cos ( θ t ) ] 2 = [ sin ( θ i θ t ) sin ( θ i + θ t ) ] 2 ,
R s = [ n W cos ( θ t ) n A cos ( θ i ) n W cos ( θ t ) + n A cos ( θ i ) ] 2 = [ tan ( θ t θ i ) tan ( θ t + θ i ) ] 2 .
θ c = sin 1 ( n A n W ) .
p ( η ) = n = 0 N ( c n n ! ) H n ( η ) 1 2 π exp ( η 2 2 ) ,
η = δ δ ¯ σ slope ,
A ann = 2 π ( h + x ) 2 [ 1 cos ( θ max ) 1 + cos ( θ min ) ] = 2 π ( h + x ) 2 [ cos ( θ min ) cos ( θ max ) ] .
f R ̱ ref ( θ ) = P T cos ( θ ) A ann { η T η R exp { c ( λ ) [ h + x cos ( θ ) ] } 1 2 { [ tan ( θ t θ ) tan ( θ t + θ ) ] 2 + [ sin ( θ θ t ) sin ( θ + θ t ) ] 2 } , θ min θ < θ C η T η R exp { c ( λ ) [ h + x cos ( θ ) ] } , θ c θ < θ max } ,
P R ̱ ref ( θ ) = Rec aper area f R ̱ Ref ( θ ) d a .
P R ̱ ref ( θ ) A Rec f R ̱ ref ( θ ) .
r s = 1 T ( P R R D ) η D h ν ,
P e = P ( one ) V t P ( ξ one ) d ξ + P ( zero ) V t P ( ξ zero ) d ζ ,
BER = 0.5 [ n = 1 N TH ( r 1 T ) n exp ( r 1 T ) n ! ] + 0.5 [ n = 1 + N TH N max ( r 0 T ) n exp ( r 0 T ) n ! ] ,
BER = 1 2 erfc [ r 1 T r 0 T 2 ( r 1 T + r 0 T ) ] ,
erfc ( ψ ) = 2 π ψ exp ( γ 2 ) d γ .

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