Abstract

We studied the influence of signal variability on human and model observers for detection tasks with realistic simulated masses superimposed on real patient mammographic backgrounds and synthesized mammographic backgrounds (clustered lumpy backgrounds, CLB). Results under the signal-known-exactly (SKE) paradigm were compared with signal-known-statistically (SKS) tasks for which the observers did not have prior knowledge of the shape or size of the signal. Human observers' performance did not vary significantly when benign masses were superimposed on real images or on CLB. Uncertainty and variability in signal shape did not degrade human performance significantly compared with the SKE task, while variability in signal size did. Implementation of appropriate internal noise components allowed the fit of model observers to human performance.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008

C. Castella, K. Kinkel, F. Descombes, M. P. Eckstein, P.-E. Sottas, F. R. Verdun, and F. O. Bochud, “Mammographic texture synthesis: second-generation clustered lumpy backgrounds using a genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 16, 7595-7607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Castella, K. Kinkel, M. P. Eckstein, C. K. Abbey, F. R. Verdun, R. S. Saunders, E. Samei, and F. O. Bochud, “Mass detection on mammograms: signal variations and performance changes for human and model observers,” Proc. SPIE 6917, 69170K (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. Castella, C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, F. R. Verdun, K. Kinkel, and F. O. Bochud, “Human linear template with mammographic backgrounds estimated with a genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B1-B12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Burgess and P. F. Judy, “Signal detection in power-law noise: effect of spectrum exponents,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B52-B60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Brettle, E. Berry, and M. A. Smith, “The effect of experience on detectability in local area anatomical noise,” Br. J. Radiol. 80, 186-193 (2007).

B. D. Gallas, G. A. Pennello, and K. J. Myers, “Multireader multicase variance analysis for binary data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B70-B80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. T. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Evaluation of internal noise methods for Hotelling observer models,” Med. Phys. 34, 3312-3322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, D. L. Miglioretti, C. E. Metz, and R. A. Schmidt, “Breast cancer detection rate: designing imaging trials to demonstrate improvements,” Radiology 243, 360-367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Zhang, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Adaptive detection mechanisms in globally statistically nonstationary-oriented noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1549-1558 (2006).

R. Saunders, E. Samei, J. Baker, and D. Delong, “Simulation of mammographic lesions,” Acad. Radiol. 13, 860-870 (2006).

2005

Y. Zhang, B. P. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Task-based model/human observer evaluation of SPIHT wavelet compression with human visual system-based quantization,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 324-336 (2005).

2004

A. E. Burgess, “On the noise variance of a digital mammography system,” Med. Phys. 31, 1987-1995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Saunders and E. Samei, “Characterization of breast masses for simulation purposes,” Proc. SPIE 5372, 242-250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. T. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Automated optimization of JPEG 2000 encoder options based on model observer performance for detecting variable signals in X-ray coronary angiograms,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 459-474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. P. Eckstein, Y. Zhang, B. Pham, and C. K. Abbey, “Optimization of model observer performance for signal known exactly but variable tasks leads to optimized performance in signal known statistically tasks,” Proc. SPIE 5034, 123-134 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. P. Eckstein, B. Pham, and C. K. Abbey, “Effect of image compression for model and human observers in signal-known-statistically tasks,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 13-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Ahumada, Jr., “Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation,” J. Vision 2, 121-131 (2002).

J. A. Solomon, “Noise reveals visual mechanisms of detection and discrimination,” J. Vision 2, 105-120 (2002).

R. F. Murray, P. J. Bennett, and A. B. Sekuler, “Optimal methods for calculating classification images: Weighted sums,” J. Vision 2, 79-104 (2002).

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human-observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-36 (2002).

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Classification image analysis: Estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments,” J. Vision 2, 66-78 (2002).

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Optimal shifted estimates of human-observer templates in two-alternative forced choice experiments,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 429-440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-35 (2002).

2001

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Maximum-likelihood and maximum-a-posteriori estimates of human-observer templates,” Proc. SPIE 4324, 114-122 (2001).

M. P. Eckstein and C. K. Abbey, “Model observers for signal-known-statistically tasks (SKS),” Proc. SPIE 4324, 91-102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Burgess, F. L. Jacobson, and P. F. Judy, “Human observer detection experiments with mammograms and power-law noise,” Med. Phys. 28, 419-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Abbey and H. H. Barrett, “Human- and model-observer performance in ramp-spectrum noise: effects of regularization and object variability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 473-487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. O. Bochud, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. III. Calculation of figures of merit for model observers in statistically nonstationary backgrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 193-205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Muller, “Full-field digital mammography designed as a complete system,” Eur. J. Radiol. 39, 25-34 (1999).

F. O. Bochud, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Statistical texture synthesis of mammographic images with clustered lumpy backgrounds,” Opt. Express 4, 33-43 (1999).

1997

M. P. Eckstein, A. J. Ahumada, and A. B. Watson, “Image discrimination models predict signal detection in natural medical image backgrounds,” Proc. SPIE 3016, 44-56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Judy, M. F. Kijewski, and R. G. Svensson, “Observer detection performance loss: target-size uncertainty,” Proc. SPIE 3036, 39-47 (1997).

1995

A. E. Burgess, “Comparison of receiver operating characteristics and forced choice observer performance measurement methods,” Med. Phys. 22, 643-655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

1987

P. G. J. Barten, “The SQRI method: a new method for the evaluation of visible resolution on a display,” Proc. S.I.D. 28, 253-262 (1987).

K. J. Myers and H. H. Barrett, “Addition of a channel mechanism to the ideal-observer model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2447-2457 (1987).

1985

1984

1981

A. E. Burgess, R. F. Wagner, R. J. Jennings, and H. B. Barlow, “Efficiency of human visual signal discrimination,” Science 214, 93-94 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abbey, C. K.

C. Castella, K. Kinkel, M. P. Eckstein, C. K. Abbey, F. R. Verdun, R. S. Saunders, E. Samei, and F. O. Bochud, “Mass detection on mammograms: signal variations and performance changes for human and model observers,” Proc. SPIE 6917, 69170K (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Castella, C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, F. R. Verdun, K. Kinkel, and F. O. Bochud, “Human linear template with mammographic backgrounds estimated with a genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B1-B12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Adaptive detection mechanisms in globally statistically nonstationary-oriented noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1549-1558 (2006).

M. P. Eckstein, Y. Zhang, B. Pham, and C. K. Abbey, “Optimization of model observer performance for signal known exactly but variable tasks leads to optimized performance in signal known statistically tasks,” Proc. SPIE 5034, 123-134 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human-observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-36 (2002).

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Optimal shifted estimates of human-observer templates in two-alternative forced choice experiments,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 429-440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-35 (2002).

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Classification image analysis: Estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments,” J. Vision 2, 66-78 (2002).

M. P. Eckstein, B. Pham, and C. K. Abbey, “Effect of image compression for model and human observers in signal-known-statistically tasks,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 13-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Maximum-likelihood and maximum-a-posteriori estimates of human-observer templates,” Proc. SPIE 4324, 114-122 (2001).

C. K. Abbey and H. H. Barrett, “Human- and model-observer performance in ramp-spectrum noise: effects of regularization and object variability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 473-487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Eckstein and C. K. Abbey, “Model observers for signal-known-statistically tasks (SKS),” Proc. SPIE 4324, 91-102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. O. Bochud, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. III. Calculation of figures of merit for model observers in statistically nonstationary backgrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 193-205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. O. Bochud, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Statistical texture synthesis of mammographic images with clustered lumpy backgrounds,” Opt. Express 4, 33-43 (1999).

M. P. Eckstein, C. K. Abbey, and F. O. Bochud, “A practical guide to model observers for visual detection in synthetic and natural noisy images,” in Handbook of Medical Imaging, Vol. 1, Physics and psychophysics, J.Beutel, H.L.Kundel, R.L.Van Metter, eds. (SPIE Press, 2000), pp. 593-628.

Ahumada, A. J.

A. J. Ahumada, Jr., “Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation,” J. Vision 2, 121-131 (2002).

M. P. Eckstein, A. J. Ahumada, and A. B. Watson, “Image discrimination models predict signal detection in natural medical image backgrounds,” Proc. SPIE 3016, 44-56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Albagli, D.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J.

R. Saunders, E. Samei, J. Baker, and D. Delong, “Simulation of mammographic lesions,” Acad. Radiol. 13, 860-870 (2006).

Barlow, H. B.

A. E. Burgess, R. F. Wagner, R. J. Jennings, and H. B. Barlow, “Efficiency of human visual signal discrimination,” Science 214, 93-94 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, H. H.

Barten, P. G. J.

P. G. J. Barten, “The SQRI method: a new method for the evaluation of visible resolution on a display,” Proc. S.I.D. 28, 253-262 (1987).

Baydush, A. H.

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human-observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-36 (2002).

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-35 (2002).

Bennett, P. J.

R. F. Murray, P. J. Bennett, and A. B. Sekuler, “Optimal methods for calculating classification images: Weighted sums,” J. Vision 2, 79-104 (2002).

Berry, E.

D. S. Brettle, E. Berry, and M. A. Smith, “The effect of experience on detectability in local area anatomical noise,” Br. J. Radiol. 80, 186-193 (2007).

Bochud, F. O.

Borgstrom, M. C.

Bowyer, K.

M. Heath, K. Bowyer, D. Kopans, R. Moore, and W. P. Kegelmeyer, “The Digital Database For Screening Mammography,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Digital Mammography, M.J.Yaffe, ed (Medical Physics Publishing, 2001), pp. 212-218.

Brettle, D. S.

D. S. Brettle, E. Berry, and M. A. Smith, “The effect of experience on detectability in local area anatomical noise,” Br. J. Radiol. 80, 186-193 (2007).

Broeders, M.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Törnberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis, 4th ed. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2006).

Burgess, A. E.

A. E. Burgess and P. F. Judy, “Signal detection in power-law noise: effect of spectrum exponents,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B52-B60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Burgess, “On the noise variance of a digital mammography system,” Med. Phys. 31, 1987-1995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Burgess, F. L. Jacobson, and P. F. Judy, “Human observer detection experiments with mammograms and power-law noise,” Med. Phys. 28, 419-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Burgess, “Comparison of receiver operating characteristics and forced choice observer performance measurement methods,” Med. Phys. 22, 643-655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Burgess, “Statistically defined backgrounds: Performance of a modified nonprewhitening observer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1237-1242 (1994).

A. E. Burgess and H. Ghandeharian, “Visual signal detection. I. Ability to use phase information,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 900-905 (1984).

A. E. Burgess, R. F. Wagner, R. J. Jennings, and H. B. Barlow, “Efficiency of human visual signal discrimination,” Science 214, 93-94 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Castella, C.

Catarious, D. M.

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-35 (2002).

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human-observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-36 (2002).

de Wolf, C.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Törnberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis, 4th ed. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2006).

Delong, D.

R. Saunders, E. Samei, J. Baker, and D. Delong, “Simulation of mammographic lesions,” Acad. Radiol. 13, 860-870 (2006).

Descombes, F.

D'Orsi, C. J.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. J. D'Orsi, Illustrated Breast Imaging Reporting and DATA System (BIRADS) (American College of Radiology, 1998).

Eckstein, M. P.

C. Castella, K. Kinkel, F. Descombes, M. P. Eckstein, P.-E. Sottas, F. R. Verdun, and F. O. Bochud, “Mammographic texture synthesis: second-generation clustered lumpy backgrounds using a genetic algorithm,” Opt. Express 16, 7595-7607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Castella, K. Kinkel, M. P. Eckstein, C. K. Abbey, F. R. Verdun, R. S. Saunders, E. Samei, and F. O. Bochud, “Mass detection on mammograms: signal variations and performance changes for human and model observers,” Proc. SPIE 6917, 69170K (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. T. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Evaluation of internal noise methods for Hotelling observer models,” Med. Phys. 34, 3312-3322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Castella, C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, F. R. Verdun, K. Kinkel, and F. O. Bochud, “Human linear template with mammographic backgrounds estimated with a genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B1-B12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Adaptive detection mechanisms in globally statistically nonstationary-oriented noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1549-1558 (2006).

Y. Zhang, B. P. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Task-based model/human observer evaluation of SPIHT wavelet compression with human visual system-based quantization,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 324-336 (2005).

Y. Zhang, B. T. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Automated optimization of JPEG 2000 encoder options based on model observer performance for detecting variable signals in X-ray coronary angiograms,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 459-474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Eckstein, Y. Zhang, B. Pham, and C. K. Abbey, “Optimization of model observer performance for signal known exactly but variable tasks leads to optimized performance in signal known statistically tasks,” Proc. SPIE 5034, 123-134 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human-observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-36 (2002).

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Optimal shifted estimates of human-observer templates in two-alternative forced choice experiments,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 429-440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-35 (2002).

M. P. Eckstein, B. Pham, and C. K. Abbey, “Effect of image compression for model and human observers in signal-known-statistically tasks,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 13-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Classification image analysis: Estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments,” J. Vision 2, 66-78 (2002).

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Maximum-likelihood and maximum-a-posteriori estimates of human-observer templates,” Proc. SPIE 4324, 114-122 (2001).

M. P. Eckstein and C. K. Abbey, “Model observers for signal-known-statistically tasks (SKS),” Proc. SPIE 4324, 91-102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. O. Bochud, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. III. Calculation of figures of merit for model observers in statistically nonstationary backgrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 193-205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. O. Bochud, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Statistical texture synthesis of mammographic images with clustered lumpy backgrounds,” Opt. Express 4, 33-43 (1999).

M. P. Eckstein, A. J. Ahumada, and A. B. Watson, “Image discrimination models predict signal detection in natural medical image backgrounds,” Proc. SPIE 3016, 44-56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Eckstein, C. K. Abbey, and F. O. Bochud, “A practical guide to model observers for visual detection in synthetic and natural noisy images,” in Handbook of Medical Imaging, Vol. 1, Physics and psychophysics, J.Beutel, H.L.Kundel, R.L.Van Metter, eds. (SPIE Press, 2000), pp. 593-628.

Eng, J.

J. Eng, “ROC analysis: web-based calculator for ROC curves,” http://www.jrocfit.org.

Floyd, C. E.

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-35 (2002).

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human-observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-36 (2002).

Gallas, B. D.

Ghandeharian, H.

Granfors, P. R.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heath, M.

M. Heath, K. Bowyer, D. Kopans, R. Moore, and W. P. Kegelmeyer, “The Digital Database For Screening Mammography,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Digital Mammography, M.J.Yaffe, ed (Medical Physics Publishing, 2001), pp. 212-218.

Hendrick, R. E.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holland, R.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Törnberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis, 4th ed. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2006).

Jacobson, F. L.

A. E. Burgess, F. L. Jacobson, and P. F. Judy, “Human observer detection experiments with mammograms and power-law noise,” Med. Phys. 28, 419-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, R. J.

A. E. Burgess, R. F. Wagner, R. J. Jennings, and H. B. Barlow, “Efficiency of human visual signal discrimination,” Science 214, 93-94 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, D. L. Miglioretti, C. E. Metz, and R. A. Schmidt, “Breast cancer detection rate: designing imaging trials to demonstrate improvements,” Radiology 243, 360-367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Judy, P. F.

A. E. Burgess and P. F. Judy, “Signal detection in power-law noise: effect of spectrum exponents,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B52-B60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Burgess, F. L. Jacobson, and P. F. Judy, “Human observer detection experiments with mammograms and power-law noise,” Med. Phys. 28, 419-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Judy, M. F. Kijewski, and R. G. Svensson, “Observer detection performance loss: target-size uncertainty,” Proc. SPIE 3036, 39-47 (1997).

Karellas, A.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kegelmeyer, W. P.

M. Heath, K. Bowyer, D. Kopans, R. Moore, and W. P. Kegelmeyer, “The Digital Database For Screening Mammography,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Digital Mammography, M.J.Yaffe, ed (Medical Physics Publishing, 2001), pp. 212-218.

Kijewski, M. F.

P. F. Judy, M. F. Kijewski, and R. G. Svensson, “Observer detection performance loss: target-size uncertainty,” Proc. SPIE 3036, 39-47 (1997).

Kinkel, K.

Kopans, D.

M. Heath, K. Bowyer, D. Kopans, R. Moore, and W. P. Kegelmeyer, “The Digital Database For Screening Mammography,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Digital Mammography, M.J.Yaffe, ed (Medical Physics Publishing, 2001), pp. 212-218.

Landberg, C. E.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levis, I.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lowry, R.

R. Lowry, “VassarStats: Web Site for Statistical Computation,” http://faculty.vassar.edu/lowry/VassarStats.html.

Metz, C. E.

Y. Jiang, D. L. Miglioretti, C. E. Metz, and R. A. Schmidt, “Breast cancer detection rate: designing imaging trials to demonstrate improvements,” Radiology 243, 360-367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miglioretti, D. L.

Y. Jiang, D. L. Miglioretti, C. E. Metz, and R. A. Schmidt, “Breast cancer detection rate: designing imaging trials to demonstrate improvements,” Radiology 243, 360-367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R.

M. Heath, K. Bowyer, D. Kopans, R. Moore, and W. P. Kegelmeyer, “The Digital Database For Screening Mammography,” in Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Digital Mammography, M.J.Yaffe, ed (Medical Physics Publishing, 2001), pp. 212-218.

Muller, S.

S. Muller, “Full-field digital mammography designed as a complete system,” Eur. J. Radiol. 39, 25-34 (1999).

Murray, R. F.

R. F. Murray, P. J. Bennett, and A. B. Sekuler, “Optimal methods for calculating classification images: Weighted sums,” J. Vision 2, 79-104 (2002).

Myers, K. J.

Opsahl-Ong, B.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Patton, D. D.

Pennello, G. A.

Perry, N.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Törnberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis, 4th ed. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2006).

Pham, B.

M. P. Eckstein, Y. Zhang, B. Pham, and C. K. Abbey, “Optimization of model observer performance for signal known exactly but variable tasks leads to optimized performance in signal known statistically tasks,” Proc. SPIE 5034, 123-134 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Eckstein, B. Pham, and C. K. Abbey, “Effect of image compression for model and human observers in signal-known-statistically tasks,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 13-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pham, B. P.

Y. Zhang, B. P. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Task-based model/human observer evaluation of SPIHT wavelet compression with human visual system-based quantization,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 324-336 (2005).

Pham, B. T.

Y. Zhang, B. T. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Evaluation of internal noise methods for Hotelling observer models,” Med. Phys. 34, 3312-3322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. T. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Automated optimization of JPEG 2000 encoder options based on model observer performance for detecting variable signals in X-ray coronary angiograms,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 459-474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J. P.

Samei, E.

C. Castella, K. Kinkel, M. P. Eckstein, C. K. Abbey, F. R. Verdun, R. S. Saunders, E. Samei, and F. O. Bochud, “Mass detection on mammograms: signal variations and performance changes for human and model observers,” Proc. SPIE 6917, 69170K (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Saunders, E. Samei, J. Baker, and D. Delong, “Simulation of mammographic lesions,” Acad. Radiol. 13, 860-870 (2006).

R. Saunders and E. Samei, “Characterization of breast masses for simulation purposes,” Proc. SPIE 5372, 242-250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, R.

R. Saunders, E. Samei, J. Baker, and D. Delong, “Simulation of mammographic lesions,” Acad. Radiol. 13, 860-870 (2006).

R. Saunders and E. Samei, “Characterization of breast masses for simulation purposes,” Proc. SPIE 5372, 242-250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, R. S.

C. Castella, K. Kinkel, M. P. Eckstein, C. K. Abbey, F. R. Verdun, R. S. Saunders, E. Samei, and F. O. Bochud, “Mass detection on mammograms: signal variations and performance changes for human and model observers,” Proc. SPIE 6917, 69170K (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R. A.

Y. Jiang, D. L. Miglioretti, C. E. Metz, and R. A. Schmidt, “Breast cancer detection rate: designing imaging trials to demonstrate improvements,” Radiology 243, 360-367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seeley, G. W.

Sekuler, A. B.

R. F. Murray, P. J. Bennett, and A. B. Sekuler, “Optimal methods for calculating classification images: Weighted sums,” J. Vision 2, 79-104 (2002).

Shimozaki, S. S.

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human-observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-36 (2002).

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-35 (2002).

Smith, M. A.

D. S. Brettle, E. Berry, and M. A. Smith, “The effect of experience on detectability in local area anatomical noise,” Br. J. Radiol. 80, 186-193 (2007).

Solomon, J. A.

J. A. Solomon, “Noise reveals visual mechanisms of detection and discrimination,” J. Vision 2, 105-120 (2002).

Sottas, P.-E.

Suryanarayanan, S.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Svensson, R. G.

P. F. Judy, M. F. Kijewski, and R. G. Svensson, “Observer detection performance loss: target-size uncertainty,” Proc. SPIE 3036, 39-47 (1997).

Tkaczyk, E. J.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Törnberg, S.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Törnberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis, 4th ed. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2006).

Vedantham, S.

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Verdun, F. R.

von Karsa, L.

N. Perry, M. Broeders, C. de Wolf, S. Törnberg, R. Holland, and L. von Karsa, European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis, 4th ed. (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2006).

Wagner, R. F.

A. E. Burgess, R. F. Wagner, R. J. Jennings, and H. B. Barlow, “Efficiency of human visual signal discrimination,” Science 214, 93-94 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Watson, A. B.

M. P. Eckstein, A. J. Ahumada, and A. B. Watson, “Image discrimination models predict signal detection in natural medical image backgrounds,” Proc. SPIE 3016, 44-56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, B. T. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Evaluation of internal noise methods for Hotelling observer models,” Med. Phys. 34, 3312-3322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Adaptive detection mechanisms in globally statistically nonstationary-oriented noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1549-1558 (2006).

Y. Zhang, B. P. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Task-based model/human observer evaluation of SPIHT wavelet compression with human visual system-based quantization,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 324-336 (2005).

Y. Zhang, B. T. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Automated optimization of JPEG 2000 encoder options based on model observer performance for detecting variable signals in X-ray coronary angiograms,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 459-474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Eckstein, Y. Zhang, B. Pham, and C. K. Abbey, “Optimization of model observer performance for signal known exactly but variable tasks leads to optimized performance in signal known statistically tasks,” Proc. SPIE 5034, 123-134 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Acad. Radiol.

R. Saunders, E. Samei, J. Baker, and D. Delong, “Simulation of mammographic lesions,” Acad. Radiol. 13, 860-870 (2006).

Y. Zhang, B. P. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Task-based model/human observer evaluation of SPIHT wavelet compression with human visual system-based quantization,” Acad. Radiol. 12, 324-336 (2005).

Br. J. Radiol.

D. S. Brettle, E. Berry, and M. A. Smith, “The effect of experience on detectability in local area anatomical noise,” Br. J. Radiol. 80, 186-193 (2007).

Eur. J. Radiol.

S. Muller, “Full-field digital mammography designed as a complete system,” Eur. J. Radiol. 39, 25-34 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Optimal shifted estimates of human-observer templates in two-alternative forced choice experiments,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 429-440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. T. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Automated optimization of JPEG 2000 encoder options based on model observer performance for detecting variable signals in X-ray coronary angiograms,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 23, 459-474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

F. O. Bochud, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. III. Calculation of figures of merit for model observers in statistically nonstationary backgrounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 193-205 (2000).
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A. E. Burgess, “Statistically defined backgrounds: Performance of a modified nonprewhitening observer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1237-1242 (1994).

A. E. Burgess and H. Ghandeharian, “Visual signal detection. I. Ability to use phase information,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 900-905 (1984).

K. J. Myers, H. H. Barrett, M. C. Borgstrom, D. D. Patton, and G. W. Seeley, “Effect of noise correlation on detectability of disk signals in medical imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1752-1759 (1985).

K. J. Myers and H. H. Barrett, “Addition of a channel mechanism to the ideal-observer model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2447-2457 (1987).

J. P. Rolland and H. H. Barrett, “Effect of random background inhomogeneity on observer detection performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 649-658 (1992).

C. K. Abbey and H. H. Barrett, “Human- and model-observer performance in ramp-spectrum noise: effects of regularization and object variability,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 473-487 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, C. K. Abbey, and M. P. Eckstein, “Adaptive detection mechanisms in globally statistically nonstationary-oriented noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1549-1558 (2006).

C. Castella, C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, F. R. Verdun, K. Kinkel, and F. O. Bochud, “Human linear template with mammographic backgrounds estimated with a genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B1-B12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Burgess and P. F. Judy, “Signal detection in power-law noise: effect of spectrum exponents,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B52-B60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Gallas, G. A. Pennello, and K. J. Myers, “Multireader multicase variance analysis for binary data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B70-B80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Vision

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Classification image analysis: Estimation and statistical inference for two-alternative forced-choice experiments,” J. Vision 2, 66-78 (2002).

A. J. Ahumada, Jr., “Classification image weights and internal noise level estimation,” J. Vision 2, 121-131 (2002).

J. A. Solomon, “Noise reveals visual mechanisms of detection and discrimination,” J. Vision 2, 105-120 (2002).

R. F. Murray, P. J. Bennett, and A. B. Sekuler, “Optimal methods for calculating classification images: Weighted sums,” J. Vision 2, 79-104 (2002).

Med. Phys.

A. E. Burgess, “On the noise variance of a digital mammography system,” Med. Phys. 31, 1987-1995 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Burgess, “Comparison of receiver operating characteristics and forced choice observer performance measurement methods,” Med. Phys. 22, 643-655 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Burgess, F. L. Jacobson, and P. F. Judy, “Human observer detection experiments with mammograms and power-law noise,” Med. Phys. 28, 419-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, B. T. Pham, and M. P. Eckstein, “Evaluation of internal noise methods for Hotelling observer models,” Med. Phys. 34, 3312-3322 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Vedantham, A. Karellas, S. Suryanarayanan, D. Albagli, S. Han, E. J. Tkaczyk, C. E. Landberg, B. Opsahl-Ong, P. R. Granfors, I. Levis, C. J. D'Orsi, and R. E. Hendrick, “Full breast digital mammography with an amorphous silicon-based flat panel detector: Physical characteristics of a clinical prototype,” Med. Phys. 27, 558-567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. S.I.D.

P. G. J. Barten, “The SQRI method: a new method for the evaluation of visible resolution on a display,” Proc. S.I.D. 28, 253-262 (1987).

Proc. SPIE

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human-observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-36 (2002).

R. Saunders and E. Samei, “Characterization of breast masses for simulation purposes,” Proc. SPIE 5372, 242-250 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Castella, K. Kinkel, M. P. Eckstein, C. K. Abbey, F. R. Verdun, R. S. Saunders, E. Samei, and F. O. Bochud, “Mass detection on mammograms: signal variations and performance changes for human and model observers,” Proc. SPIE 6917, 69170K (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Eckstein and C. K. Abbey, “Model observers for signal-known-statistically tasks (SKS),” Proc. SPIE 4324, 91-102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Eckstein, B. Pham, and C. K. Abbey, “Effect of image compression for model and human observers in signal-known-statistically tasks,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 13-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Eckstein, Y. Zhang, B. Pham, and C. K. Abbey, “Optimization of model observer performance for signal known exactly but variable tasks leads to optimized performance in signal known statistically tasks,” Proc. SPIE 5034, 123-134 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Judy, M. F. Kijewski, and R. G. Svensson, “Observer detection performance loss: target-size uncertainty,” Proc. SPIE 3036, 39-47 (1997).

C. K. Abbey and M. P. Eckstein, “Maximum-likelihood and maximum-a-posteriori estimates of human-observer templates,” Proc. SPIE 4324, 114-122 (2001).

C. K. Abbey, M. P. Eckstein, S. S. Shimozaki, A. H. Baydush, D. M. Catarious, and C. E. Floyd, “Human observer templates for detection of a simulated lesion in mammographic images,” Proc. SPIE 4686, 25-35 (2002).

M. P. Eckstein, A. J. Ahumada, and A. B. Watson, “Image discrimination models predict signal detection in natural medical image backgrounds,” Proc. SPIE 3016, 44-56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Radiology

Y. Jiang, D. L. Miglioretti, C. E. Metz, and R. A. Schmidt, “Breast cancer detection rate: designing imaging trials to demonstrate improvements,” Radiology 243, 360-367 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. E. Burgess, R. F. Wagner, R. J. Jennings, and H. B. Barlow, “Efficiency of human visual signal discrimination,” Science 214, 93-94 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

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