Abstract

When the sensory system is subjected to ambiguous input, perception alternates between interpretations in a seemingly random fashion. Although neuronal noise obviously plays a role, the neural mechanism for the generation of randomness at the slow time scale of the percept durations (multiple seconds) is unresolved. Here significant nonzero serial correlations are reported in series of visual percept durations (to the author's knowledge for the first time accounting for duration impurities caused by reaction time, drift, and incomplete percepts). Serial correlations for perceptual rivalry using structure-from-motion ambiguity were smaller than for binocular rivalry using orthogonal gratings. A spectrum of computational models is considered, and it is concluded that noise in adaptation of percept-related neurons causes the serial correlations. This work bridges, in a physiologically plausible way, widely appreciated deterministic modeling and randomness in experimental observations of visual rivalry.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (3)

J. W. Brascamp, J. Pearson, R. Blake, and A. V. van den Berg, “Intermittent ambiguous stimuli: Implicit memory causes periodic perceptual alternations,” J. Vision 9(3):3, 1-23 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Gigante, M. Mattia, J. Braun, and P. Del Giudice, “Bistable perception modeled as competing stochastic integrations at two levels,” PLOS Comput. Biol. 5(7), e1000430 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Borisyuk, D. Chik, and Y. Kazanovich, “Visual perception of ambiguous figures: synchronization based neural models,” Biol. Cybern. 100, 491-504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

P. C. Klink, R. van Ee, and R. J. A. van Wezel, “General validity of Levelt's propositions reveals common computational mechanisms for visual rivalry,” PLoS one 3(10), e3473 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Klink, R. van Ee, M. M. Nijs, G. J. Brouwer, A. J. Noest, and R. J. A. van Wezel, “Early interactions between neuronal adaptation and voluntary control determine perceptual choices in bistable vision,” J. Vision 8(5):16, 1-18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Pearson and J. W. Brascamp, “Sensory memory for ambiguous vision,” Trends Cogn. Sci. 12, 334-341 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Hupé, L. M. Joffo, and D. Pressnitzer, “Bistability for audiovisual stimuli: Perceptual decision is modality specific,” J. Vision 8(7):1, 1-15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Holcombe and T. Seizova-Cajic, “Illusory motion reversals from unambiguous motion with visual, proprioceptive, and tactile stimuli,” Vision Res. 48, 1743-1757 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Brascamp, T. H. J. Knapen, R. Kanai, A. J. Noest, R. van Ee, and A. V. van den Berg, “Multi-timescale perceptual history resolves visual ambiguity,” PLoS one e1497 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

S. Suzuki and M. Grabowecky, “Long-term speeding in perceptual switches mediated by attention-dependent plasticity in cortical visual processing,” Neuron 56, 741-753 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Noest, R. van Ee, M. M. Nijs, and R. J. A. van Wezel, “Percept-choice sequences driven by interrupted ambiguous stimuli: A low-level neural model,” J. Vision 7(8):10, 1-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Moreno-Bote, J. Rinzel, and N. Rubin, “Noise-induced alternations in an attractor network model of perceptual bi-stability,” J. Neurophysiol. 98, 1125-1139 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wanning, V. Rodriguez, and W. A. Freiwald, “Attention to surfaces modulates motion processing in extrastriate area MT,” Neuron 54, 639-651 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Wilson, “Minimal physiological conditions for binocular rivalry and rivalry memory,” Vision Res. 47, 2741-2750 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Deco and D. Marti, “Deterministic analysis of stochastic bifurcations in multi-stable neurodynamical systems,” Biol. Cybern. 96, 487-496 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. J. van Dam, R. Mulder, A. J. Noest, J. W. Brascamp, A. V. van den Berg, and R. van Ee, “Sequential dependency in percept durations for binocular rivalry,” J. Vision 7(9), 53 (2007).

2006 (11)

C. L. Paffen, D. Alais, and F. A. Verstraten, “Attention speeds binocular rivalry,” Psychol. Sci. 17, 752-756 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. J. van Dam and R. van Ee, “Retinal image shifts, but not eye movements per se, cause alternations in awareness during binocular rivalry,” J. Vision 6(11):3, 1172-1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. J. van Dam and R. van Ee, “The role of saccades in exerting voluntary control in perceptual and binocular rivalry,” Vision Res. 46, 787-799 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Pressnitzer and J. M. Hupé, “Temporal dynamics of auditory and visual bistability reveal common principles of perceptual organization,” Curr. Biol. 16, 1351-1357 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Brouwer and R. van Ee, “Endogenous influences on perceptual bistability depend on exogenous stimulus characteristics,” Vision Res. 46, 3393-3402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. van Ee, A. J. Noest, J. W. Brascamp, and A. V. van den Berg, “Attentional control over either of the two competing percepts of ambiguous stimuli revealed by a two-parameter analysis: Means don't make the difference,” Vision Res. 46, 3129-3141 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Kim, M. Grabowecky, and S. Suzuki, “Stochastic resonance in binocular rivalry,” Vision Res. 46, 392-406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Brascamp, R. van Ee, A. J. Noest, R. H. A. H. Jacobs, and A. V. van den Berg, “The time course of binocular rivalry reveals a fundamental role of noise,” J. Vision 6, 1244-1256 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lankheet, “Unraveling adaptation and mutual inhibition in perceptual rivalry,” J. Vision 6, 304-310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Koene, “A model for perceptual averaging and stochastic bistable behavior and the role of voluntary control,” Neural Comput. 18, 3069-3096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Gao, V. A. Billock, I. Merk, W. W. Tung, K. D. White, J. G. Harris, and V. P. Roychowdhury, “Inertia and memory in ambiguous visual perception,” Lang. Cognit. Processes 7, 105-112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

P. Mamassian and R. Goutcher, “Temporal dynamics in bistable perception,” J. Vision 5, 361-375 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. van Ee, “Dynamics of perceptual bi-stability for stereoscopic slant rivalry and a comparison with grating, house-face, and Necker cube rivalry,” Vision Res. 45, 29-40 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Brascamp, R. van Ee, W. R. Pestman, and A. V. van den Berg, “Distributions of alternation rates in various forms of bistable perception,” J. Vision 5, 287-298 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. van Ee, L. C. J. van Dam, and G. J. Brouwer, “Voluntary control and the dynamics of perceptual bi-stability,” Vision Res. 45, 41-55 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

L. C. J. van Dam and R. van Ee, “The role of (micro) saccades and blinks in perceptual bistability from slant rivalry,” Vision Res. 45, 2417-2435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Freeman, “Multistage model for binocular rivalry,” J. Neurophysiol. 94, 4412-4420 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. G. S. van der Ven, F. M. Gremmen, and J. C. Smit, “A statistical model for binocular rivalry,” Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 58, 97-116 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

Y. H. Zhou, J. B. Gao, K. D. White, I. Merk, and K. Yao, “Perceptual dominance time distributions in multistable visual perception,” Biol. Cybern. 4, 256-263 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Meng and F. Tong, “Can attention selectively bias bistable perception? Differences between binocular rivalry and ambiguous figures,” J. Vision 4, 539-551 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen and S. He, “Local factors determine the stabilization of monocular ambiguous and binocular rivalry stimuli,” Curr. Biol. 14, 1013-1017 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

K. Hol, A. Koene, and R. van Ee, “Attention-biased multi-stable surface perception in three-dimensional structure-from-motion,” J. Vision 3, 486-498 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Wilson, “Computational evidence for a rivalry hierarchy in vision,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 14499-14503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Stollenwerk and M. Bode, “Lateral neural model of binocular rivalry,” Neural Comput. 15, 2863-2882 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Hock, G. Schoner, and M. Giese, “The dynamical foundations of motion pattern formation: Stability, selective adaptation, and perceptual continuity,” Percept. Psychophys. 65, 429-457 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Murata, N. Matsui, S. Miyauchi, Y. Kakita, and T. Yanagida, “Discrete stochastic process underlying perceptual rivalry,” NeuroReport 14, 1347-1352 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

C. R. Laing and C. C. Chow, “A spiking neuron model for binocular rivalry,” J. Comput. Neurosci. 12, 39-53 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake and N. K. Logothetis, “Visual competition,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3, 1-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Merk and J. Schnakenberg, “A stochastic model of multistable visual perception,” Biol. Cybern. 86, 111-116 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suzuki and M. Grabowecky, “Evidence for perceptual “trapping” and adaptation in multistable binocular rivalry,” Neuron 36, 143-157 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Leopold, M. Wilke, A. Maier, and N. K. Logothetis, “Stable perception of visually ambiguous patterns,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 605-609 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. J. Kalarickal and J. A. Marshall, “Neural model of temporal and stochastic properties of binocular rivalry,” Neurocomputing 32-33, 843-853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. A. Leopold and N. K. Logothetis, “Multistable phenomena: changing views in perception,” Trends Cogn. Sci. 3, 254-264 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

P. Dayan, “A hierarchical model of binocular rivalry,” Neural Comput. 10, 1119-1135 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Lumer, “A neural model of binocular integration and rivalry based on the coordination of action-potential timing in primary visual cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 8, 553-561 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sengpiel, R. J. Baddeley, T. C. B. Freeman, R. Harrad, and C. Blakemore, “Different mechanisms underlie three inhibitory phenomena in cat area 17,” Vision Res. 38, 2067-2080 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

N. K. Logothetis, D. A. Leopold, and D. L. Sheinberg, “What is rivalling during binocular rivalry?,” Nature 380, 621-624 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

S. R. Lehky, “Binocular rivalry is not chaotic,” Proc. R. Soc. London 259, 71-76 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. Richards, H. R. Wilson, and M. A. Sommer, “Chaos in percepts,” Biol. Cybern. 70, 345-349 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

T. J. Mueller, “A physiological model of binocular rivalry,” Visual Neurosci. 4, 63-73 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Blake, D. H. Westendorf, and R. Fox, “Temporal pertubations of binocular rivalry,” Percept. Psychophys. 48, 593-602 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

R. Blake, “A neural theory of binocular rivalry,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 145-167 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Mueller and R. Blake, “A fresh look at the temporal dynamics of binocular rivalry,” Biol. Cybern. 61, 223-232 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

S. R. Lehky, “An astable multivibrator model of binocular rivalry,” Perception 17, 215-228 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

A. H. Kawamoto and J. A. Anderson, “A neural network model of multistable perception,” Acta Psychol. 59, 35-65 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

K. Matsuoka, “The dynamic model of binocular rivalry,” Biol. Cybern. 49, 201-208 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

A. De Marco, P. Penengo, A. Trabucco, A. Borsellino, F. Carlini, M. Riani, and M. T. Tuccio, “Stochastic models and fluctuation in reversal time of ambiguous figures,” Perception 6, 645-656 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

P. Walker, “Stochastic properties of binocular rivalry alternations,” Percept. Psychophys. 18, 467-473 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

M. M. Taylor and K. D. Aldridge, “Stochastic processes in reversing figure perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 16, 9-25 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. Borsellino, A. De Marco, A. Allazetta, A. Rinesi, and B. Bartolini, “Reversal time distribution in the perception of visual ambiguous stimuli,” Kybernetik 10, 139-144 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

R. Blake, R. Fox, and C. McIntyre, “Stochastic properties of stabilized-image binocular rivalry alternations,” J. Exp. Psychol. 88, 327-332 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (2)

R. Fox and J. Herrmann, “Stochastic properties of binocular rivalry alternations,” Percept. Psychophys. 2, 432-436 (1967).
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W. J. M. Levelt, “Note on the distribution of dominance times in binocular rivalry,” Br. J. Psychol. 58, 143-145 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

L. T. Alexander and P. D. Bricker, “Figure ground-contrast in binocular rivalry,” J. Exp. Psychol. 44, 452-454 (1952).
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Alais, D.

C. L. Paffen, D. Alais, and F. A. Verstraten, “Attention speeds binocular rivalry,” Psychol. Sci. 17, 752-756 (2006).
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D. Alais and R. Blake, Binocular Rivalry (The MIT Press, 2005).

Aldridge, K. D.

M. M. Taylor and K. D. Aldridge, “Stochastic processes in reversing figure perception,” Percept. Psychophys. 16, 9-25 (1974).
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Alexander, L. T.

L. T. Alexander and P. D. Bricker, “Figure ground-contrast in binocular rivalry,” J. Exp. Psychol. 44, 452-454 (1952).
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Allazetta, A.

A. Borsellino, A. De Marco, A. Allazetta, A. Rinesi, and B. Bartolini, “Reversal time distribution in the perception of visual ambiguous stimuli,” Kybernetik 10, 139-144 (1972).
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Anderson, J. A.

A. H. Kawamoto and J. A. Anderson, “A neural network model of multistable perception,” Acta Psychol. 59, 35-65 (1985).
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Baddeley, R. J.

F. Sengpiel, R. J. Baddeley, T. C. B. Freeman, R. Harrad, and C. Blakemore, “Different mechanisms underlie three inhibitory phenomena in cat area 17,” Vision Res. 38, 2067-2080 (1998).
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Bartolini, B.

A. Borsellino, A. De Marco, A. Allazetta, A. Rinesi, and B. Bartolini, “Reversal time distribution in the perception of visual ambiguous stimuli,” Kybernetik 10, 139-144 (1972).
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Billock, V. A.

J. B. Gao, V. A. Billock, I. Merk, W. W. Tung, K. D. White, J. G. Harris, and V. P. Roychowdhury, “Inertia and memory in ambiguous visual perception,” Lang. Cognit. Processes 7, 105-112 (2006).
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Blake, R.

J. W. Brascamp, J. Pearson, R. Blake, and A. V. van den Berg, “Intermittent ambiguous stimuli: Implicit memory causes periodic perceptual alternations,” J. Vision 9(3):3, 1-23 (2009).
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R. Blake and N. K. Logothetis, “Visual competition,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3, 1-11 (2002).
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R. Blake, D. H. Westendorf, and R. Fox, “Temporal pertubations of binocular rivalry,” Percept. Psychophys. 48, 593-602 (1990).
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T. J. Mueller and R. Blake, “A fresh look at the temporal dynamics of binocular rivalry,” Biol. Cybern. 61, 223-232 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake, “A neural theory of binocular rivalry,” Psychol. Rev. 96, 145-167 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake, R. Fox, and C. McIntyre, “Stochastic properties of stabilized-image binocular rivalry alternations,” J. Exp. Psychol. 88, 327-332 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Alais and R. Blake, Binocular Rivalry (The MIT Press, 2005).

Blakemore, C.

F. Sengpiel, R. J. Baddeley, T. C. B. Freeman, R. Harrad, and C. Blakemore, “Different mechanisms underlie three inhibitory phenomena in cat area 17,” Vision Res. 38, 2067-2080 (1998).
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Bode, M.

L. Stollenwerk and M. Bode, “Lateral neural model of binocular rivalry,” Neural Comput. 15, 2863-2882 (2003).
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Borisyuk, R.

R. Borisyuk, D. Chik, and Y. Kazanovich, “Visual perception of ambiguous figures: synchronization based neural models,” Biol. Cybern. 100, 491-504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borsellino, A.

A. De Marco, P. Penengo, A. Trabucco, A. Borsellino, F. Carlini, M. Riani, and M. T. Tuccio, “Stochastic models and fluctuation in reversal time of ambiguous figures,” Perception 6, 645-656 (1977).
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A. Borsellino, A. De Marco, A. Allazetta, A. Rinesi, and B. Bartolini, “Reversal time distribution in the perception of visual ambiguous stimuli,” Kybernetik 10, 139-144 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brascamp, J. W.

J. W. Brascamp, J. Pearson, R. Blake, and A. V. van den Berg, “Intermittent ambiguous stimuli: Implicit memory causes periodic perceptual alternations,” J. Vision 9(3):3, 1-23 (2009).
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J. W. Brascamp, T. H. J. Knapen, R. Kanai, A. J. Noest, R. van Ee, and A. V. van den Berg, “Multi-timescale perceptual history resolves visual ambiguity,” PLoS one e1497 (2008).
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J. Pearson and J. W. Brascamp, “Sensory memory for ambiguous vision,” Trends Cogn. Sci. 12, 334-341 (2008).
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L. C. J. van Dam, R. Mulder, A. J. Noest, J. W. Brascamp, A. V. van den Berg, and R. van Ee, “Sequential dependency in percept durations for binocular rivalry,” J. Vision 7(9), 53 (2007).

J. W. Brascamp, R. van Ee, A. J. Noest, R. H. A. H. Jacobs, and A. V. van den Berg, “The time course of binocular rivalry reveals a fundamental role of noise,” J. Vision 6, 1244-1256 (2006).
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R. van Ee, A. J. Noest, J. W. Brascamp, and A. V. van den Berg, “Attentional control over either of the two competing percepts of ambiguous stimuli revealed by a two-parameter analysis: Means don't make the difference,” Vision Res. 46, 3129-3141 (2006).
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J. W. Brascamp, R. van Ee, W. R. Pestman, and A. V. van den Berg, “Distributions of alternation rates in various forms of bistable perception,” J. Vision 5, 287-298 (2005).
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Braun, J.

G. Gigante, M. Mattia, J. Braun, and P. Del Giudice, “Bistable perception modeled as competing stochastic integrations at two levels,” PLOS Comput. Biol. 5(7), e1000430 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bricker, P. D.

L. T. Alexander and P. D. Bricker, “Figure ground-contrast in binocular rivalry,” J. Exp. Psychol. 44, 452-454 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brouwer, G. J.

P. C. Klink, R. van Ee, M. M. Nijs, G. J. Brouwer, A. J. Noest, and R. J. A. van Wezel, “Early interactions between neuronal adaptation and voluntary control determine perceptual choices in bistable vision,” J. Vision 8(5):16, 1-18 (2008).
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G. J. Brouwer and R. van Ee, “Endogenous influences on perceptual bistability depend on exogenous stimulus characteristics,” Vision Res. 46, 3393-3402 (2006).
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R. van Ee, L. C. J. van Dam, and G. J. Brouwer, “Voluntary control and the dynamics of perceptual bi-stability,” Vision Res. 45, 41-55 (2005), doi:.
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Carlini, F.

A. De Marco, P. Penengo, A. Trabucco, A. Borsellino, F. Carlini, M. Riani, and M. T. Tuccio, “Stochastic models and fluctuation in reversal time of ambiguous figures,” Perception 6, 645-656 (1977).
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Chen, X.

X. Chen and S. He, “Local factors determine the stabilization of monocular ambiguous and binocular rivalry stimuli,” Curr. Biol. 14, 1013-1017 (2004).
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Chik, D.

R. Borisyuk, D. Chik, and Y. Kazanovich, “Visual perception of ambiguous figures: synchronization based neural models,” Biol. Cybern. 100, 491-504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, C. C.

C. R. Laing and C. C. Chow, “A spiking neuron model for binocular rivalry,” J. Comput. Neurosci. 12, 39-53 (2002).
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Dayan, P.

P. Dayan, “A hierarchical model of binocular rivalry,” Neural Comput. 10, 1119-1135 (1998).
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De Marco, A.

A. De Marco, P. Penengo, A. Trabucco, A. Borsellino, F. Carlini, M. Riani, and M. T. Tuccio, “Stochastic models and fluctuation in reversal time of ambiguous figures,” Perception 6, 645-656 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Borsellino, A. De Marco, A. Allazetta, A. Rinesi, and B. Bartolini, “Reversal time distribution in the perception of visual ambiguous stimuli,” Kybernetik 10, 139-144 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deco, G.

G. Deco and D. Marti, “Deterministic analysis of stochastic bifurcations in multi-stable neurodynamical systems,” Biol. Cybern. 96, 487-496 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Giudice, P.

G. Gigante, M. Mattia, J. Braun, and P. Del Giudice, “Bistable perception modeled as competing stochastic integrations at two levels,” PLOS Comput. Biol. 5(7), e1000430 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, R.

R. Blake, D. H. Westendorf, and R. Fox, “Temporal pertubations of binocular rivalry,” Percept. Psychophys. 48, 593-602 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Blake, R. Fox, and C. McIntyre, “Stochastic properties of stabilized-image binocular rivalry alternations,” J. Exp. Psychol. 88, 327-332 (1971).
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R. Fox and J. Herrmann, “Stochastic properties of binocular rivalry alternations,” Percept. Psychophys. 2, 432-436 (1967).
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Freeman, A. W.

A. W. Freeman, “Multistage model for binocular rivalry,” J. Neurophysiol. 94, 4412-4420 (2005).
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Freeman, T. C. B.

F. Sengpiel, R. J. Baddeley, T. C. B. Freeman, R. Harrad, and C. Blakemore, “Different mechanisms underlie three inhibitory phenomena in cat area 17,” Vision Res. 38, 2067-2080 (1998).
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A. Wanning, V. Rodriguez, and W. A. Freiwald, “Attention to surfaces modulates motion processing in extrastriate area MT,” Neuron 54, 639-651 (2007).
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Gao, J. B.

J. B. Gao, V. A. Billock, I. Merk, W. W. Tung, K. D. White, J. G. Harris, and V. P. Roychowdhury, “Inertia and memory in ambiguous visual perception,” Lang. Cognit. Processes 7, 105-112 (2006).
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Y. H. Zhou, J. B. Gao, K. D. White, I. Merk, and K. Yao, “Perceptual dominance time distributions in multistable visual perception,” Biol. Cybern. 4, 256-263 (2004).
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Giese, M.

H. S. Hock, G. Schoner, and M. Giese, “The dynamical foundations of motion pattern formation: Stability, selective adaptation, and perceptual continuity,” Percept. Psychophys. 65, 429-457 (2003).
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Gigante, G.

G. Gigante, M. Mattia, J. Braun, and P. Del Giudice, “Bistable perception modeled as competing stochastic integrations at two levels,” PLOS Comput. Biol. 5(7), e1000430 (2009).
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Goutcher, R.

P. Mamassian and R. Goutcher, “Temporal dynamics in bistable perception,” J. Vision 5, 361-375 (2005).
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Grabowecky, M.

S. Suzuki and M. Grabowecky, “Long-term speeding in perceptual switches mediated by attention-dependent plasticity in cortical visual processing,” Neuron 56, 741-753 (2007).
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Y. J. Kim, M. Grabowecky, and S. Suzuki, “Stochastic resonance in binocular rivalry,” Vision Res. 46, 392-406 (2006).
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S. Suzuki and M. Grabowecky, “Evidence for perceptual “trapping” and adaptation in multistable binocular rivalry,” Neuron 36, 143-157 (2002).
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Gremmen, F. M.

A. H. G. S. van der Ven, F. M. Gremmen, and J. C. Smit, “A statistical model for binocular rivalry,” Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 58, 97-116 (2005).
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Harrad, R.

F. Sengpiel, R. J. Baddeley, T. C. B. Freeman, R. Harrad, and C. Blakemore, “Different mechanisms underlie three inhibitory phenomena in cat area 17,” Vision Res. 38, 2067-2080 (1998).
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Harris, J. G.

J. B. Gao, V. A. Billock, I. Merk, W. W. Tung, K. D. White, J. G. Harris, and V. P. Roychowdhury, “Inertia and memory in ambiguous visual perception,” Lang. Cognit. Processes 7, 105-112 (2006).
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He, S.

X. Chen and S. He, “Local factors determine the stabilization of monocular ambiguous and binocular rivalry stimuli,” Curr. Biol. 14, 1013-1017 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

R. Fox and J. Herrmann, “Stochastic properties of binocular rivalry alternations,” Percept. Psychophys. 2, 432-436 (1967).
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Hock, H. S.

H. S. Hock, G. Schoner, and M. Giese, “The dynamical foundations of motion pattern formation: Stability, selective adaptation, and perceptual continuity,” Percept. Psychophys. 65, 429-457 (2003).
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Hol, K.

K. Hol, A. Koene, and R. van Ee, “Attention-biased multi-stable surface perception in three-dimensional structure-from-motion,” J. Vision 3, 486-498 (2003).
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A. O. Holcombe and T. Seizova-Cajic, “Illusory motion reversals from unambiguous motion with visual, proprioceptive, and tactile stimuli,” Vision Res. 48, 1743-1757 (2008).
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Hupé, J. M.

J. M. Hupé, L. M. Joffo, and D. Pressnitzer, “Bistability for audiovisual stimuli: Perceptual decision is modality specific,” J. Vision 8(7):1, 1-15 (2008).
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D. Pressnitzer and J. M. Hupé, “Temporal dynamics of auditory and visual bistability reveal common principles of perceptual organization,” Curr. Biol. 16, 1351-1357 (2006).
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Hupé, J.-M.

N. Rubin and J.-M. Hupé, “Dynamics of perceptual bistability: Plaids and binocular rivalry compared,” in Binocular rivalry, D.Alais and R.Blake, eds. (The MIT Press, 2005), pp. 137-154.

Jacobs, R. H. A. H.

J. W. Brascamp, R. van Ee, A. J. Noest, R. H. A. H. Jacobs, and A. V. van den Berg, “The time course of binocular rivalry reveals a fundamental role of noise,” J. Vision 6, 1244-1256 (2006).
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Joffo, L. M.

J. M. Hupé, L. M. Joffo, and D. Pressnitzer, “Bistability for audiovisual stimuli: Perceptual decision is modality specific,” J. Vision 8(7):1, 1-15 (2008).
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Kakita, Y.

T. Murata, N. Matsui, S. Miyauchi, Y. Kakita, and T. Yanagida, “Discrete stochastic process underlying perceptual rivalry,” NeuroReport 14, 1347-1352 (2003).
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Kalarickal, G. J.

G. J. Kalarickal and J. A. Marshall, “Neural model of temporal and stochastic properties of binocular rivalry,” Neurocomputing 32-33, 843-853 (2000).
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Kanai, R.

J. W. Brascamp, T. H. J. Knapen, R. Kanai, A. J. Noest, R. van Ee, and A. V. van den Berg, “Multi-timescale perceptual history resolves visual ambiguity,” PLoS one e1497 (2008).
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Kawamoto, A. H.

A. H. Kawamoto and J. A. Anderson, “A neural network model of multistable perception,” Acta Psychol. 59, 35-65 (1985).
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Kazanovich, Y.

R. Borisyuk, D. Chik, and Y. Kazanovich, “Visual perception of ambiguous figures: synchronization based neural models,” Biol. Cybern. 100, 491-504 (2009).
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Kim, Y. J.

Y. J. Kim, M. Grabowecky, and S. Suzuki, “Stochastic resonance in binocular rivalry,” Vision Res. 46, 392-406 (2006).
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P. C. Klink, R. van Ee, and R. J. A. van Wezel, “General validity of Levelt's propositions reveals common computational mechanisms for visual rivalry,” PLoS one 3(10), e3473 (2008).
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P. C. Klink, R. van Ee, M. M. Nijs, G. J. Brouwer, A. J. Noest, and R. J. A. van Wezel, “Early interactions between neuronal adaptation and voluntary control determine perceptual choices in bistable vision,” J. Vision 8(5):16, 1-18 (2008).
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Knapen, T. H. J.

J. W. Brascamp, T. H. J. Knapen, R. Kanai, A. J. Noest, R. van Ee, and A. V. van den Berg, “Multi-timescale perceptual history resolves visual ambiguity,” PLoS one e1497 (2008).
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A. Koene, “A model for perceptual averaging and stochastic bistable behavior and the role of voluntary control,” Neural Comput. 18, 3069-3096 (2006).
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K. Hol, A. Koene, and R. van Ee, “Attention-biased multi-stable surface perception in three-dimensional structure-from-motion,” J. Vision 3, 486-498 (2003).
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Laing, C. R.

C. R. Laing and C. C. Chow, “A spiking neuron model for binocular rivalry,” J. Comput. Neurosci. 12, 39-53 (2002).
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J. M. Lankheet, “Unraveling adaptation and mutual inhibition in perceptual rivalry,” J. Vision 6, 304-310 (2006).
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S. R. Lehky, “Binocular rivalry is not chaotic,” Proc. R. Soc. London 259, 71-76 (1995).
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D. A. Leopold, M. Wilke, A. Maier, and N. K. Logothetis, “Stable perception of visually ambiguous patterns,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 605-609 (2002).
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D. A. Leopold and N. K. Logothetis, “Multistable phenomena: changing views in perception,” Trends Cogn. Sci. 3, 254-264 (1999).
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N. K. Logothetis, D. A. Leopold, and D. L. Sheinberg, “What is rivalling during binocular rivalry?,” Nature 380, 621-624 (1996).
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W. J. M. Levelt, “Note on the distribution of dominance times in binocular rivalry,” Br. J. Psychol. 58, 143-145 (1967).
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W. J. M. Levelt, On Binocular Rivalry (Royal van Gorcum, 1965).

Logothetis, N. K.

R. Blake and N. K. Logothetis, “Visual competition,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3, 1-11 (2002).
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D. A. Leopold, M. Wilke, A. Maier, and N. K. Logothetis, “Stable perception of visually ambiguous patterns,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 605-609 (2002).
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D. A. Leopold and N. K. Logothetis, “Multistable phenomena: changing views in perception,” Trends Cogn. Sci. 3, 254-264 (1999).
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N. K. Logothetis, D. A. Leopold, and D. L. Sheinberg, “What is rivalling during binocular rivalry?,” Nature 380, 621-624 (1996).
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E. D. Lumer, “A neural model of binocular integration and rivalry based on the coordination of action-potential timing in primary visual cortex,” Cereb. Cortex 8, 553-561 (1998).
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D. A. Leopold, M. Wilke, A. Maier, and N. K. Logothetis, “Stable perception of visually ambiguous patterns,” Nat. Neurosci. 5, 605-609 (2002).
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Mamassian, P.

P. Mamassian and R. Goutcher, “Temporal dynamics in bistable perception,” J. Vision 5, 361-375 (2005).
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Marshall, J. A.

G. J. Kalarickal and J. A. Marshall, “Neural model of temporal and stochastic properties of binocular rivalry,” Neurocomputing 32-33, 843-853 (2000).
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Marti, D.

G. Deco and D. Marti, “Deterministic analysis of stochastic bifurcations in multi-stable neurodynamical systems,” Biol. Cybern. 96, 487-496 (2007).
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Matsui, N.

T. Murata, N. Matsui, S. Miyauchi, Y. Kakita, and T. Yanagida, “Discrete stochastic process underlying perceptual rivalry,” NeuroReport 14, 1347-1352 (2003).
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K. Matsuoka, “The dynamic model of binocular rivalry,” Biol. Cybern. 49, 201-208 (1984).
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G. Gigante, M. Mattia, J. Braun, and P. Del Giudice, “Bistable perception modeled as competing stochastic integrations at two levels,” PLOS Comput. Biol. 5(7), e1000430 (2009).
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McIntyre, C.

R. Blake, R. Fox, and C. McIntyre, “Stochastic properties of stabilized-image binocular rivalry alternations,” J. Exp. Psychol. 88, 327-332 (1971).
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M. Meng and F. Tong, “Can attention selectively bias bistable perception? Differences between binocular rivalry and ambiguous figures,” J. Vision 4, 539-551 (2004).
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J. B. Gao, V. A. Billock, I. Merk, W. W. Tung, K. D. White, J. G. Harris, and V. P. Roychowdhury, “Inertia and memory in ambiguous visual perception,” Lang. Cognit. Processes 7, 105-112 (2006).
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T. Murata, N. Matsui, S. Miyauchi, Y. Kakita, and T. Yanagida, “Discrete stochastic process underlying perceptual rivalry,” NeuroReport 14, 1347-1352 (2003).
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L. C. J. van Dam, R. Mulder, A. J. Noest, J. W. Brascamp, A. V. van den Berg, and R. van Ee, “Sequential dependency in percept durations for binocular rivalry,” J. Vision 7(9), 53 (2007).

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T. Murata, N. Matsui, S. Miyauchi, Y. Kakita, and T. Yanagida, “Discrete stochastic process underlying perceptual rivalry,” NeuroReport 14, 1347-1352 (2003).
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P. C. Klink, R. van Ee, M. M. Nijs, G. J. Brouwer, A. J. Noest, and R. J. A. van Wezel, “Early interactions between neuronal adaptation and voluntary control determine perceptual choices in bistable vision,” J. Vision 8(5):16, 1-18 (2008).
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P. C. Klink, R. van Ee, M. M. Nijs, G. J. Brouwer, A. J. Noest, and R. J. A. van Wezel, “Early interactions between neuronal adaptation and voluntary control determine perceptual choices in bistable vision,” J. Vision 8(5):16, 1-18 (2008).
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J. W. Brascamp, T. H. J. Knapen, R. Kanai, A. J. Noest, R. van Ee, and A. V. van den Berg, “Multi-timescale perceptual history resolves visual ambiguity,” PLoS one e1497 (2008).
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A. J. Noest, R. van Ee, M. M. Nijs, and R. J. A. van Wezel, “Percept-choice sequences driven by interrupted ambiguous stimuli: A low-level neural model,” J. Vision 7(8):10, 1-14 (2007).
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J. W. Brascamp, R. van Ee, A. J. Noest, R. H. A. H. Jacobs, and A. V. van den Berg, “The time course of binocular rivalry reveals a fundamental role of noise,” J. Vision 6, 1244-1256 (2006).
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L. Stollenwerk and M. Bode, “Lateral neural model of binocular rivalry,” Neural Comput. 15, 2863-2882 (2003).
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J. W. Brascamp, R. van Ee, A. J. Noest, R. H. A. H. Jacobs, and A. V. van den Berg, “The time course of binocular rivalry reveals a fundamental role of noise,” J. Vision 6, 1244-1256 (2006).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Binocular grating rivalry. a. The probability distribution of the raw percept durations of subject S2 binned (gray) and fitted by a gamma distribution (solid curve). From top to bottom grating contrast changed from threshold to maximum, producing shorter percept durations. b. Increasing the contrast entailed on average (star symbols) smaller mean durations for our four subjects. The individual subjects are denoted by disks (color online). The disks of subject S1 are covered by the disks of S2 and S3. On average, with increasing contrast, the gamma scale parameter decreases (c.) and the gamma shape parameter increases (d.). Error bars in the mean are smaller than the symbols.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lag 1 serial correlation for binocular grating rivalry expressed in Spearman rank correlation of (immediately) following dominance periods is always positive for all contrasts and all subjects. On average (stars) the serial correlation amounts to 0.2, i.e., 20%. Error bars, ± 1 StErr.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Serial correlation for binocular grating rivalry expressed in Spearman rank correlation generally decreases with increasing lag number. The dashed curves specify the significance boundaries (they go up with lag because the number of data pairs used for the calculation necessarily decreases with greater lags; they depend on the contrast because the length of the data lists vary with contrast). Below those curves there is no significant correlation. The data for the immediate correlation with the next percept duration (lag 1) are replotted from Fig. 2. For lag 1 the correlation coefficient is generally significantly positive for all contrasts and all subjects. For lag 3, and also for greater lags, it is generally nonsignificant.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

As Fig. 2 but for perceptual rivalry produced by the ambiguous sphere. The serial dependence is positive for all subjects and for the sphere’s number of dots.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

As Fig. 3 but for the ambiguous sphere containing variable number of dots. The serial correlation expressed in Spearman rank correlation generally changes with lag number. The dashed curves specify the significance boundaries. Below those curves there is no significant correlation. The data for the immediate correlation with the next percept duration (lag 1) are replotted from Fig. 4. For lag 1 the correlation coefficient is positive for all numbers of dots (significant in 10 out of 20 cases). For lag 2 and greater lags correlation is generally nonsignificant.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a. Percept durations (as in Fig. 1) produced by our model with white noise in the adaptation parameter (A) binned (gray) and fitted by a gamma distribution (solid curve). b. As Fig. 3 but for the model-generated percept durations. With noise in the adaptation parameter (A) the model produces positive Spearman rank correlation coefficients, particularly for lag 1. The dashed curves specify the significance boundaries (based on fixed list length). Below those curves there is no significant correlation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a. Data from other laboratories. b. Previous data from our own laboratory. It is obvious that serial correlation is generally positive irrespective of task and stimulus. Interestingly, for the more cognitive stimuli (slant rivalry) and for the higher-level task (hold) the serial correlations tend to become smaller. c. The lag 1 serial correlation for the passive task correlates negatively with the percentage of voluntary control in lengthening the perceptual duration (for the hold task relative to the passive task). For the gratings there is a small effect of voluntary control and there is a considerable lag 1 correlation for the passive task. For the more cognitive stimuli, where the conscious act of voluntary control has more influence, there is a smaller lag 1 correlation for the passive task. These data support the speculation that a more cognitive task produces less lag 1 serial correlation in perceptual duration, i.e., the alternation process is then less prone to internal variation in neural adaptation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Serial Perceptual Duration Correlation for the Pseudorivalry Stimuli

Equations (2)

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t A i = A i + α S [ H i ] + δ G ( μ , σ ) ,
τ t H i = X i ( 1 + A i ) H i γ S [ H j ] ;

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