Abstract

Future adaptive optics systems seeking a higher degree of correction may need to split the command between two deformable mirrors (DMs), the woofer and the tweeter. We first present a method to specify the order of correction of the woofer DM for a given tweeter stroke requirement using an analytical and Monte Carlo approach. We then develop a computationally efficient algorithm to split the command between the two DMs in the case where a Fourier reconstructor is used. We find that the computational efficiency can be dramatically improved by splitting the command in Fourier space and by sending to the woofer only the modes it can reproduce accurately.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Hampton, R. Conan, C. Bradley, and P. Agathoklis, “Control of a woofer tweeter system of deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 62741Z (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Hu, B. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Hou, J. Wu, and W. Jiang, “Double-deformable-mirror adaptive optics system for phase compensation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2638-2642 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Cornelissen, P. S. Bierden, and T. G. Bifano, “Development of a 4096 elements MEMS continuous membrane deformable mirror for high contrast astronomical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 630606 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (7)

T. J. Brennan and T. A. Rhoadarmer, “Advance Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060B (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cornelissen, P. S. Bierden, and T. G. Bifano, “Development of a 4096 elements MEMS continuous membrane deformable mirror for high contrast astronomical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 630606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, “Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Hampton, R. Conan, C. Bradley, and P. Agathoklis, “Control of a woofer tweeter system of deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 62741Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hu, B. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Hou, J. Wu, and W. Jiang, “Double-deformable-mirror adaptive optics system for phase compensation,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2638-2642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. A. Poyneer and J.-P. Véran, “Optimal modal Fourier-transform wavefront control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1515-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

G. Herriot, S. Morris, S. Roberts, J. M. Fletcher, L. K. Saddlemyer, G. Singh, J.-P. Véran, and E. H. Richardson, “Innovation in Gemini Adaptive Optics System Design,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 488-499 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

Agathoklis, P.

P. Hampton, R. Conan, C. Bradley, and P. Agathoklis, “Control of a woofer tweeter system of deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 62741Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D. A.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assémat, F.

Baker, K.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Base, J. M.

Bauman, B.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bierden, P. S.

S. A. Cornelissen, P. S. Bierden, and T. G. Bifano, “Development of a 4096 elements MEMS continuous membrane deformable mirror for high contrast astronomical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 630606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T. G.

S. A. Cornelissen, P. S. Bierden, and T. G. Bifano, “Development of a 4096 elements MEMS continuous membrane deformable mirror for high contrast astronomical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 630606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Elsevier, 1975).

Boyer, C.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C.

P. Hampton, R. Conan, C. Bradley, and P. Agathoklis, “Control of a woofer tweeter system of deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 62741Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, T. J.

T. J. Brennan and T. A. Rhoadarmer, “Advance Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clare, R.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conan, J.-M.

Conan, R.

P. Hampton, R. Conan, C. Bradley, and P. Agathoklis, “Control of a woofer tweeter system of deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 62741Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cornelissen, S. A.

S. A. Cornelissen, P. S. Bierden, and T. G. Bifano, “Development of a 4096 elements MEMS continuous membrane deformable mirror for high contrast astronomical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 630606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crossfield, I.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davidge, T.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, D.

K. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, “Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Doyon, R.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, P.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D. A.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. W.

K. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, “Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Fletcher, J. M.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, S. Roberts, J. M. Fletcher, L. K. Saddlemyer, G. Singh, J.-P. Véran, and E. H. Richardson, “Innovation in Gemini Adaptive Optics System Design,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 488-499 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

K. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, “Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Gavel, D. T.

Gendron, E.

Gilles, L.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Graham, J.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Graves, J. E.

Hackett, D.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hampton, P.

P. Hampton, R. Conan, C. Bradley, and P. Agathoklis, “Control of a woofer tweeter system of deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 62741Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, G.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, S. Morris, S. Roberts, J. M. Fletcher, L. K. Saddlemyer, G. Singh, J.-P. Véran, and E. H. Richardson, “Innovation in Gemini Adaptive Optics System Design,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 488-499 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hickson, P.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J.

Hu, S.

Jiang, W.

Lavigne, J.-F.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levine, B. M.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

K. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, “Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B. A.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Madec, P.-Y.

Marois, C.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Max, C.

K. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, “Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McKenna, D. L.

Morris, S.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, S. Roberts, J. M. Fletcher, L. K. Saddlemyer, G. Singh, J.-P. Véran, and E. H. Richardson, “Innovation in Gemini Adaptive Optics System Design,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 488-499 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morsinski, K.

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Morzinski, K.

K. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, “Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Northcott, M. J.

Olivier, S.

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Palmer, D.

K. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, “Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Phillion, D.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Powell, I. P.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Poyneer, L. A.

Reza, L.

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Rhoadarmer, T. A.

T. J. Brennan and T. A. Rhoadarmer, “Advance Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, E. H.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, S. Roberts, J. M. Fletcher, L. K. Saddlemyer, G. Singh, J.-P. Véran, and E. H. Richardson, “Innovation in Gemini Adaptive Optics System Design,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 488-499 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, S. Roberts, J. M. Fletcher, L. K. Saddlemyer, G. Singh, J.-P. Véran, and E. H. Richardson, “Innovation in Gemini Adaptive Optics System Design,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 488-499 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, E.

Rousset, G.

Rowlands, N.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saddlemyer, L.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saddlemyer, L. K.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, S. Roberts, J. M. Fletcher, L. K. Saddlemyer, G. Singh, J.-P. Véran, and E. H. Richardson, “Innovation in Gemini Adaptive Optics System Design,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 488-499 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Serabyn, G.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Severson, S.

K. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, “Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Shao, M.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, C.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singh, G.

G. Herriot, S. Morris, S. Roberts, J. M. Fletcher, L. K. Saddlemyer, G. Singh, J.-P. Véran, and E. H. Richardson, “Innovation in Gemini Adaptive Optics System Design,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 488-499 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sommargen, G.

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

Tam, K.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Troy, M.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valee, P.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vasisht, G.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Véran, J.-P.

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer and J.-P. Véran, “Optimal modal Fourier-transform wavefront control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1515-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, S. Morris, S. Roberts, J. M. Fletcher, L. K. Saddlemyer, G. Singh, J.-P. Véran, and E. H. Richardson, “Innovation in Gemini Adaptive Optics System Design,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 488-499 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. K.

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. W.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Elsevier, 1975).

Wu, J.

Xu, B.

Zhang, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (8)

T. J. Brennan and T. A. Rhoadarmer, “Advance Wavefront Control: Methods, Devices, and Applications IV,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 63060B (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cornelissen, P. S. Bierden, and T. G. Bifano, “Development of a 4096 elements MEMS continuous membrane deformable mirror for high contrast astronomical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 6306, 630606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Evans, K. Morsinski, L. Reza, S. Severson, L. Poyneer, B. A. Macintosh, D. Dillon, G. Sommargen, D. Palmer, D. Gavel, and S. Olivier, “Extreme adaptive optics testbed: High contrast measurements with a MEMS deformable mirror,” Proc. SPIE 5905, 303-310 (2005).

K. Morzinski, J. W. Evans, S. Severson, B. Macintosh, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, C. Max, and D. Palmer, “Characterizing the potential of MEMS deformable mirrors for astronomical adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, S. Morris, S. Roberts, J. M. Fletcher, L. K. Saddlemyer, G. Singh, J.-P. Véran, and E. H. Richardson, “Innovation in Gemini Adaptive Optics System Design,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 488-499 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Macintosh, M. Troy, R. Doyon, J. Graham, K. Baker, B. Bauman, C. Marois, D. Palmer, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, I. Crossfield, P. Dumont, B. M. Levine, M. Shao, G. Serabyn, C. Shelton, G. Vasisht, J. K. Wallace, J.-F. Lavigne, P. Valee, N. Rowlands, K. Tam, and D. Hackett, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Herriot, P. Hickson, B. L. Ellerbroek, D. A. Andersen, T. Davidge, D. A. Erickson, I. P. Powell, R. Clare, L. Gilles, C. Boyer, M. Smith, L. Saddlemyer, and J.-P. Véran, “NFIRAOS: TMT narrow field near-infrared facility adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720Q (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Hampton, R. Conan, C. Bradley, and P. Agathoklis, “Control of a woofer tweeter system of deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 6274, 62741Z (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Elsevier, 1975).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stroke for different number of actuators on a woofer diameter. The Monte Carlo simulations results are plotted as a solid curve. The analytical results for an actuator on the pupil edge are plotted as a dashed curve. The DM strokes are plotted in (a) for the tweeter and in (b) for the woofer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interactuator stroke for different number of actuators on a woofer diameter. The Monte Carlo simulations results are plotted as a solid curve and the analytical results are plotted as a dashed curve. The DM interactuator strokes are plotted in (a) for the tweeter and in (b) for the woofer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Command split in the tweeter command space. Two matrix multiplications are needed to project the tweeter commands in the woofer space and to subtract the woofer correction from the tweeter commands. C ( z ) represents the controller transfer function.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Command split in the Fourier domain. The modal coefficient vector is split between a vector of low-order modes m l and a vector of high-order modes m h . If the woofer fits accurately the low-order modes sent to it, those mode coefficients are nulled in the vector sent to the tweeter by using the high switch position. In the other case, the woofer correction cannot be considered as perfect, and an ATM matrix has to be used to subtract its correction from the modal coefficients sent to the tweeter. This corresponds to the low switch position. C ( z ) represents the controller transfer function.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Result of the matrix multiplication MTA∗ATM. The diagonal represents how accurately the woofer reproduces a mode sent to it. The nondiagonal cells represent the parasite modes being excited by the correction of a given mode. (b) Plot of the matrix diagonal shown in (a). The dashed vertical lines delimit modes of order < 1 , < 2 , < 3 , and < 4 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results from closed-loop simulations. The (a) woofer stroke, (b) tweeter stroke, and (c) wavefront error rms are plotted for different highest mode order sent to the woofer. The impact of using an ATM return matrix on those parameters is also plotted. The solid curve represents no return ATM matrix used; the short dashed curve, a return on modes of order 3 ; the dotted–dashed curve, a return on modes of order 4 ; the triple-dotted–dashed curve, a return on modes of order 5 ; and the long-dashed curve, a return on all the modes. The asterisk represents the option of sending the modes < 4 to the woofer with no return matrix.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Command Split Simulation Results

Equations (30)

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PSD ( κ , r ) = 0.023 D 2 ( D r 0 ) 5 3 [ κ 2 + ( D L 0 ) 2 ] 11 6 [ 1 2 J 1 ( π κ ) π κ + 4 i ( r 1 cos θ + r 2 sin θ ) 2 J 2 ( π κ ) π κ × exp ( π i κ r ) ] 2 ,
PSD ( κ , r ) = 0.023 D 2 ( D r 0 ) 5 3 [ κ 2 + ( D L 0 ) 2 ] 11 6 × [ 2 i π d D κ 1 sinc ( π d D κ 1 ) sinc ( π d D κ 2 ) 4 i d cos θ 2 J 2 ( π κ ) π κ exp ( i π κ r ) ] 2 .
c woof = W 1 Φ ,
Φ woof = W c woof .
Φ tw = Φ Φ woof .
c woof = MTA m l .
c tw = F 1 ( m h ) .
c tw = F 1 ( m ATM c woof ) .
MTM = MTA ATM .
z 0 = 1 ,
z 1 = 2 ρ cos θ ,
z 2 = 2 ρ sin θ ,
a ( ρ ) = ϕ ( ρ ) z ( ρ ) .
ϕ f ( ρ , r ) = ϕ ( ρ ) [ a 0 ( ρ r ) + 2 r 1 a 1 ( ρ r ) + 2 r 2 a 2 ( ρ r ) ] .
ϕ f ( ρ , r ) = ϕ ( ρ ) [ δ ( ρ ) z 0 ( ρ r ) 2 r 1 z 1 ( ρ r ) 2 r 2 z 2 ( ρ r ) ] .
M z ( ρ , r ) = δ ( ρ ) z 0 ( ρ r ) 2 r 1 z 1 ( ρ r ) 2 r 2 z 2 ( ρ r ) .
PSD ( f , r ) = W ϕ ( f ) M ̃ z ( f , r ) 2 ,
M ̃ z ( κ , r ) = 1 [ 2 J 1 ( π κ ) π κ + 4 i ( r 1 cos θ + r 2 sin θ ) 2 J 2 ( π κ ) π κ ] exp ( π i κ r ) .
W ϕ ( η ) = 0.023 r 0 5 3 ( η 2 + L 0 2 ) 11 6 ,
W ϕ ( κ ) = 0.023 D 2 ( D r 0 ) 5 3 [ κ 2 + ( D L 0 ) 2 ] 11 6 .
PSD ( κ , r ) = 0.023 D 2 ( D r 0 ) 5 3 [ κ 2 + ( D L 0 ) 2 ] 11 6 [ 1 2 J 1 ( π κ ) π κ + 4 i ( r 1 cos θ + r 2 sin θ ) 2 J 2 ( π κ ) π κ × exp ( π i κ r ) ] 2 .
σ 2 ( r ) = 1 D 2 W a ( κ 1 , κ 2 , r ) d κ 1 d κ 2 .
Δ ϕ f ( ρ ) = Δ ϕ ( ρ ) [ 2 ( r 21 r 11 ) a 1 ( ρ r ) + 2 ( r 22 r 12 ) a 2 ( ρ r ) ] ,
Δ ϕ ( ρ ) = [ ϕ ( ρ ) ρ 1 Π ( ρ ) ] d ,
Π ( ρ ) = 1 d 2 d 2 D ρ 1 d 2 D ,
d 2 D ρ 2 d 2 D = 0 elsewhere .
r 21 r 11 = d ,
r 22 r 12 = 0 .
Δ ϕ f ( ρ ) = [ ϕ ( ρ ) ρ 1 Π ( ρ ) ] d 2 d a 1 ( ρ r ) .
M ̃ z ( κ ) = 2 i π d D κ 1 sinc ( π d D κ 1 ) sinc ( π d D κ 2 ) 4 i d cos θ 2 J 2 ( π κ ) π κ exp ( i π κ r ) .

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