Abstract

We report on the development of wavefront reconstruction and control algorithms for multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) and the results of testing them in the laboratory under conditions that simulate an 8 meter class telescope. The University of California Observatories (UCO) Lick Observatory Laboratory for Adaptive Optics multiconjugate testbed allows us to test wide-field-of-view adaptive optics systems as they might be instantiated in the near future on giant telescopes. In particular, we have been investigating the performance of MCAO using five laser beacons for wavefront sensing and a minimum-variance algorithm for control of two conjugate deformable mirrors. We have demonstrated improved Strehl ratio and enlarged field-of-view performance when compared to conventional AO techniques. We have demonstrated improved MCAO performance with the implementation of a routine that minimizes the generalized isoplanatism when turbulent layers do not correspond to deformable mirror conjugate altitudes. Finally, we have demonstrated suitability of the system for closed loop operation when configured to feed back conditional mean estimates of wavefront residuals rather than the directly measured residuals. This technique has recently been referred to as the “pseudo-open-loop” control law in the literature.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

S. M. Ammons, E. A. Laag, R. Kupke, D. T. Gavel, and C. E. Max, “Enabling laboratory demonstrations of multi-object adaptive optics with linearity calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 669108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
[PubMed]

2006 (4)

D. Gavel, “Laboratory for adaptive optics at UC Santa Cruz: Project status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721U (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Velur, R. C. Flicker, B. C. Piatt, M. C. Britton, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, J. E. Roberts, J. C. Shelton, and J. Hickey, “Multiple guide star tomography demonstration at Palomar observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725C (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Baranec, M. Lloyd-Hart, N. M. Milton, T. Stalcup, M. Snyder, and R. Angel, “Tomographic reconstruction of stellar wavefronts from multiple laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ammons, R. Kupke, E. A. Laag, D. T. Gavel, D. R. Dillon, M. R. Reinig, B. J. Bauman, C. E. Max, and J. A. Johnson, “First results from the UCSC Laboratory for Adaptive Optics multi-conjugate and multi-object adaptive optics testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Gavel, “Stability of closed-loop tomography algorithms for adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper AThA5.
[PubMed]

P. Piatrou and L. Gilles, “Robustness study of the pseudo open-loop controller for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1003-1010 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

P. A. Knutsson and M. Owner-Petersen, “The Lund dual-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 595-598 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Gavel, “Tomography for multiconjugate adaptive optics systems using laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1356-1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Langlois, G. Moretto, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, and T. R. Rimmele, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope: Preliminary results,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 59-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer, “Advanced techniques for Fourier transform wavefront reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 1023-1034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and F. Rigaut, “Modal tomography for adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 342, L53-L56 (1999).

1998 (1)

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

1990 (1)

M. Tallon and R. Foy, “Adaptive telescope with laser probe--Isoplanatism and cone effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549-557 (1990).

1988 (1)

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics” in ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.H.Ulrich, ed. (ESO, 1988), pp. 693-703.

Ammons, S. M.

S. M. Ammons, E. A. Laag, R. Kupke, D. T. Gavel, and C. E. Max, “Enabling laboratory demonstrations of multi-object adaptive optics with linearity calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 669108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ammons, R. Kupke, E. A. Laag, D. T. Gavel, D. R. Dillon, M. R. Reinig, B. J. Bauman, C. E. Max, and J. A. Johnson, “First results from the UCSC Laboratory for Adaptive Optics multi-conjugate and multi-object adaptive optics testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amorim, A.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
[PubMed]

Amorin, A.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Angel, R.

C. Baranec, M. Lloyd-Hart, N. M. Milton, T. Stalcup, M. Snyder, and R. Angel, “Tomographic reconstruction of stellar wavefronts from multiple laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arcidiacono, C.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baade, D.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bagnara, P.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
[PubMed]

Balestra, A.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baranec, C.

C. Baranec, M. Lloyd-Hart, N. M. Milton, T. Stalcup, M. Snyder, and R. Angel, “Tomographic reconstruction of stellar wavefronts from multiple laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baruffolo, A.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
[PubMed]

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B. J.

S. M. Ammons, R. Kupke, E. A. Laag, D. T. Gavel, D. R. Dillon, M. R. Reinig, B. J. Bauman, C. E. Max, and J. A. Johnson, “First results from the UCSC Laboratory for Adaptive Optics multi-conjugate and multi-object adaptive optics testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics” in ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.H.Ulrich, ed. (ESO, 1988), pp. 693-703.

Boyer, C.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brast, R.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
[PubMed]

Britton, M. C.

V. Velur, R. C. Flicker, B. C. Piatt, M. C. Britton, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, J. E. Roberts, J. C. Shelton, and J. Hickey, “Multiple guide star tomography demonstration at Palomar observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Browne, S. L.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brynnel, J.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buchroeder, R. A.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Butler, D. J.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Catone, J. W.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cavadore, C.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clark, P.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dekany, R. G.

V. Velur, R. C. Flicker, B. C. Piatt, M. C. Britton, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, J. E. Roberts, J. C. Shelton, and J. Hickey, “Multiple guide star tomography demonstration at Palomar observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delabre, B.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
[PubMed]

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
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E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
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E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
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E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
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E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
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E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
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E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
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E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
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S. M. Ammons, E. A. Laag, R. Kupke, D. T. Gavel, and C. E. Max, “Enabling laboratory demonstrations of multi-object adaptive optics with linearity calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 669108 (2007).
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E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
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M. Langlois, G. Moretto, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, and T. R. Rimmele, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope: Preliminary results,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 59-66 (2004).
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Herriot, G.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
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V. Velur, R. C. Flicker, B. C. Piatt, M. C. Britton, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, J. E. Roberts, J. C. Shelton, and J. Hickey, “Multiple guide star tomography demonstration at Palomar observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725C (2006).
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Hippler, S.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
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Hubin, N.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
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E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
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B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
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B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
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S. M. Ammons, R. Kupke, E. A. Laag, D. T. Gavel, D. R. Dillon, M. R. Reinig, B. J. Bauman, C. E. Max, and J. A. Johnson, “First results from the UCSC Laboratory for Adaptive Optics multi-conjugate and multi-object adaptive optics testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627202 (2006).
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B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
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Kolb, J.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
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Kupke, R.

S. M. Ammons, E. A. Laag, R. Kupke, D. T. Gavel, and C. E. Max, “Enabling laboratory demonstrations of multi-object adaptive optics with linearity calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 669108 (2007).
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S. M. Ammons, E. A. Laag, R. Kupke, D. T. Gavel, and C. E. Max, “Enabling laboratory demonstrations of multi-object adaptive optics with linearity calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 669108 (2007).
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S. M. Ammons, R. Kupke, E. A. Laag, D. T. Gavel, D. R. Dillon, M. R. Reinig, B. J. Bauman, C. E. Max, and J. A. Johnson, “First results from the UCSC Laboratory for Adaptive Optics multi-conjugate and multi-object adaptive optics testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627202 (2006).
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Langlois, M.

M. Langlois, G. Moretto, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, and T. R. Rimmele, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope: Preliminary results,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 59-66 (2004).
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E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
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Lima, J.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
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Lizon, J.-L.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
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E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
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Lloyd-Hart, M.

C. Baranec, M. Lloyd-Hart, N. M. Milton, T. Stalcup, M. Snyder, and R. Angel, “Tomographic reconstruction of stellar wavefronts from multiple laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627203 (2006).
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E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
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Marchetti, E.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
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Max, C. E.

S. M. Ammons, E. A. Laag, R. Kupke, D. T. Gavel, and C. E. Max, “Enabling laboratory demonstrations of multi-object adaptive optics with linearity calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 669108 (2007).
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S. M. Ammons, R. Kupke, E. A. Laag, D. T. Gavel, D. R. Dillon, M. R. Reinig, B. J. Bauman, C. E. Max, and J. A. Johnson, “First results from the UCSC Laboratory for Adaptive Optics multi-conjugate and multi-object adaptive optics testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627202 (2006).
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McKinnie, I. T.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
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Milton, N. M.

C. Baranec, M. Lloyd-Hart, N. M. Milton, T. Stalcup, M. Snyder, and R. Angel, “Tomographic reconstruction of stellar wavefronts from multiple laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627203 (2006).
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Monnet, G. J.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
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Moretto, G.

M. Langlois, G. Moretto, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, and T. R. Rimmele, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope: Preliminary results,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 59-66 (2004).
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Murray, J. T.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oberti, S.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
[PubMed]

Owner-Petersen, M.

P. A. Knutsson and M. Owner-Petersen, “The Lund dual-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 595-598 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piatrou, P.

Piatt, B. C.

V. Velur, R. C. Flicker, B. C. Piatt, M. C. Britton, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, J. E. Roberts, J. C. Shelton, and J. Hickey, “Multiple guide star tomography demonstration at Palomar observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

L. A. Poyneer, “Advanced techniques for Fourier transform wavefront reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 1023-1034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rabaud, D.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and F. Rigaut, “Modal tomography for adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 342, L53-L56 (1999).

Reinig, M. R.

S. M. Ammons, R. Kupke, E. A. Laag, D. T. Gavel, D. R. Dillon, M. R. Reinig, B. J. Bauman, C. E. Max, and J. A. Johnson, “First results from the UCSC Laboratory for Adaptive Optics multi-conjugate and multi-object adaptive optics testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reiss, R.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
[PubMed]

Richards, K.

M. Langlois, G. Moretto, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, and T. R. Rimmele, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope: Preliminary results,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 59-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and F. Rigaut, “Modal tomography for adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 342, L53-L56 (1999).

Rigaut, F. J.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rimmele, T. R.

M. Langlois, G. Moretto, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, and T. R. Rimmele, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope: Preliminary results,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 59-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. E.

V. Velur, R. C. Flicker, B. C. Piatt, M. C. Britton, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, J. E. Roberts, J. C. Shelton, and J. Hickey, “Multiple guide star tomography demonstration at Palomar observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saddlemyer, L. K.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarazin, M.

Sasiela, R. J.

Sebag, J.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, J. C.

V. Velur, R. C. Flicker, B. C. Piatt, M. C. Britton, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, J. E. Roberts, J. C. Shelton, and J. Hickey, “Multiple guide star tomography demonstration at Palomar observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, M.

C. Baranec, M. Lloyd-Hart, N. M. Milton, T. Stalcup, M. Snyder, and R. Angel, “Tomographic reconstruction of stellar wavefronts from multiple laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soenke, C.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
[PubMed]

Stalcup, T.

C. Baranec, M. Lloyd-Hart, N. M. Milton, T. Stalcup, M. Snyder, and R. Angel, “Tomographic reconstruction of stellar wavefronts from multiple laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stillbum, J.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tallon, M.

M. L. Louarn and M. Tallon, “Analysis of modes and behavior of a multiconjugate adaptive optics system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 912-925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Tallon and R. Foy, “Adaptive telescope with laser probe--Isoplanatism and cone effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549-557 (1990).

Telle, J. M.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tokovinin, A.

Tordo, S.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
[PubMed]

Troy, M.

V. Velur, R. C. Flicker, B. C. Piatt, M. C. Britton, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, J. E. Roberts, J. C. Shelton, and J. Hickey, “Multiple guide star tomography demonstration at Palomar observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Velur, V.

V. Velur, R. C. Flicker, B. C. Piatt, M. C. Britton, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, J. E. Roberts, J. C. Shelton, and J. Hickey, “Multiple guide star tomography demonstration at Palomar observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veran, J.-P.

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vernet-Viard, E.

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

M. Tallon and R. Foy, “Adaptive telescope with laser probe--Isoplanatism and cone effect,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 549-557 (1990).

R. Ragazzoni, E. Marchetti, and F. Rigaut, “Modal tomography for adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 342, L53-L56 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (5)

Proc. SPIE (11)

B. L. Ellerbroek, F. J. Rigaut, B. J. Bauman, C. Boyer, S. L. Browne, R. A. Buchroeder, J. W. Catone, P. Clark, C. d'Orgeville, D. T. Gavel, G. Herriot, M. R. Hunten, E. James, E. J. Kibblewhite, I. T. McKinnie, J. T. Murray, D. Rabaud, L. K. Saddlemyer, J. Sebag, J. Stillbum, J. M. Telle, and J.-P. Veran, “MCAO for Gemini-South,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Velur, R. C. Flicker, B. C. Piatt, M. C. Britton, R. G. Dekany, M. Troy, J. E. Roberts, J. C. Shelton, and J. Hickey, “Multiple guide star tomography demonstration at Palomar observatory,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62725C (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Baranec, M. Lloyd-Hart, N. M. Milton, T. Stalcup, M. Snyder, and R. Angel, “Tomographic reconstruction of stellar wavefronts from multiple laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627203 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Langlois, G. Moretto, K. Richards, S. Hegwer, and T. R. Rimmele, “Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics at the Dunn Solar Telescope: Preliminary results,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 59-66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchetti, N. N. Hubin, E. Fedrigo, J. Brynnel, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, F. Franza, R. Conan, M. Le Louarn, C. Cavadore, A. Balestra, D. Baade, J.-L. Lizon, R. Gilmozzi, G. J. Monnet, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, E. Diolaiti, J. Farinato, E. Vernet-Viard, D. J. Butler, S. Hippler, and A. Amorin, “MAD, the ESO multi-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 317-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Gavel, “Tomography for multiconjugate adaptive optics systems using laser guide stars,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 1356-1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ammons, R. Kupke, E. A. Laag, D. T. Gavel, D. R. Dillon, M. R. Reinig, B. J. Bauman, C. E. Max, and J. A. Johnson, “First results from the UCSC Laboratory for Adaptive Optics multi-conjugate and multi-object adaptive optics testbed,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 627202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Ammons, E. A. Laag, R. Kupke, D. T. Gavel, and C. E. Max, “Enabling laboratory demonstrations of multi-object adaptive optics with linearity calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6691, 669108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Knutsson and M. Owner-Petersen, “The Lund dual-conjugate adaptive optics demonstrator,” Proc. SPIE 5382, 595-598 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, “Laboratory for adaptive optics at UC Santa Cruz: Project status and plans,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721U (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer, “Advanced techniques for Fourier transform wavefront reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 4839, 1023-1034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. Gavel, “Stability of closed-loop tomography algorithms for adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper AThA5.
[PubMed]

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics” in ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M.H.Ulrich, ed. (ESO, 1988), pp. 693-703.

E. Marchetti, R. Brast, B. Delabre, R. Donaldson, E. Fedrigo, C. Frank, N. Hubin, J. Kolb, M. L. Louarn, J.-L. Lizon, S. Oberti, R. Reiss, C. Soenke, S. Tordo, A. Baruffolo, P. Bagnara, A. Amorim, and J. Lima, “MAD on-sky results in star oriented mode,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Topical Meetings on CD-ROM, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper AMA2.
[PubMed]

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Essential elements of the LAO MCAO testbed layout (drawing not to scale): (1) science constellation (2) laser guide star constellation (3) atmospheric plate (4) atmospheric plate (5) telescope (6) 9 km conjugate PPM (7) focal plane mask (8) 4.5 km conjugate PPM (9) 0 km conjugate PPM (10) focal plane mask (11) telescope aperture (12) multiplexed Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor (13) multiplexed Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor (14) far-field science camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated atmosphere section of the testbed with the moveable layers (left) and a PPM (right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated guide star constellation (boxes) and science star constellation (stars) on the sky as seen from the far field (drawing not to scale). The large dashed circle has a diameter of 42.5 arc sec as simulated on sky, and the large box is intended to represent an area of 2 arc min on a side.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pseudo-open-loop method schematic. Light is forward-propagated (symbol A) through the atmosphere and through the PPMs, which have a correction already on them, and is measured by the wavefront sensors. The real signal from the wavefront sensors is combined with a wavefront virtually propaged in software (Y0) to produce a signal that represents a wavefront measurement Y as if the PPMs were flat. This measurement enters the tomography algorithm and produces a volume estimate X . Finally the previous volume X is subtracted from the new volume X , and the difference is multiplied by a gain value. This difference, adjusted by the gain, is added back to the old volume estimate to produce a volume Xdm for use in MCAO. Xdm becomes the previous volume estimate and is forward-propagated in software to produce the Y0 for the next iteration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

First 15 iterations of the pseudo-open-loop for a static atmosphere (boxes) and moving atmosphere equivalent to a strong wind (diamonds).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Similarity Parameters on the Testbed

Tables Icon

Table 2 Approximate On-Axis Error Budget

Tables Icon

Table 3 MCAO versus SCAO versus GLAO ( 4.5 , 9 km )

Tables Icon

Table 4 Collapse Layers MCAO versus Volume Type Correction versus SCAO, GLAO ( 6.7 , 11 km )

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ 0 = { 2.914 k 2 [ sec ( ζ ) ] 8 3 h d h C N 2 ( h ) h 5 3 } 3 5 ,
ψ ̃ ( f ) = G m ( f ) ϕ ̃ ( f ) .
G m ( f ) = A 1 b .
b m = J 0 { 2 π f [ H dm ( m ) h lay ( m ) ] Θ M } ,
a m m ́ = J 0 { 2 π f [ H dm ( m ) H dm ( m ́ ) ] Θ M } ,

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