Abstract

Blazed diffraction gratings are of enormous practical importance for imaging and analyzing hybrid optical systems. The intermediate diffraction regime is characterized by the transition from the scalar to the rigorous electromagnetic theory. An effect known as shadowing occurs and reduces the diffraction efficiency. Based on rigorous calculations for optimized sawtooth-shaped and binary-multilevel blaze profiles, we deduce a semianalytical model describing the shadowing phenomenon for the general case of oblique incidence. We discuss illumination both from air and from the substrate. Though a multilevel blaze possesses a discrete substructure, our shadowing model remains valid, if substructural effects are neglected. We find that electromagnetic effects due to the passive blaze facet lead to the efficiency reduction, and the blazing efficiency shows a linear dependence on the ratio of blaze wavelength to grating period. Our shadowing model is applied to predict the performance of a Littrow-like blazing condition in transmission geometry as, e.g., for a diffractive solid immersion lens.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
Related Articles
Evolution of grating profiles under ion-beam erosion

L. F. Johnson
Appl. Opt. 18(15) 2559-2574 (1979)

Groove profile modification of blazed gratings by dip coating with hardenable liquids

Karlfrid Osterried, Klaus Frieder Heidemann, and Bruno Nelles
Appl. Opt. 37(34) 8002-8007 (1998)

Echelles: scalar, electromagnetic, and real-groove properties

E. Loewen, D. Maystre, E. Popov, and L. Tsonev
Appl. Opt. 34(10) 1707-1727 (1995)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (10)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Tables (1)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article tables are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (19)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Metrics

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription