Abstract

The standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) index was used to reevaluate four experimental datasets employed during the development of CIEDE2000, the current CIE recommended color-difference formula. This index enables statistical inferences not achievable by other metrics used commonly for performance evaluation. It was found that CIEDE2000 was statistically superior at a 95% confidence level to either CIE94, the previous recommended equation by the CIE, or the simple Euclidean distance in CIELAB, ΔEab*. Recent formulas based on the CIECAM02 color-appearance space and chroma-compressed variants of CIELAB were also evaluated and found to have only slightly reduced performance compared with CIEDE2000. These formulas have the advantage of simplicity and easier interpretation when used for quantifying color accuracy. Finally, each experimental dataset was evaluated separately rather than weight averaged as used during the development of CIEDE2000. Significant differences were found between datasets, suggesting that combining datasets may obscure important differences and that the practice of parameter optimization during formula development using combined data is likely suboptimal.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, “Relative significance of the terms in the CIEDE2000 and CIE94 color-difference formulas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2269-2275 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and P. A. García, “Performance of CIEDE2000 color difference models for the RIT-DuPont dataset,” in Proceedings of AIC 2007, (AIC, 2007), pp. 293-295. http://www.aic-colour.org.
  5. R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-315 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. A. García, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. S. Berns, “The mathematical development of CIE TC 1-29 proposed color-difference equation: CIELCH,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 93 (AIC, 1993), Vol. B, pp. 189-192, http://www.aic-colour.org.
  8. M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, P. A. García, A. González, M. Vik, and G. Cui, “Significación estadística de las correcciones introducidas en las fórmulas de diferencia de color CIE94 y CIEDE2000,” in Proceedings VIII Congreso Nacional del Color, J. L. Fontecha González and J. Campos Acosta, eds. (Sociedad Española de Óptica, 2007), pp. 27-28.
  9. G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 320-330 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, “Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA-UCS space using small-medium color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2077-2064 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. E. P. Box, “Non normality and tests on variances,” Biometrika 40, 318-335 (1953).
  13. G. E. P. Box and G. S. Watson, “Robustness to non-normality of regression tests,” Biometrika 49, 93-106 (1962).
  14. D. H. Alman, “Performance comparison of full and reduced color-difference models,” DuPont, 945 Stephenson Highway, P. O. Box 2802, Troy, Mich. 48007-2802 (personal communication, 2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. D. H. Kim and J. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB color difference formula,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 97 (AIC, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449, http://www.aic-colour.org.
  18. K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 2478-92 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. McDonald, “The effect of non-uniformity in ANLAB colour space on the interpretation of visual colour differences,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 90, 189-198 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1. Development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, and E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: Influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38-44 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. CIE, “Parametric effects in colour difference evaluation,” CIE Tech. Rep. 101 (CIE Central Bureau, 1993).
  25. R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, and M. Melgosa, “Assessing large color differences using 3 step color series,” in Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV 2008) (IS&T, 2008), pp. 85-88.
  26. M. Melgosa, “Request for existing experimental datasets on color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 159 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. G. Kuehni, “CIEDE2000, milestone or final answer?” Color Res. Appl. 27, 126-127 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. G. Kuehni, “Color difference formulas: An unsatisfactory state of affairs,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 324-326 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, and M. Melgosa, “Assessing large color differences using 3 step color series,” in Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV 2008) (IS&T, 2008), pp. 85-88.

R. G. Kuehni, “Color difference formulas: An unsatisfactory state of affairs,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 324-326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Melgosa, “Request for existing experimental datasets on color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and P. A. García, “Performance of CIEDE2000 color difference models for the RIT-DuPont dataset,” in Proceedings of AIC 2007, (AIC, 2007), pp. 293-295. http://www.aic-colour.org.

P. A. García, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 320-330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, “Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA-UCS space using small-medium color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2077-2064 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “CIEDE2000, milestone or final answer?” Color Res. Appl. 27, 126-127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. H. Alman, “Performance comparison of full and reduced color-difference models,” DuPont, 945 Stephenson Highway, P. O. Box 2802, Troy, Mich. 48007-2802 (personal communication, 2000).

1999

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 2478-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, and E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: Influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38-44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. H. Kim and J. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB color difference formula,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 97 (AIC, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449, http://www.aic-colour.org.

1993

CIE, “Parametric effects in colour difference evaluation,” CIE Tech. Rep. 101 (CIE Central Bureau, 1993).

R. S. Berns, “The mathematical development of CIE TC 1-29 proposed color-difference equation: CIELCH,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 93 (AIC, 1993), Vol. B, pp. 189-192, http://www.aic-colour.org.

1991

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-315 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1. Development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 1125-42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1974

R. McDonald, “The effect of non-uniformity in ANLAB colour space on the interpretation of visual colour differences,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 90, 189-198 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1962

G. E. P. Box and G. S. Watson, “Robustness to non-normality of regression tests,” Biometrika 49, 93-106 (1962).

1953

G. E. P. Box, “Non normality and tests on variances,” Biometrika 40, 318-335 (1953).

Alman, D. H.

D. H. Alman, “Performance comparison of full and reduced color-difference models,” DuPont, 945 Stephenson Highway, P. O. Box 2802, Troy, Mich. 48007-2802 (personal communication, 2000).

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-315 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Alman, “Use of F-test to compare performance of full and reduced color-difference models,” DuPont, 945 Stephenson Highway, P. O. Box 2802, Troy, Mich. 48007-2802 (personal communication, 17 April 2008).

Balonon-Rosen, M. R.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-315 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, “Relative significance of the terms in the CIEDE2000 and CIE94 color-difference formulas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2269-2275 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, “The mathematical development of CIE TC 1-29 proposed color-difference equation: CIELCH,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 93 (AIC, 1993), Vol. B, pp. 189-192, http://www.aic-colour.org.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-315 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Box, G. E. P.

G. E. P. Box and G. S. Watson, “Robustness to non-normality of regression tests,” Biometrika 49, 93-106 (1962).

G. E. P. Box, “Non normality and tests on variances,” Biometrika 40, 318-335 (1953).

Clarke, F. J. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cui, G.

P. A. García, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 320-330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, P. A. García, A. González, M. Vik, and G. Cui, “Significación estadística de las correcciones introducidas en las fórmulas de diferencia de color CIE94 y CIEDE2000,” in Proceedings VIII Congreso Nacional del Color, J. L. Fontecha González and J. Campos Acosta, eds. (Sociedad Española de Óptica, 2007), pp. 27-28.

El Moraghi, A.

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, and E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: Influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38-44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

García, P. A.

P. A. García, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and P. A. García, “Performance of CIEDE2000 color difference models for the RIT-DuPont dataset,” in Proceedings of AIC 2007, (AIC, 2007), pp. 293-295. http://www.aic-colour.org.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, P. A. García, A. González, M. Vik, and G. Cui, “Significación estadística de las correcciones introducidas en las fórmulas de diferencia de color CIE94 y CIEDE2000,” in Proceedings VIII Congreso Nacional del Color, J. L. Fontecha González and J. Campos Acosta, eds. (Sociedad Española de Óptica, 2007), pp. 27-28.

González, A.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, P. A. García, A. González, M. Vik, and G. Cui, “Significación estadística de las correcciones introducidas en las fórmulas de diferencia de color CIE94 y CIEDE2000,” in Proceedings VIII Congreso Nacional del Color, J. L. Fontecha González and J. Campos Acosta, eds. (Sociedad Española de Óptica, 2007), pp. 27-28.

Guan, S. S.

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hita, E.

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, and E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: Influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38-44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huertas, R.

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, and M. Melgosa, “Assessing large color differences using 3 step color series,” in Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV 2008) (IS&T, 2008), pp. 85-88.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and P. A. García, “Performance of CIEDE2000 color difference models for the RIT-DuPont dataset,” in Proceedings of AIC 2007, (AIC, 2007), pp. 293-295. http://www.aic-colour.org.

P. A. García, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, “Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA-UCS space using small-medium color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2077-2064 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, “Relative significance of the terms in the CIEDE2000 and CIE94 color-difference formulas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2269-2275 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, P. A. García, A. González, M. Vik, and G. Cui, “Significación estadística de las correcciones introducidas en las fórmulas de diferencia de color CIE94 y CIEDE2000,” in Proceedings VIII Congreso Nacional del Color, J. L. Fontecha González and J. Campos Acosta, eds. (Sociedad Española de Óptica, 2007), pp. 27-28.

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim and J. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB color difference formula,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 97 (AIC, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449, http://www.aic-colour.org.

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, “Color difference formulas: An unsatisfactory state of affairs,” Color Res. Appl. 33, 324-326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kuehni, “CIEDE2000, milestone or final answer?” Color Res. Appl. 27, 126-127 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 320-330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and C. Li, “Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model,” Color Res. Appl. 31, 320-330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1. Development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 1125-42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, R.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. McDonald, “The effect of non-uniformity in ANLAB colour space on the interpretation of visual colour differences,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 90, 189-198 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Melgosa, M.

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, and M. Melgosa, “Assessing large color differences using 3 step color series,” in Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV 2008) (IS&T, 2008), pp. 85-88.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and P. A. García, “Performance of CIEDE2000 color difference models for the RIT-DuPont dataset,” in Proceedings of AIC 2007, (AIC, 2007), pp. 293-295. http://www.aic-colour.org.

M. Melgosa, “Request for existing experimental datasets on color differences,” Color Res. Appl. 32, 159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. García, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and C. Oleari, “Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA-UCS space using small-medium color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2077-2064 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, and R. S. Berns, “Relative significance of the terms in the CIEDE2000 and CIE94 color-difference formulas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2269-2275 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, and E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: Influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38-44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, P. A. García, A. González, M. Vik, and G. Cui, “Significación estadística de las correcciones introducidas en las fórmulas de diferencia de color CIE94 y CIEDE2000,” in Proceedings VIII Congreso Nacional del Color, J. L. Fontecha González and J. Campos Acosta, eds. (Sociedad Española de Óptica, 2007), pp. 27-28.

Montag, E.

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nobbs, J.

D. H. Kim and J. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB color difference formula,” in Proceedings of AIC Colour 97 (AIC, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449, http://www.aic-colour.org.

Oleari, C.

Pérez, M. M.

M. Melgosa, M. M. Pérez, A. El Moraghi, and E. Hita, “Color discrimination results from a CRT device: Influence of luminance,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 38-44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, Y.

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reniff, L.

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-315 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1. Development of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 1125-42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 colour-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, M. J.

R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, and M. Melgosa, “Assessing large color differences using 3 step color series,” in Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV 2008) (IS&T, 2008), pp. 85-88.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, P. A. García, A. González, M. Vik, and G. Cui, “Significación estadística de las correcciones introducidas en las fórmulas de diferencia de color CIE94 y CIEDE2000,” in Proceedings VIII Congreso Nacional del Color, J. L. Fontecha González and J. Campos Acosta, eds. (Sociedad Española de Óptica, 2007), pp. 27-28.

Roesler, G.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, G. D.

R. S. Berns, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-315 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vik, M.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, M. J. Rivas, P. A. García, A. González, M. Vik, and G. Cui, “Significación estadística de las correcciones introducidas en las fórmulas de diferencia de color CIE94 y CIEDE2000,” in Proceedings VIII Congreso Nacional del Color, J. L. Fontecha González and J. Campos Acosta, eds. (Sociedad Española de Óptica, 2007), pp. 27-28.

Watson, G. S.

G. E. P. Box and G. S. Watson, “Robustness to non-normality of regression tests,” Biometrika 49, 93-106 (1962).

Witt, K.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, G. Roesler, and K. Witt, “Uniform colour spaces based on the DIN99 colour-difference formula,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 282-290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 2478-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biometrika

G. E. P. Box, “Non normality and tests on variances,” Biometrika 40, 318-335 (1953).

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Tables (9)

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Table 1 Number of Color Pairs, Weighting Factors, Degrees of Freedom, and Confidence Intervals (95% Confidence Level) for the Five Experimental Datasets Analyzed in this Paper a

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Table 2 STRESS Values Computed for CIELAB, CIE94 (with Its Two Reduced Versions), and CIEDE2000 (with Its Five Reduced Versions) Color-Difference Formulas Using the Corrected COM-Weighted Dataset [3] and Its Four Individual Datasets: BFD-P [16], Leeds [17], RIT-DuPont [5], and Witt [18] a

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Table 3 STRESS Values Computed for CIELAB, CIE94 (with Its Two Reduced Versions), and CIEDE2000 (with Its Five Reduced Versions) Color-Difference Formulas for the Incorrect and Correct RIT-DuPont and COM-Weighted Datasets a

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Table 4 STRESS Values Computed for CIEDE2000 and Other Recent Advanced Color-Difference Formulas Using the Experimental COM-Weighted Dataset [3] and Its Four Individual Datasets: BFD-P [16], Leeds [17], RIT-DuPont [5], and Witt [18] a

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Table 5 STRESS Values for the BFD-P Dataset and Its Three Subsets (BFD-D65, BFD-M, and BFD-C) for CIEDE2000 and Four Recent Advanced Color-Difference Formulas a

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Table 6 PF/3 Values Computed for CIELAB, CIE94 (with Its Two Reduced Versions), and CIEDE2000 (with Its Five Reduced Versions) Color-Difference Formulas Using the COM-Weighted Dataset and Its Four Individual Datasets: BFD-P [16], Leeds [17], RIT-DuPont [5], and Witt [18]

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Table 7 PF/3 Values for Incorrect and Correct RIT-DuPont and COM-Weighted Datasets [4] Using CIELAB, CIE94 (with Its Two Reduced Versions), and CIEDE2000 (with Its Five Reduced Versions)

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Table 8 PF/3 Values Computed for CIEDE2000 and Other Recent Advanced Color-Difference Formulas Using the Experimental COM-Weighted Dataset [3] and Its Four Individual Datasets: BFD-P [16], Leeds [17], RIT-DuPont [5], and Witt [18]

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Table 9 PF/3 Values for BFD-P and Its Three Subsets (BFD-D65, BFD-M, and BFD-C) for CIEDE2000 and Four Recent Advanced Color-Difference Formulas

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S T R E S S = 100 ( ( Δ E i F 1 Δ V i ) 2 F 1 2 Δ V i 2 ) 1 2 ,
with F 1 = Δ E i 2 Δ E i Δ V i ,

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