Abstract

We evaluate the effect of the emmetropization technique LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) on stereoscopic vision. For this, we used a mirror stereoscope to measure the upper disparity limit Dmax before (with best correction) and after LASIK for 30 patients. The results show that the upper disparity limit declines from 41.1min of arc on average to 31.3min of arc after LASIK, being significant in 83% of the patients. This deterioration is significantly correlated with an increase in the postsurgical interocular differences in higher-order aberrations, corneal asphericity, and presurgical anisometropia. New ablation algorithms should minimize interocular differences in order to improve binocular visual performance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 679-688 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  2. M. Lombardo, G. Lombardo, and S. Serrao, “Interocular high-order corneal wavefront aberration symmetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 777-787 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Kirwan and M. O'Keefe, “Stereopsis in refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 142, 218-222 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, F. Rodriguez-Marin, and R. Gutierrez, “Technical Note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 210-212 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Serrao, G. Lombardo, and M. Lombardo, “Differences in nasal and temporal responses of the cornea after photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 30-38 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. M. Wilcox and R. F. Hess, “D-max for stereopsis depends on size, not spatial-frequency content,” Vision Res. 35, 1061-1069 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. R. Jimenez, J. L. Olivares, F. Perez-Ocon, and L. J. Del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 47-50 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. S. Smallman and D. I. A. MacLeod, “Size disparity correlation in stereopsis at contrast threshold,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2169-2183 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. J. D. Prince and R. A. Eagle, “Stereo correspondence in one-dimensional Gabor stimuli,” Vision Res. 40, 913-924 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, J. A. Diaz, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Changes in stereoscopic depth perception caused by decentration of spectacle lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 421-427 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. R. Jimenez, A. Ponce, and R. G. Anera, “Induced aniseikonia diminishes binocular contrast sensitivity and binocular summation,” Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 559-562 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Cheng, N. L. Himebaugh, P. S. Kollbaum, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Test-retest reliability of clinical Shack-Hartmann measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 351-360 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. B. Yang and F. Wu, “Technical Note: Comparison of the wavefront aberrations between natural and pharmacological pupil dilations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 220-223 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Wang and D. D. Koch, “Ocular higher-order aberrations in individuals screened for refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1896-1903 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. P. Howard and B. J. Rogers, Seeing in Depth (I Porteous Publishing, 2002).
  17. J. R. Jimenez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Diaz, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. R. Jimenez, J. M. Medina, L. J. Del Barco, and J. A. Diaz, “Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time,” Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. R. Jimenez, J. J. Castro, R. Jimenez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vision Sci. 85, 174-179 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. P. H. Wong, R. L. Woods, and E. Peli, “Stereoacuity at distance and near,” Optom. Vision Sci. 79, 771-778 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, R. Jimenez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 279-284 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).
  23. J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, J. A. Diaz, and F. Perez-Ocon, “Corneal asphericity after refractive surgery when the Munnerlyn formula is applied,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 98-103 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Cano, S. Barbero, and S. Marcos, “Comparison of real and computer-simulated outcomes of LASIK refractive surgery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 926-936 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and L. Carretero, “Retinal image quality in myopic subjects after refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1587-1598 (2000).
  26. J. J. Guell, F. F. Velasco, C. Roberts, M. T. Sisquella, and A. Mahmoud, “Flap thickness and topography changes induced by flap creation during laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 115-119 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res. 29, 837-847 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Pardhan and J. Gilchrist, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10, 33-36 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 503-509 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. R. Jimenez, J. J. Castro, R. Jimenez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vision Sci. 85, 174-179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. B. Yang and F. Wu, “Technical Note: Comparison of the wavefront aberrations between natural and pharmacological pupil dilations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 220-223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, F. Rodriguez-Marin, and R. Gutierrez, “Technical Note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 210-212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

C. Kirwan and M. O'Keefe, “Stereopsis in refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 142, 218-222 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 679-688 (2006).
[PubMed]

M. Lombardo, G. Lombardo, and S. Serrao, “Interocular high-order corneal wavefront aberration symmetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 777-787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. J. Guell, F. F. Velasco, C. Roberts, M. T. Sisquella, and A. Mahmoud, “Flap thickness and topography changes induced by flap creation during laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 115-119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Serrao, G. Lombardo, and M. Lombardo, “Differences in nasal and temporal responses of the cornea after photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 30-38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

J. R. Jimenez, A. Ponce, and R. G. Anera, “Induced aniseikonia diminishes binocular contrast sensitivity and binocular summation,” Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 559-562 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Cheng, N. L. Himebaugh, P. S. Kollbaum, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Test-retest reliability of clinical Shack-Hartmann measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 351-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, J. A. Diaz, and F. Perez-Ocon, “Corneal asphericity after refractive surgery when the Munnerlyn formula is applied,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 98-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Cano, S. Barbero, and S. Marcos, “Comparison of real and computer-simulated outcomes of LASIK refractive surgery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 926-936 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, “Ocular higher-order aberrations in individuals screened for refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1896-1903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, R. Jimenez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 279-284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. R. Jimenez, J. M. Medina, L. J. Del Barco, and J. A. Diaz, “Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time,” Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. H. Wong, R. L. Woods, and E. Peli, “Stereoacuity at distance and near,” Optom. Vision Sci. 79, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 503-509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

S. J. D. Prince and R. A. Eagle, “Stereo correspondence in one-dimensional Gabor stimuli,” Vision Res. 40, 913-924 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, J. A. Diaz, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Changes in stereoscopic depth perception caused by decentration of spectacle lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 421-427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, J. L. Olivares, F. Perez-Ocon, and L. J. Del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 47-50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and L. Carretero, “Retinal image quality in myopic subjects after refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1587-1598 (2000).

1999 (1)

J. R. Jimenez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Diaz, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

L. M. Wilcox and R. F. Hess, “D-max for stereopsis depends on size, not spatial-frequency content,” Vision Res. 35, 1061-1069 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

S. Pardhan and J. Gilchrist, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10, 33-36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res. 29, 837-847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anera, R. G.

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, F. Rodriguez-Marin, and R. Gutierrez, “Technical Note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 210-212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 679-688 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, A. Ponce, and R. G. Anera, “Induced aniseikonia diminishes binocular contrast sensitivity and binocular summation,” Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 559-562 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, J. A. Diaz, and F. Perez-Ocon, “Corneal asphericity after refractive surgery when the Munnerlyn formula is applied,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 98-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, R. Jimenez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 279-284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and L. Carretero, “Retinal image quality in myopic subjects after refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1587-1598 (2000).

Atchison, D.

D. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

Barbero, S.

Bradley, A.

X. Cheng, N. L. Himebaugh, P. S. Kollbaum, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Test-retest reliability of clinical Shack-Hartmann measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 351-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cano, D.

Carretero, L.

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and L. Carretero, “Retinal image quality in myopic subjects after refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1587-1598 (2000).

Castro, J. J.

J. R. Jimenez, J. J. Castro, R. Jimenez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vision Sci. 85, 174-179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chateau, N.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 503-509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X.

X. Cheng, N. L. Himebaugh, P. S. Kollbaum, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Test-retest reliability of clinical Shack-Hartmann measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 351-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

del Barco, L. J.

J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 679-688 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, J. M. Medina, L. J. Del Barco, and J. A. Diaz, “Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time,” Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, J. A. Diaz, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Changes in stereoscopic depth perception caused by decentration of spectacle lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 421-427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and L. Carretero, “Retinal image quality in myopic subjects after refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1587-1598 (2000).

J. R. Jimenez, J. L. Olivares, F. Perez-Ocon, and L. J. Del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 47-50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Diaz, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaz, J. A.

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, J. A. Diaz, and F. Perez-Ocon, “Corneal asphericity after refractive surgery when the Munnerlyn formula is applied,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 98-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, J. M. Medina, L. J. Del Barco, and J. A. Diaz, “Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time,” Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, J. A. Diaz, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Changes in stereoscopic depth perception caused by decentration of spectacle lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 421-427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Diaz, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eagle, R. A.

S. J. D. Prince and R. A. Eagle, “Stereo correspondence in one-dimensional Gabor stimuli,” Vision Res. 40, 913-924 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, J.

S. Pardhan and J. Gilchrist, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10, 33-36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guell, J. J.

J. J. Guell, F. F. Velasco, C. Roberts, M. T. Sisquella, and A. Mahmoud, “Flap thickness and topography changes induced by flap creation during laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 115-119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, R.

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, F. Rodriguez-Marin, and R. Gutierrez, “Technical Note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 210-212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 679-688 (2006).
[PubMed]

Heckmann, T.

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res. 29, 837-847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, R. F.

L. M. Wilcox and R. F. Hess, “D-max for stereopsis depends on size, not spatial-frequency content,” Vision Res. 35, 1061-1069 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Himebaugh, N. L.

X. Cheng, N. L. Himebaugh, P. S. Kollbaum, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Test-retest reliability of clinical Shack-Hartmann measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 351-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hita, E.

J. R. Jimenez, J. J. Castro, R. Jimenez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vision Sci. 85, 174-179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, J. A. Diaz, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Changes in stereoscopic depth perception caused by decentration of spectacle lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 421-427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Diaz, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornain, V.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 503-509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Howard, I. P.

I. P. Howard and B. J. Rogers, Seeing in Depth (I Porteous Publishing, 2002).

Jimenez, J. R.

J. R. Jimenez, J. J. Castro, R. Jimenez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vision Sci. 85, 174-179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, F. Rodriguez-Marin, and R. Gutierrez, “Technical Note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 210-212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 679-688 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, A. Ponce, and R. G. Anera, “Induced aniseikonia diminishes binocular contrast sensitivity and binocular summation,” Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 559-562 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, J. A. Diaz, and F. Perez-Ocon, “Corneal asphericity after refractive surgery when the Munnerlyn formula is applied,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 98-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, R. Jimenez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 279-284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, J. M. Medina, L. J. Del Barco, and J. A. Diaz, “Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time,” Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, J. A. Diaz, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Changes in stereoscopic depth perception caused by decentration of spectacle lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 421-427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and L. Carretero, “Retinal image quality in myopic subjects after refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1587-1598 (2000).

J. R. Jimenez, J. L. Olivares, F. Perez-Ocon, and L. J. Del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 47-50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Diaz, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jimenez, R.

J. R. Jimenez, J. J. Castro, R. Jimenez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vision Sci. 85, 174-179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, R. Jimenez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 279-284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirwan, C.

C. Kirwan and M. O'Keefe, “Stereopsis in refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 142, 218-222 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, D. D.

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, “Ocular higher-order aberrations in individuals screened for refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1896-1903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kollbaum, P. S.

X. Cheng, N. L. Himebaugh, P. S. Kollbaum, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Test-retest reliability of clinical Shack-Hartmann measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 351-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Legras, R.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 503-509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lombardo, G.

M. Lombardo, G. Lombardo, and S. Serrao, “Interocular high-order corneal wavefront aberration symmetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 777-787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Serrao, G. Lombardo, and M. Lombardo, “Differences in nasal and temporal responses of the cornea after photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 30-38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lombardo, M.

M. Lombardo, G. Lombardo, and S. Serrao, “Interocular high-order corneal wavefront aberration symmetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 777-787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Serrao, G. Lombardo, and M. Lombardo, “Differences in nasal and temporal responses of the cornea after photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 30-38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Mahmoud, A.

J. J. Guell, F. F. Velasco, C. Roberts, M. T. Sisquella, and A. Mahmoud, “Flap thickness and topography changes induced by flap creation during laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 115-119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, S.

Medina, J. M.

J. R. Jimenez, J. M. Medina, L. J. Del Barco, and J. A. Diaz, “Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time,” Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monot, A.

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 503-509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O'Keefe, M.

C. Kirwan and M. O'Keefe, “Stereopsis in refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 142, 218-222 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivares, J. L.

J. R. Jimenez, J. L. Olivares, F. Perez-Ocon, and L. J. Del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 47-50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pardhan, S.

S. Pardhan and J. Gilchrist, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10, 33-36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peli, E.

B. P. H. Wong, R. L. Woods, and E. Peli, “Stereoacuity at distance and near,” Optom. Vision Sci. 79, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Ocon, F.

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, J. A. Diaz, and F. Perez-Ocon, “Corneal asphericity after refractive surgery when the Munnerlyn formula is applied,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 98-103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, J. L. Olivares, F. Perez-Ocon, and L. J. Del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 47-50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, A.

J. R. Jimenez, A. Ponce, and R. G. Anera, “Induced aniseikonia diminishes binocular contrast sensitivity and binocular summation,” Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 559-562 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prince, S. J. D.

S. J. D. Prince and R. A. Eagle, “Stereo correspondence in one-dimensional Gabor stimuli,” Vision Res. 40, 913-924 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reche, J. F.

J. R. Jimenez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Diaz, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, C.

J. J. Guell, F. F. Velasco, C. Roberts, M. T. Sisquella, and A. Mahmoud, “Flap thickness and topography changes induced by flap creation during laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 115-119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Marin, F.

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, F. Rodriguez-Marin, and R. Gutierrez, “Technical Note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 210-212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, B. J.

I. P. Howard and B. J. Rogers, Seeing in Depth (I Porteous Publishing, 2002).

Rubino, M.

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, J. A. Diaz, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Changes in stereoscopic depth perception caused by decentration of spectacle lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 421-427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salas, C.

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, R. Jimenez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 279-284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schor, C.

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res. 29, 837-847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serrao, S.

M. Lombardo, G. Lombardo, and S. Serrao, “Interocular high-order corneal wavefront aberration symmetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 777-787 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Serrao, G. Lombardo, and M. Lombardo, “Differences in nasal and temporal responses of the cornea after photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 30-38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sisquella, M. T.

J. J. Guell, F. F. Velasco, C. Roberts, M. T. Sisquella, and A. Mahmoud, “Flap thickness and topography changes induced by flap creation during laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 115-119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smallman, H. S.

Smith, G.

D. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

Thibos, L. N.

X. Cheng, N. L. Himebaugh, P. S. Kollbaum, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Test-retest reliability of clinical Shack-Hartmann measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 351-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Velasco, F. F.

J. J. Guell, F. F. Velasco, C. Roberts, M. T. Sisquella, and A. Mahmoud, “Flap thickness and topography changes induced by flap creation during laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 115-119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Villa, C.

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, F. Rodriguez-Marin, and R. Gutierrez, “Technical Note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 210-212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 679-688 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, “Ocular higher-order aberrations in individuals screened for refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1896-1903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, L. M.

L. M. Wilcox and R. F. Hess, “D-max for stereopsis depends on size, not spatial-frequency content,” Vision Res. 35, 1061-1069 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, B. P. H.

B. P. H. Wong, R. L. Woods, and E. Peli, “Stereoacuity at distance and near,” Optom. Vision Sci. 79, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woods, R. L.

B. P. H. Wong, R. L. Woods, and E. Peli, “Stereoacuity at distance and near,” Optom. Vision Sci. 79, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

Y. B. Yang and F. Wu, “Technical Note: Comparison of the wavefront aberrations between natural and pharmacological pupil dilations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 220-223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. B.

Y. B. Yang and F. Wu, “Technical Note: Comparison of the wavefront aberrations between natural and pharmacological pupil dilations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 220-223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, R. Jimenez, and C. Salas, “Impact of interocular differences in corneal asphericity on binocular summation,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 279-284 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kirwan and M. O'Keefe, “Stereopsis in refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 142, 218-222 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

J. R. Jimenez, J. F. Reche, J. A. Diaz, L. J. Del Barco, and E. Hita, “Optimization of color reproduction on CRT-color monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 207-213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

X. Cheng, N. L. Himebaugh, P. S. Kollbaum, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, “Test-retest reliability of clinical Shack-Hartmann measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 351-360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refractive Surg. (3)

L. Wang and D. D. Koch, “Ocular higher-order aberrations in individuals screened for refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1896-1903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Serrao, G. Lombardo, and M. Lombardo, “Differences in nasal and temporal responses of the cornea after photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 30-38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Guell, F. F. Velasco, C. Roberts, M. T. Sisquella, and A. Mahmoud, “Flap thickness and topography changes induced by flap creation during laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 115-119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. R. Jimenez, R. G. Anera, L. J. Del Barco, and L. Carretero, “Retinal image quality in myopic subjects after refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1587-1598 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, R. G. Anera, R. Gutierrez, and L. J. del Barco, “Binocular visual performance after LASIK,” J. Refract. Surg. 22, 679-688 (2006).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (3)

S. Pardhan and J. Gilchrist, “The effect of monocular defocus on binocular contrast sensitivity,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 10, 33-36 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jimenez, C. Villa, F. Rodriguez-Marin, and R. Gutierrez, “Technical Note: Pre-surgical anisometropia influences post-LASIK binocular mesopic contrast sensitivity function,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 210-212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Yang and F. Wu, “Technical Note: Comparison of the wavefront aberrations between natural and pharmacological pupil dilations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 27, 220-223 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optom. Vision Sci. (6)

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, J. A. Diaz, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Changes in stereoscopic depth perception caused by decentration of spectacle lenses,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 421-427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, A. Ponce, and R. G. Anera, “Induced aniseikonia diminishes binocular contrast sensitivity and binocular summation,” Optom. Vision Sci. 81, 559-562 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, J. J. Castro, R. Jimenez, and E. Hita, “Interocular differences in higher-order aberrations on binocular visual performance,” Optom. Vision Sci. 85, 174-179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. P. H. Wong, R. L. Woods, and E. Peli, “Stereoacuity at distance and near,” Optom. Vision Sci. 79, 771-778 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Legras, V. Hornain, A. Monot, and N. Chateau, “Effect of induced anisometropia on binocular through-focus contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 503-509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jimenez, J. L. Olivares, F. Perez-Ocon, and L. J. Del Barco, “Associated phoria in relation to stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Optom. Vision Sci. 77, 47-50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Percept. Psychophys. (1)

J. R. Jimenez, J. M. Medina, L. J. Del Barco, and J. A. Diaz, “Binocular summation of chromatic changes as measured by visual reaction time,” Percept. Psychophys. 64, 140-147 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (4)

J. R. Jimenez, M. Rubino, E. Hita, and L. J. Del Barco, “Influence of the luminance and opponent chromatic channels on stereopsis with random-dot stereograms,” Vision Res. 37, 591-596 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Wilcox and R. F. Hess, “D-max for stereopsis depends on size, not spatial-frequency content,” Vision Res. 35, 1061-1069 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. D. Prince and R. A. Eagle, “Stereo correspondence in one-dimensional Gabor stimuli,” Vision Res. 40, 913-924 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schor and T. Heckmann, “Interocular differences in contrast and spatial frequency: effects on stereopsis and fusion,” Vision Res. 29, 837-847 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. Atchison and G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000).

I. P. Howard and B. J. Rogers, Seeing in Depth (I Porteous Publishing, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Upper disparity limit before (best corrected) and after LASIK for the 30 patients. Data include standard error.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Post-LASIK upper disparity limit as a function of post-LASIK interocular differences in corneal asphericity ( Δ Q ) for the 30 patients. Data include standard error.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Post-LASIK upper disparity limit as a function of post-LASIK interocular differences in higher-order aberrations (HOA) for the 30 patients. Data include standard error.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Post-LASIK upper disparity limit as function of pre-LASIK anisometropia (D) for the 30 patients. Data include standard error.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Post-LASIK interocular-differences in corneal asphericity ( Δ Q ) as a function of initial anisometropia (D) for the 30 patients.

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