Abstract

We investigate color constancy for real 2D paper samples using a successive matching paradigm in which the observer memorizes a reference surface color under neutral illumination and after a temporal interval selects a matching test surface under the same or different illumination. We find significant effects of the illumination, reference surface, and their interaction on the matching error. We characterize the matching error in the absence of illumination change as the “pure color memory shift” and introduce a new index for successive color constancy that compares this shift against the matching error under changing illumination. The index also incorporates the vector direction of the matching errors in chromaticity space, unlike the traditional constancy index. With this index, we find that color constancy is nearly perfect.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and L. Shapiro, “Colour categories in Himba: Evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378-411 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. Roberson and C. O'Hanlon, “How culture might constrain colour categories,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 505-506 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. H. Bornstein, “Name codes and color memory,” Am. J. Psychol. 89, 269-279 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. L. Nieves, F. Perez-Ocon, J. Hernandez-Andres, and J. Romero, “Spectral-reflectance function recovery for improved colour- constancy experiments,” Displays 23, 213-222 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. F. W. Cornelissen and E. Brenner, “Simultaneous color constancy revisited--an analysis of viewing strategies,” Vision Res. 35, 2431-2448 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. Ling and A. C. Hurlbert, “Colour memory under changing illumination,” Perception 31, 131-131 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  35. D. H. Foster, K. Amano, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “How temporal cues can aid colour constancy,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S180-S185 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. C. Hurlbert, “Computational models of colour constancy,” in Perceptual Constancy: Why Things Look As They Do, V.Walsh and J.Kulikowski, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1998), pp. 283-321.
  37. Q. Zaidi, “Identification of illuminant and object colors: heuristic-based algorithms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1767-1776 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. H. E. Smithson, “Sensory, computational and cognitive components of human colour constancy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 360, 1329-1346 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2005 (3)

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and L. Shapiro, “Colour categories in Himba: Evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Roberson and C. O'Hanlon, “How culture might constrain colour categories,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 505-506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Smithson, “Sensory, computational and cognitive components of human colour constancy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 360, 1329-1346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y. Ling and A. Hurlbert, “Color and size interations in a real 3D object simliarity task,” J. Vision 4, 721-734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y. Ling and A. C. Hurlbert, “Colour memory under changing illumination,” Perception 31, 131-131 (2002).

J. L. Nieves, F. Perez-Ocon, J. Hernandez-Andres, and J. Romero, “Spectral-reflectance function recovery for improved colour- constancy experiments,” Displays 23, 213-222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. D. de Fez, P. Capilla, M. J. Luque, J. Perez-Carpinell, and J. C. del Pozo, “Asymmetric colour matching: Memory matching versus simultaneous matching,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 458-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “How temporal cues can aid colour constancy,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S180-S185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

K. Uchikawa, Y. Kuriki, and Y. Tone, “Measurement of color constancy by color memory matching,” Opt. Rev. 5, 59-63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Brainard, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 2. Achromatic loci,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 307-325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zaidi, “Identification of illuminant and object colors: heuristic-based algorithms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1767-1776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Perez-Carpinell, R. Baldovi, M. D. de Fez, and J. Castro, “Color memory matching: Time effect and other factors,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 234-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

F. W. Cornelissen and E. Brenner, “Simultaneous color constancy revisited--an analysis of viewing strategies,” Vision Res. 35, 2431-2448 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

B. J. Craven and D. H. Foster, “An operational approach to color constancy,” Vision Res. 32, 1359-1366 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

A. Valberg and B. Lange-Malecki, “'Color constancy' in Mondrian patterns: A partial cancellaton of physical chromaticity shifts by simultaneous contrast,” Vision Res. 30, 371-380 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. Lucy and R. Shweder, “The effect of incidental conversation on memory for focal colors,” American Anthropologist 90, 923-931 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1983 (1)

P. Siple and R. M. Springer, “Memory and preference for the colors of objects,” Percept. Psychophys. 34, 363-370 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

J. Lucy and R. Shweder, “Whorf and his critics: Linguistic and nonlinguistic influence on color memory,” American Anthropologist 81, 581-615 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

M. H. Bornstein, “Name codes and color memory,” Am. J. Psychol. 89, 269-279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, and T. H. Taylor, ”Quantitative studies in retinex theory: A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the “color Mondrian” experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445-458 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

E. R. Heider, “Universals in color naming and memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. 93, 10-20 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

S. E. Clark, “Retrieval of color information from preperceptual memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. 82, 263-266 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

1957 (1)

1955 (2)

V. Hamwi and C. Landis, “Memory for color,” J. Psychol. 39, 183-194 (1955).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Burnham and J. R. Clark, “A test of hue memory,” J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164-172 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1931 (1)

M. Collins, “Some observation on immediate colour memory,” Br. J. Psychol. 22, 344-352 (1931).

Amano, K.

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “How temporal cues can aid colour constancy,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S180-S185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arend, L.

Arend, L. E.

Baldovi, R.

J. Perez-Carpinell, R. Baldovi, M. D. de Fez, and J. Castro, “Color memory matching: Time effect and other factors,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 234-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartleson, C. J.

Berlin, B.

B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California Press, 1969), p. 196.

Bodrogi, P.

P. Bodrogi, “Shifts of short-term colour memory,” Ph.D. thesis (University of Veszprem, Veszprem, Hungary, 1998).

Bornstein, M. H.

M. H. Bornstein, “Name codes and color memory,” Am. J. Psychol. 89, 269-279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, D. H.

Brenner, E.

F. W. Cornelissen and E. Brenner, “Simultaneous color constancy revisited--an analysis of viewing strategies,” Vision Res. 35, 2431-2448 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunt, W. A.

Burnham, R. W.

Capilla, P.

M. D. de Fez, P. Capilla, M. J. Luque, J. Perez-Carpinell, and J. C. del Pozo, “Asymmetric colour matching: Memory matching versus simultaneous matching,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 458-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Castro, J.

J. Perez-Carpinell, R. Baldovi, M. D. de Fez, and J. Castro, “Color memory matching: Time effect and other factors,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 234-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. R.

Clark, S. E.

S. E. Clark, “Retrieval of color information from preperceptual memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. 82, 263-266 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, M.

M. Collins, “Some observation on immediate colour memory,” Br. J. Psychol. 22, 344-352 (1931).

Cornelissen, F. W.

F. W. Cornelissen and E. Brenner, “Simultaneous color constancy revisited--an analysis of viewing strategies,” Vision Res. 35, 2431-2448 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craven, B. J.

B. J. Craven and D. H. Foster, “An operational approach to color constancy,” Vision Res. 32, 1359-1366 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidoff, J.

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and L. Shapiro, “Colour categories in Himba: Evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, I.

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and L. Shapiro, “Colour categories in Himba: Evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Fez, M. D.

M. D. de Fez, P. Capilla, M. J. Luque, J. Perez-Carpinell, and J. C. del Pozo, “Asymmetric colour matching: Memory matching versus simultaneous matching,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 458-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Perez-Carpinell, R. Baldovi, M. D. de Fez, and J. Castro, “Color memory matching: Time effect and other factors,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 234-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

del Pozo, J. C.

M. D. de Fez, P. Capilla, M. J. Luque, J. Perez-Carpinell, and J. C. del Pozo, “Asymmetric colour matching: Memory matching versus simultaneous matching,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 458-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deweert, C. M. M.

J. M. Troost and C. M. M. Deweert, “Naming versus matching in color constancy,” Percept. Psychophys. 50, 591-602 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, D. H.

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “How temporal cues can aid colour constancy,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S180-S185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Craven and D. H. Foster, “An operational approach to color constancy,” Vision Res. 32, 1359-1366 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, R.

Hamwi, V.

V. Hamwi and C. Landis, “Memory for color,” J. Psychol. 39, 183-194 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Heider, E. R.

E. R. Heider, “Universals in color naming and memory,” J. Exp. Psychol. 93, 10-20 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hernandez-Andres, J.

J. L. Nieves, F. Perez-Ocon, J. Hernandez-Andres, and J. Romero, “Spectral-reflectance function recovery for improved colour- constancy experiments,” Displays 23, 213-222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hurlbert, A.

Y. Ling and A. Hurlbert, “Color and size interations in a real 3D object simliarity task,” J. Vision 4, 721-734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ling and A. Hurlbert, “Colour-memory-dependent colour constancy: 2D vs 3D real surfaces,” in The Third European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV, 2006), pp. 291-293.

Hurlbert, A. C.

Y. Ling and A. C. Hurlbert, “Colour memory under changing illumination,” Perception 31, 131-131 (2002).

A. C. Hurlbert, “Computational models of colour constancy,” in Perceptual Constancy: Why Things Look As They Do, V.Walsh and J.Kulikowski, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1998), pp. 283-321.

Jin, E. W.

Kay, P.

B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California Press, 1969), p. 196.

Kulikowski, J. J.

J. J. Kulikowski and H. Vaitkevicius, “Colour constancy as a function of hue,” Acta Psychol. 97, 25-35 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuriki, Y.

K. Uchikawa, Y. Kuriki, and Y. Tone, “Measurement of color constancy by color memory matching,” Opt. Rev. 5, 59-63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Landis, C.

V. Hamwi and C. Landis, “Memory for color,” J. Psychol. 39, 183-194 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Lange-Malecki, B.

A. Valberg and B. Lange-Malecki, “'Color constancy' in Mondrian patterns: A partial cancellaton of physical chromaticity shifts by simultaneous contrast,” Vision Res. 30, 371-380 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ling, Y.

Y. Ling and A. Hurlbert, “Color and size interations in a real 3D object simliarity task,” J. Vision 4, 721-734 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ling and A. C. Hurlbert, “Colour memory under changing illumination,” Perception 31, 131-131 (2002).

Y. Ling and A. Hurlbert, “Colour-memory-dependent colour constancy: 2D vs 3D real surfaces,” in The Third European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (CGIV, 2006), pp. 291-293.

Lucy, J.

J. Lucy and R. Shweder, “The effect of incidental conversation on memory for focal colors,” American Anthropologist 90, 923-931 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lucy and R. Shweder, “Whorf and his critics: Linguistic and nonlinguistic influence on color memory,” American Anthropologist 81, 581-615 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Luque, M. J.

M. D. de Fez, P. Capilla, M. J. Luque, J. Perez-Carpinell, and J. C. del Pozo, “Asymmetric colour matching: Memory matching versus simultaneous matching,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 458-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maloney, L. T.

McCann, J. J.

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, and T. H. Taylor, ”Quantitative studies in retinex theory: A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the “color Mondrian” experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445-458 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKee, S. P.

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, and T. H. Taylor, ”Quantitative studies in retinex theory: A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the “color Mondrian” experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445-458 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nascimento, S. M. C.

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “How temporal cues can aid colour constancy,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S180-S185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Newhall, S. M.

Nieves, J. L.

J. L. Nieves, F. Perez-Ocon, J. Hernandez-Andres, and J. Romero, “Spectral-reflectance function recovery for improved colour- constancy experiments,” Displays 23, 213-222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O'Hanlon, C.

D. Roberson and C. O'Hanlon, “How culture might constrain colour categories,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 505-506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Carpinell, J.

M. D. de Fez, P. Capilla, M. J. Luque, J. Perez-Carpinell, and J. C. del Pozo, “Asymmetric colour matching: Memory matching versus simultaneous matching,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 458-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Perez-Carpinell, R. Baldovi, M. D. de Fez, and J. Castro, “Color memory matching: Time effect and other factors,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 234-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Ocon, F.

J. L. Nieves, F. Perez-Ocon, J. Hernandez-Andres, and J. Romero, “Spectral-reflectance function recovery for improved colour- constancy experiments,” Displays 23, 213-222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, A.

Roberson, D.

D. Roberson and C. O'Hanlon, “How culture might constrain colour categories,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 505-506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and L. Shapiro, “Colour categories in Himba: Evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero, J.

J. L. Nieves, F. Perez-Ocon, J. Hernandez-Andres, and J. Romero, “Spectral-reflectance function recovery for improved colour- constancy experiments,” Displays 23, 213-222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schirillo, J.

Shapiro, L.

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and L. Shapiro, “Colour categories in Himba: Evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shevell, S. K.

Shweder, R.

J. Lucy and R. Shweder, “The effect of incidental conversation on memory for focal colors,” American Anthropologist 90, 923-931 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Lucy and R. Shweder, “Whorf and his critics: Linguistic and nonlinguistic influence on color memory,” American Anthropologist 81, 581-615 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Siple, P.

P. Siple and R. M. Springer, “Memory and preference for the colors of objects,” Percept. Psychophys. 34, 363-370 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smithson, H. E.

H. E. Smithson, “Sensory, computational and cognitive components of human colour constancy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 360, 1329-1346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speigle, J. M.

Springer, R. M.

P. Siple and R. M. Springer, “Memory and preference for the colors of objects,” Percept. Psychophys. 34, 363-370 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, T. H.

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, and T. H. Taylor, ”Quantitative studies in retinex theory: A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the “color Mondrian” experiments,” Vision Res. 16, 445-458 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tone, Y.

K. Uchikawa, Y. Kuriki, and Y. Tone, “Measurement of color constancy by color memory matching,” Opt. Rev. 5, 59-63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Troost, J. M.

J. M. Troost and C. M. M. Deweert, “Naming versus matching in color constancy,” Percept. Psychophys. 50, 591-602 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchikawa, K.

K. Uchikawa, Y. Kuriki, and Y. Tone, “Measurement of color constancy by color memory matching,” Opt. Rev. 5, 59-63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vaitkevicius, H.

J. J. Kulikowski and H. Vaitkevicius, “Colour constancy as a function of hue,” Acta Psychol. 97, 25-35 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valberg, A.

A. Valberg and B. Lange-Malecki, “'Color constancy' in Mondrian patterns: A partial cancellaton of physical chromaticity shifts by simultaneous contrast,” Vision Res. 30, 371-380 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaidi, Q.

Acta Psychol. (1)

J. J. Kulikowski and H. Vaitkevicius, “Colour constancy as a function of hue,” Acta Psychol. 97, 25-35 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Psychol. (1)

M. H. Bornstein, “Name codes and color memory,” Am. J. Psychol. 89, 269-279 (1976).
[CrossRef]

American Anthropologist (2)

J. Lucy and R. Shweder, “Whorf and his critics: Linguistic and nonlinguistic influence on color memory,” American Anthropologist 81, 581-615 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Lucy and R. Shweder, “The effect of incidental conversation on memory for focal colors,” American Anthropologist 90, 923-931 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Behav. Brain Sci. (1)

D. Roberson and C. O'Hanlon, “How culture might constrain colour categories,” Behav. Brain Sci. 28, 505-506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Psychol. (1)

M. Collins, “Some observation on immediate colour memory,” Br. J. Psychol. 22, 344-352 (1931).

Cogn. Psychol. (1)

D. Roberson, J. Davidoff, I. Davies, and L. Shapiro, “Colour categories in Himba: Evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis,” Cogn. Psychol. 50, 378-411 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (3)

J. Perez-Carpinell, R. Baldovi, M. D. de Fez, and J. Castro, “Color memory matching: Time effect and other factors,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 234-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. de Fez, P. Capilla, M. J. Luque, J. Perez-Carpinell, and J. C. del Pozo, “Asymmetric colour matching: Memory matching versus simultaneous matching,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 458-468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Foster, K. Amano, and S. M. C. Nascimento, “How temporal cues can aid colour constancy,” Color Res. Appl. 26, S180-S185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Displays (1)

J. L. Nieves, F. Perez-Ocon, J. Hernandez-Andres, and J. Romero, “Spectral-reflectance function recovery for improved colour- constancy experiments,” Displays 23, 213-222 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Psychol. (1)

R. W. Burnham and J. R. Clark, “A test of hue memory,” J. Appl. Psychol. 39, 164-172 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Psychol. (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental stimuli and one observer's results for saturation series F plotted on a CIE uv diagram. The markers within each ellipse indicate the reference and test patch chromaticities under a test illumination. The cross represents the reference patch chromaticity under each test illumination; the dots represent the chromaticities of the available alternatives in the test plate under the test illumination; and the circle represents the surface selected by the observer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental protocol for one memory trial. Observer first preadapts to the reference illumination for 60 s , second, views the reference plate under the reference illumination for 10 s ; third, adapts to the test illumination for 60 s while performing an arithmetic task, and, fourth, views the test plate under the test illumination and is allowed unlimited time to select the alternative that best matches the remembered reference patch.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Chromaticities of mean matching surfaces (triangles), the reference patches (dots), and the illuminations (crosses) for seven saturation series under the five test illuminations plotted in CIE u v chromaticity diagrams. The SDM values of the mean matching chromaticities are illustrated by gray crosses over the triangles: horizontal cross bar; SDM of u ; vertical cross bar; SDM of v . Each panel represents the results for one reference patch. The marker color indicates the type of test illumination: black, D65; blue, D145; yellow, D40; green, Green; red, Red. The solid line connects the mean matching chromaticity with the reference patch chromaticity under the test illumination, indicating the direction of the matching error shift. The black solid line corresponds to the pure memory shift S m , the colored solid lines correspond to the constancy shifts S c , and the distance between the black and colored dots corresponds to the physical shift S p in Eq. (2). The dotted line connects the neutral point of the test illumination with the reference patch chromaticity under the test illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The mean matching chromaticities (triangles), the reference patch chromaticities (dots), and the illumination chromaticities (crosses) for six hue series under five test illuminations plotted in CIE u v chromaticity diagrams. The SDM values of the mean matching chromaticities are illustrated by gray crosses over the triangles: horizontal bar, SDM of u, vertical bar, SDM of v. Each panel represents the results for one reference patch. The marker color indicates the type of test illumination: black, D65; blue, D145; yellow, D40; green, Green; red, Red. The solid line connects the mean matching chromaticity with the reference surface chromaticity under the test illumination, indicating the direction of the memory shift. The black solid line corresponds to the pure memory shift S m , the colored solid lines correspond to the constancy shifts S c , and the distance between the black and colored dots corresponds to the physical shift S p in Eq. (2). The dotted line connects the test illumination chromaticity with the reference patch chromaticity under that illumination, illustrating the position of the reference patch chromaticity with respect to the neutral point under that illumination.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of color matches and their consequences for BR calculations in CIE u v space. ‘a’ represents the magnitude of the physical shift S p under the change from illumination 1 to illumination 2; ‘b1’, ‘b2’, and ‘b3’ represent the respective magnitudes of three possible perceptual shifts S c , each of which generates the same BR value.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples of color matches and their consequences for CCI values. For all panels, the illumination changes from ‘illum 1’ to ’illum 2’. (a) S p illustrates the surface chromaticity’s physical shift under changing illumination in the color space (corresponding to the ‘physical shift’ in the BR); S m illustrates the pure memory shift under illumination 1; S c represents the constancy shift under illumination 2 (and corresponds to the ‘perceptual shift’ in the BR); and S c S m is the vector representing the difference between the constancy shift and the pure memory shift. (b) When S c = S m , the illumination change has no effect on the color choice, and CCI = 1 . (c) If the observer makes no mistake in the memory match but selects the chromaticity under illumination 1 as the constancy match, then there is no color constancy and CCI = 0 . (d) If the observer picks the chromaticity under illumination 2 as a memory match but makes no mistake in the constancy match, then the illumination change again has a full impact on the color choice and CCI = 0 .

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Measured CIE Yxy Chromaticities for the Five Experimental Illuminations

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Table 2 Measured CIE Luv Lightness (L), Hue (H), and Saturation (S) Values under D65 Illumination for All Surfaces in the Seven Saturation Series, Together with the CIE Luv Color Differences (Delta E) between Each Test and Reference Patch a

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Table 3 Measured CIE Luv Lightness (L), Hue (H), and Saturation Values under D65 Illumination for All Six Hue Series, Together with the CIE Luv Color Differences (DeltaE) between Each Test and Reference Surface a

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Table 4 Estimated Munsell Color Notations of Reference Surfaces for All Seven Saturation (Sat.) Series and Six Hue Series

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Table 5 Mean Matching Errors and Their Standard Deviation of Mean (SDM) Values for All Color Series under All Five Illuminations Averaged across All Seven Observers, Reported in CIE Luv Δ E Units

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Table 6 Mean CCI Results for All Color Series under Four Illumination Changes Averaged across Seven Observers a

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Table 7 Mean BR Indices for All Color Series under Illumination Changes Averaged across Seven Observers a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

BR = 1 ( perceptual shift physical shift ) .
CCI = 1 ( S c S m ) ( S p ) S p ,
CCI = 1 S c S m * d S p ,

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