Abstract

Most materials show a peaked intensity versus phase (light-source-target-detector angle) curve. For nonnegligible angular apertures of the source and/or the detector, the measured intensity at and near zero phase (backscatter) is lower than the real one. We derive an averaging aperture integral that represents this effect, and with it we invert measured intensity values to obtain the actual intensity curve. We also give a practical formula for estimating the magnitude of the aperture effect in zero-phase intensity measurements and show that only two such measurements made at different apertures are sufficient for deriving the real intensity. These corrections are needed in the comparison of measured reflectances in an increasing number of validation efforts for remote sensing applications requiring ground truth measurements.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Wagner, A. Ullrich, V. Ducic, T. Melzer, and N. Studnicka, “Gaussian decomposition and calibration of a novel small-footprint full-waveform digitising airborne laser scanner,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 60, 100-112 (2006).
  2. S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, P. Litkey, H. Hyyppä, E. Ahokas, A. Kukko, and H. Kaartinen, “Radiometric calibration of als intensity,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W52), pp. 201-205. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.
  3. D. N. M. Donoghue, P. J. Watt, N. J. Cox, and J. Wilson, “Remote sensing of species mixtures in conifer plantations using lidar height and intensity data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 509-522 (2007).
  4. K. K. Williams and R. Greeley, “Laboratory and field measurements of the modification of radar backscatter by sand,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 29-40 (2004).
  5. F. C. de Coca, F. M. Bron, M. Leroy, and F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63-75 (2004).
  6. A. J. Verbiscer, R. G. French, and C. A. McGhee, “The opposition surge of enceladus: Hst observations 3381022 nm,” Icarus 173, 66-83 (2005).
  7. J. L. Piatek, B. W. Hapke, R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, and A. S. Hale, “Scattering properties of planetary regolith analogs,” Icarus 34, 531-545 (2004).
  8. S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, J. Eversole, and M. Hart, “Light backscatter by surfaces composed of small spherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3871-3877 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Y. S. Cathy Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, “Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 101, 462-470 (2006).
  12. J. Ellis, P. Caillard, and A. Dogariu, “Off-diagonal Mueller matrix elements in backscattering from highly diffusive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 43-48 (2002).
  13. S. Kaasalainen, A. Kukko, T. Lindroos, P. Litkey, H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppä, and E. Ahokas, “Brightness measurements and calibration with airborne and terrestrial laser scanners,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 528-534 (2008).
  14. Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1906-1908 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Low-coherent backscattering spectroscopy for tissue characterization,” Appl. Opt. 44, 366-377 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Hapke, D. D. Mucci, R. Nelson, and W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63-68 (1996).
  17. S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and T. Mielonen, “Laboratory calibration of backscattered intensity for laser scanning land targets,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2005, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2005), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W19), pp. 13-17. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.
  18. S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, J. Näränen, J. Suomalainen, M. Kaasalainen, and F. Stenman, “Small-angle goniometry for backscattering measurements in the broadband spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1485-1490 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. M. Danson, D. Hetherington, F. Morsdorf, B. Koetz, and B. Allgower, “Forest canopy gap fraction from terrestrial laser scanning,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 157-160 (2007).
  20. F. Coren and P. Sterzai, “Radiometric correction in laser scanning,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 3097-3104 (2006).
  21. D. S. Boyd and R. A. Hill, “Validation of airborne lidar intensity values from a forested landscape using hymap data: preliminary analyses,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI, (Part 3/W52), pp. 71-76. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.
  22. C. Hopkinson, “The influence of flying altitude, beam divergence, and pulse repetition frequency on laser pulse return intensity and canopy frequency distribution,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 33, 312-324 (2007).
  23. A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sensing 54, 68-82 (1999).
  24. M. Kaasalainen, J. Torppa, and K. Muinonen, “Optimization methods for asteroid lightcurve inversion. ii. the complete inverse problem,” Icarus 153, 37-51 (2001).
  25. S. Kaasalainen and M. Rautiainen, “Hot spot reflectance signatures of common boreal lichens,” J. Geophys. Res. 110D20102 (2005). doi:10.1029/2005JD005834.
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. Ahokas, S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and J. Suomalainen, “Calibration of the optech altm 3100 laser scanner intensity data using brightness targets,” in ISPRS Commission I Symposium, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2006), p. 36(A1). CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

2008 (1)

S. Kaasalainen, A. Kukko, T. Lindroos, P. Litkey, H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppä, and E. Ahokas, “Brightness measurements and calibration with airborne and terrestrial laser scanners,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 528-534 (2008).

2007 (3)

D. N. M. Donoghue, P. J. Watt, N. J. Cox, and J. Wilson, “Remote sensing of species mixtures in conifer plantations using lidar height and intensity data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 509-522 (2007).

F. M. Danson, D. Hetherington, F. Morsdorf, B. Koetz, and B. Allgower, “Forest canopy gap fraction from terrestrial laser scanning,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 157-160 (2007).

C. Hopkinson, “The influence of flying altitude, beam divergence, and pulse repetition frequency on laser pulse return intensity and canopy frequency distribution,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 33, 312-324 (2007).

2006 (4)

F. Coren and P. Sterzai, “Radiometric correction in laser scanning,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 3097-3104 (2006).

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Y. S. Cathy Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, “Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 101, 462-470 (2006).

W. Wagner, A. Ullrich, V. Ducic, T. Melzer, and N. Studnicka, “Gaussian decomposition and calibration of a novel small-footprint full-waveform digitising airborne laser scanner,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 60, 100-112 (2006).

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, J. Eversole, and M. Hart, “Light backscatter by surfaces composed of small spherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3871-3877 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Low-coherent backscattering spectroscopy for tissue characterization,” Appl. Opt. 44, 366-377 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, J. Näränen, J. Suomalainen, M. Kaasalainen, and F. Stenman, “Small-angle goniometry for backscattering measurements in the broadband spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1485-1490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Harding and C. C. Carabajal, “ICESat waveform measurements of within-footprint topographic relief and vegetation vertical structure,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S10 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2005GL023471.

A. J. Verbiscer, R. G. French, and C. A. McGhee, “The opposition surge of enceladus: Hst observations 3381022 nm,” Icarus 173, 66-83 (2005).

S. Kaasalainen and M. Rautiainen, “Hot spot reflectance signatures of common boreal lichens,” J. Geophys. Res. 110D20102 (2005). doi:10.1029/2005JD005834.
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

J. L. Piatek, B. W. Hapke, R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, and A. S. Hale, “Scattering properties of planetary regolith analogs,” Icarus 34, 531-545 (2004).

K. K. Williams and R. Greeley, “Laboratory and field measurements of the modification of radar backscatter by sand,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 29-40 (2004).

F. C. de Coca, F. M. Bron, M. Leroy, and F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63-75 (2004).

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1906-1908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

M. Kaasalainen, J. Torppa, and K. Muinonen, “Optimization methods for asteroid lightcurve inversion. ii. the complete inverse problem,” Icarus 153, 37-51 (2001).

1999 (1)

A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sensing 54, 68-82 (1999).

1996 (1)

B. Hapke, D. D. Mucci, R. Nelson, and W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63-68 (1996).

1990 (1)

Ahokas, E.

S. Kaasalainen, A. Kukko, T. Lindroos, P. Litkey, H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppä, and E. Ahokas, “Brightness measurements and calibration with airborne and terrestrial laser scanners,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 528-534 (2008).

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, P. Litkey, H. Hyyppä, E. Ahokas, A. Kukko, and H. Kaartinen, “Radiometric calibration of als intensity,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W52), pp. 201-205. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

E. Ahokas, S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and J. Suomalainen, “Calibration of the optech altm 3100 laser scanner intensity data using brightness targets,” in ISPRS Commission I Symposium, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2006), p. 36(A1). CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Allgower, B.

F. M. Danson, D. Hetherington, F. Morsdorf, B. Koetz, and B. Allgower, “Forest canopy gap fraction from terrestrial laser scanning,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 157-160 (2007).

Backman, V.

Bondarenko, S.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Y. S. Cathy Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, “Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 101, 462-470 (2006).

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, J. Eversole, and M. Hart, “Light backscatter by surfaces composed of small spherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3871-3877 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, D. S.

D. S. Boyd and R. A. Hill, “Validation of airborne lidar intensity values from a forested landscape using hymap data: preliminary analyses,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI, (Part 3/W52), pp. 71-76. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Bron, F. M.

F. C. de Coca, F. M. Bron, M. Leroy, and F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63-75 (2004).

Caillard, P.

Carabajal, C. C.

D. J. Harding and C. C. Carabajal, “ICESat waveform measurements of within-footprint topographic relief and vegetation vertical structure,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S10 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2005GL023471.

Cathy Scotto, Y. S.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Y. S. Cathy Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, “Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 101, 462-470 (2006).

Coren, F.

F. Coren and P. Sterzai, “Radiometric correction in laser scanning,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 3097-3104 (2006).

Cox, N. J.

D. N. M. Donoghue, P. J. Watt, N. J. Cox, and J. Wilson, “Remote sensing of species mixtures in conifer plantations using lidar height and intensity data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 509-522 (2007).

Dainty, J. C.

Danson, F. M.

F. M. Danson, D. Hetherington, F. Morsdorf, B. Koetz, and B. Allgower, “Forest canopy gap fraction from terrestrial laser scanning,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 157-160 (2007).

de Coca, F. C.

F. C. de Coca, F. M. Bron, M. Leroy, and F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63-75 (2004).

Dogariu, A.

Donoghue, D. N. M.

D. N. M. Donoghue, P. J. Watt, N. J. Cox, and J. Wilson, “Remote sensing of species mixtures in conifer plantations using lidar height and intensity data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 509-522 (2007).

Ducic, V.

W. Wagner, A. Ullrich, V. Ducic, T. Melzer, and N. Studnicka, “Gaussian decomposition and calibration of a novel small-footprint full-waveform digitising airborne laser scanner,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 60, 100-112 (2006).

Ellis, J.

Eversole, J.

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, J. Eversole, and M. Hart, “Light backscatter by surfaces composed of small spherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3871-3877 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Y. S. Cathy Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, “Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 101, 462-470 (2006).

French, R. G.

A. J. Verbiscer, R. G. French, and C. A. McGhee, “The opposition surge of enceladus: Hst observations 3381022 nm,” Icarus 173, 66-83 (2005).

Friberg, A. T.

Garcia-Haro, F. J.

F. C. de Coca, F. M. Bron, M. Leroy, and F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63-75 (2004).

Greeley, R.

K. K. Williams and R. Greeley, “Laboratory and field measurements of the modification of radar backscatter by sand,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 29-40 (2004).

Hale, A. S.

J. L. Piatek, B. W. Hapke, R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, and A. S. Hale, “Scattering properties of planetary regolith analogs,” Icarus 34, 531-545 (2004).

Hapke, B.

B. Hapke, D. D. Mucci, R. Nelson, and W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63-68 (1996).

Hapke, B. W.

J. L. Piatek, B. W. Hapke, R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, and A. S. Hale, “Scattering properties of planetary regolith analogs,” Icarus 34, 531-545 (2004).

Harding, D. J.

D. J. Harding and C. C. Carabajal, “ICESat waveform measurements of within-footprint topographic relief and vegetation vertical structure,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S10 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2005GL023471.

Hart, M.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Y. S. Cathy Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, “Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 101, 462-470 (2006).

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, J. Eversole, and M. Hart, “Light backscatter by surfaces composed of small spherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3871-3877 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hetherington, D.

F. M. Danson, D. Hetherington, F. Morsdorf, B. Koetz, and B. Allgower, “Forest canopy gap fraction from terrestrial laser scanning,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 157-160 (2007).

Hill, R. A.

D. S. Boyd and R. A. Hill, “Validation of airborne lidar intensity values from a forested landscape using hymap data: preliminary analyses,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI, (Part 3/W52), pp. 71-76. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Hopkinson, C.

C. Hopkinson, “The influence of flying altitude, beam divergence, and pulse repetition frequency on laser pulse return intensity and canopy frequency distribution,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 33, 312-324 (2007).

Hyyppä, H.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, P. Litkey, H. Hyyppä, E. Ahokas, A. Kukko, and H. Kaartinen, “Radiometric calibration of als intensity,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W52), pp. 201-205. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Hyyppä, J.

S. Kaasalainen, A. Kukko, T. Lindroos, P. Litkey, H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppä, and E. Ahokas, “Brightness measurements and calibration with airborne and terrestrial laser scanners,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 528-534 (2008).

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and T. Mielonen, “Laboratory calibration of backscattered intensity for laser scanning land targets,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2005, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2005), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W19), pp. 13-17. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, P. Litkey, H. Hyyppä, E. Ahokas, A. Kukko, and H. Kaartinen, “Radiometric calibration of als intensity,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W52), pp. 201-205. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

E. Ahokas, S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and J. Suomalainen, “Calibration of the optech altm 3100 laser scanner intensity data using brightness targets,” in ISPRS Commission I Symposium, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2006), p. 36(A1). CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Kaartinen, H.

S. Kaasalainen, A. Kukko, T. Lindroos, P. Litkey, H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppä, and E. Ahokas, “Brightness measurements and calibration with airborne and terrestrial laser scanners,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 528-534 (2008).

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, P. Litkey, H. Hyyppä, E. Ahokas, A. Kukko, and H. Kaartinen, “Radiometric calibration of als intensity,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W52), pp. 201-205. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Kaasalainen, M.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, J. Näränen, J. Suomalainen, M. Kaasalainen, and F. Stenman, “Small-angle goniometry for backscattering measurements in the broadband spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1485-1490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaasalainen, J. Torppa, and K. Muinonen, “Optimization methods for asteroid lightcurve inversion. ii. the complete inverse problem,” Icarus 153, 37-51 (2001).

Kaasalainen, S.

S. Kaasalainen, A. Kukko, T. Lindroos, P. Litkey, H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppä, and E. Ahokas, “Brightness measurements and calibration with airborne and terrestrial laser scanners,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 528-534 (2008).

S. Kaasalainen and M. Rautiainen, “Hot spot reflectance signatures of common boreal lichens,” J. Geophys. Res. 110D20102 (2005). doi:10.1029/2005JD005834.
[CrossRef]

S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, J. Näränen, J. Suomalainen, M. Kaasalainen, and F. Stenman, “Small-angle goniometry for backscattering measurements in the broadband spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1485-1490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ahokas, S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and J. Suomalainen, “Calibration of the optech altm 3100 laser scanner intensity data using brightness targets,” in ISPRS Commission I Symposium, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2006), p. 36(A1). CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and T. Mielonen, “Laboratory calibration of backscattered intensity for laser scanning land targets,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2005, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2005), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W19), pp. 13-17. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, P. Litkey, H. Hyyppä, E. Ahokas, A. Kukko, and H. Kaartinen, “Radiometric calibration of als intensity,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W52), pp. 201-205. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Kim, M.-J.

Kim, Y. L.

Koetz, B.

F. M. Danson, D. Hetherington, F. Morsdorf, B. Koetz, and B. Allgower, “Forest canopy gap fraction from terrestrial laser scanning,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 157-160 (2007).

Kukko, A.

S. Kaasalainen, A. Kukko, T. Lindroos, P. Litkey, H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppä, and E. Ahokas, “Brightness measurements and calibration with airborne and terrestrial laser scanners,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 528-534 (2008).

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, P. Litkey, H. Hyyppä, E. Ahokas, A. Kukko, and H. Kaartinen, “Radiometric calibration of als intensity,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W52), pp. 201-205. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Leroy, M.

F. C. de Coca, F. M. Bron, M. Leroy, and F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63-75 (2004).

Lindroos, T.

S. Kaasalainen, A. Kukko, T. Lindroos, P. Litkey, H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppä, and E. Ahokas, “Brightness measurements and calibration with airborne and terrestrial laser scanners,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 528-534 (2008).

Litkey, P.

S. Kaasalainen, A. Kukko, T. Lindroos, P. Litkey, H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppä, and E. Ahokas, “Brightness measurements and calibration with airborne and terrestrial laser scanners,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 528-534 (2008).

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, P. Litkey, H. Hyyppä, E. Ahokas, A. Kukko, and H. Kaartinen, “Radiometric calibration of als intensity,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W52), pp. 201-205. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Liu, Y.

Lohr, U.

A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sensing 54, 68-82 (1999).

McGhee, C. A.

A. J. Verbiscer, R. G. French, and C. A. McGhee, “The opposition surge of enceladus: Hst observations 3381022 nm,” Icarus 173, 66-83 (2005).

Melzer, T.

W. Wagner, A. Ullrich, V. Ducic, T. Melzer, and N. Studnicka, “Gaussian decomposition and calibration of a novel small-footprint full-waveform digitising airborne laser scanner,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 60, 100-112 (2006).

Merritt, C.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Y. S. Cathy Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, “Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 101, 462-470 (2006).

Mielonen, T.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and T. Mielonen, “Laboratory calibration of backscattered intensity for laser scanning land targets,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2005, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2005), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W19), pp. 13-17. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Morsdorf, F.

F. M. Danson, D. Hetherington, F. Morsdorf, B. Koetz, and B. Allgower, “Forest canopy gap fraction from terrestrial laser scanning,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 157-160 (2007).

Mucci, D. D.

B. Hapke, D. D. Mucci, R. Nelson, and W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63-68 (1996).

Muinonen, K.

M. Kaasalainen, J. Torppa, and K. Muinonen, “Optimization methods for asteroid lightcurve inversion. ii. the complete inverse problem,” Icarus 153, 37-51 (2001).

Näränen, J.

Nelson, R.

B. Hapke, D. D. Mucci, R. Nelson, and W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63-68 (1996).

Nelson, R. M.

J. L. Piatek, B. W. Hapke, R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, and A. S. Hale, “Scattering properties of planetary regolith analogs,” Icarus 34, 531-545 (2004).

Ovcharenko, A.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Y. S. Cathy Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, “Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 101, 462-470 (2006).

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, J. Eversole, and M. Hart, “Light backscatter by surfaces composed of small spherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3871-3877 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peltoniemi, J.

Piatek, J. L.

J. L. Piatek, B. W. Hapke, R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, and A. S. Hale, “Scattering properties of planetary regolith analogs,” Icarus 34, 531-545 (2004).

Rautiainen, M.

S. Kaasalainen and M. Rautiainen, “Hot spot reflectance signatures of common boreal lichens,” J. Geophys. Res. 110D20102 (2005). doi:10.1029/2005JD005834.
[CrossRef]

Roy, H. K.

Sant, A. J.

Shkuratov, Y.

Smythe, W.

B. Hapke, D. D. Mucci, R. Nelson, and W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63-68 (1996).

Smythe, W. D.

J. L. Piatek, B. W. Hapke, R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, and A. S. Hale, “Scattering properties of planetary regolith analogs,” Icarus 34, 531-545 (2004).

Stenman, F.

Sterzai, P.

F. Coren and P. Sterzai, “Radiometric correction in laser scanning,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 3097-3104 (2006).

Studnicka, N.

W. Wagner, A. Ullrich, V. Ducic, T. Melzer, and N. Studnicka, “Gaussian decomposition and calibration of a novel small-footprint full-waveform digitising airborne laser scanner,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 60, 100-112 (2006).

Suomalainen, J.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Peltoniemi, J. Näränen, J. Suomalainen, M. Kaasalainen, and F. Stenman, “Small-angle goniometry for backscattering measurements in the broadband spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1485-1490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ahokas, S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and J. Suomalainen, “Calibration of the optech altm 3100 laser scanner intensity data using brightness targets,” in ISPRS Commission I Symposium, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2006), p. 36(A1). CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

Torppa, J.

M. Kaasalainen, J. Torppa, and K. Muinonen, “Optimization methods for asteroid lightcurve inversion. ii. the complete inverse problem,” Icarus 153, 37-51 (2001).

Turzhitsky, V. M.

Ullrich, A.

W. Wagner, A. Ullrich, V. Ducic, T. Melzer, and N. Studnicka, “Gaussian decomposition and calibration of a novel small-footprint full-waveform digitising airborne laser scanner,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 60, 100-112 (2006).

Verbiscer, A. J.

A. J. Verbiscer, R. G. French, and C. A. McGhee, “The opposition surge of enceladus: Hst observations 3381022 nm,” Icarus 173, 66-83 (2005).

Videen, G.

S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, J. Eversole, and M. Hart, “Light backscatter by surfaces composed of small spherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3871-3877 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Y. S. Cathy Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, “Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 101, 462-470 (2006).

Wagner, W.

W. Wagner, A. Ullrich, V. Ducic, T. Melzer, and N. Studnicka, “Gaussian decomposition and calibration of a novel small-footprint full-waveform digitising airborne laser scanner,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 60, 100-112 (2006).

Wali, R. K.

Watt, P. J.

D. N. M. Donoghue, P. J. Watt, N. J. Cox, and J. Wilson, “Remote sensing of species mixtures in conifer plantations using lidar height and intensity data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 509-522 (2007).

Wehr, A.

A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sensing 54, 68-82 (1999).

Williams, K. K.

K. K. Williams and R. Greeley, “Laboratory and field measurements of the modification of radar backscatter by sand,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 29-40 (2004).

Wilson, J.

D. N. M. Donoghue, P. J. Watt, N. J. Cox, and J. Wilson, “Remote sensing of species mixtures in conifer plantations using lidar height and intensity data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 509-522 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Can. J. Remote Sens. (1)

C. Hopkinson, “The influence of flying altitude, beam divergence, and pulse repetition frequency on laser pulse return intensity and canopy frequency distribution,” Can. J. Remote Sens. 33, 312-324 (2007).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

D. J. Harding and C. C. Carabajal, “ICESat waveform measurements of within-footprint topographic relief and vegetation vertical structure,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L21S10 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2005GL023471.

Icarus (3)

A. J. Verbiscer, R. G. French, and C. A. McGhee, “The opposition surge of enceladus: Hst observations 3381022 nm,” Icarus 173, 66-83 (2005).

J. L. Piatek, B. W. Hapke, R. M. Nelson, W. D. Smythe, and A. S. Hale, “Scattering properties of planetary regolith analogs,” Icarus 34, 531-545 (2004).

M. Kaasalainen, J. Torppa, and K. Muinonen, “Optimization methods for asteroid lightcurve inversion. ii. the complete inverse problem,” Icarus 153, 37-51 (2001).

IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. (1)

F. M. Danson, D. Hetherington, F. Morsdorf, B. Koetz, and B. Allgower, “Forest canopy gap fraction from terrestrial laser scanning,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 4, 157-160 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

S. Kaasalainen, A. Kukko, T. Lindroos, P. Litkey, H. Kaartinen, J. Hyyppä, and E. Ahokas, “Brightness measurements and calibration with airborne and terrestrial laser scanners,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 46, 528-534 (2008).

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

F. Coren and P. Sterzai, “Radiometric correction in laser scanning,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 27, 3097-3104 (2006).

ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. (1)

W. Wagner, A. Ullrich, V. Ducic, T. Melzer, and N. Studnicka, “Gaussian decomposition and calibration of a novel small-footprint full-waveform digitising airborne laser scanner,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 60, 100-112 (2006).

ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sensing (1)

A. Wehr and U. Lohr, “Airborne laser scanning—an introduction and overview,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sensing 54, 68-82 (1999).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

S. Kaasalainen and M. Rautiainen, “Hot spot reflectance signatures of common boreal lichens,” J. Geophys. Res. 110D20102 (2005). doi:10.1029/2005JD005834.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Y. S. Cathy Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, “Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 101, 462-470 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Remote Sens. Environ. (4)

D. N. M. Donoghue, P. J. Watt, N. J. Cox, and J. Wilson, “Remote sensing of species mixtures in conifer plantations using lidar height and intensity data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 509-522 (2007).

K. K. Williams and R. Greeley, “Laboratory and field measurements of the modification of radar backscatter by sand,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89, 29-40 (2004).

F. C. de Coca, F. M. Bron, M. Leroy, and F. J. Garcia-Haro, “Airborne measurement of hot spot reflectance signatures,” Remote Sens. Environ. 90, 63-75 (2004).

B. Hapke, D. D. Mucci, R. Nelson, and W. Smythe, “The cause of the hot spot in vegetation canopies and soils: shadow-hiding versus coherent backscatter,” Remote Sens. Environ. 58, 63-68 (1996).

Other (4)

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and T. Mielonen, “Laboratory calibration of backscattered intensity for laser scanning land targets,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2005, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2005), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W19), pp. 13-17. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

D. S. Boyd and R. A. Hill, “Validation of airborne lidar intensity values from a forested landscape using hymap data: preliminary analyses,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI, (Part 3/W52), pp. 71-76. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

E. Ahokas, S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, and J. Suomalainen, “Calibration of the optech altm 3100 laser scanner intensity data using brightness targets,” in ISPRS Commission I Symposium, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2006), p. 36(A1). CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

S. Kaasalainen, J. Hyyppä, P. Litkey, H. Hyyppä, E. Ahokas, A. Kukko, and H. Kaartinen, “Radiometric calibration of als intensity,” in Proceedings of the ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning 2007 and SilviLaser 2007, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2007), Vol. XXXVI (Part 3/W52), pp. 201-205. CD-ROM. http://www.isprs.org.

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