## Abstract

A fast, exact numerical method based on the method of moments (MM) is developed to calculate the scattering from an object below a randomly rough surface. Déchamps *et al.* [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **23**, 359 (2006)
] have recently developed the PILE (propagation-inside-layer expansion) method for a stack of two one-dimensional rough interfaces separating homogeneous media. From the inversion of the impedance matrix by block (in which two impedance matrices of each interface and two coupling matrices are involved), this method allows one to calculate separately and exactly the multiple-scattering contributions inside the layer in which the inverses of the impedance matrices of each interface are involved. Our purpose here is to apply this method for an object below a rough surface. In addition, to invert a matrix of large size, the forward-backward spectral acceleration (FB-SA) approach of complexity $\mathcal{O}\left(N\right)$ (*N* is the number of unknowns on the interface) proposed by Chou and Johnson [Radio Sci. **33**, 1277 (1998)
] is applied. The new method, PILE combined with FB-SA, is tested on perfectly conducting circular and elliptic cylinders located below a dielectric rough interface obeying a Gaussian process with Gaussian and exponential height autocorrelation functions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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