Abstract

In order to investigate the performance of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances with different visual scales and different perceptual correlates, a psychophysical experiment was carried out by the method of constant stimuli using CRT colors. Five hue circles at three lightness (L*=30, 50, and 70) and chroma (Cab*=10, 20, and 30) levels were selected to ensure that the color-difference tolerances did not exceed the color gamut of the CRT display. Twelve color centers distributed evenly every 30° along each hue circle were assessed by a panel of eight observers, and the corresponding color-difference tolerances were obtained. The hue circle with L*=50 and Cab*=20 was assessed with three different visual scales (ΔV=3.06, 5.92, and 8.87 CIELAB units), which ranged from small to large visual scales, while the remaining hue circles were observed only with the small visual scale. The lightness tolerances had no significant correlation with the hue angles, while chroma and hue tolerances showed considerable hue angle dependences. The color-difference tolerances were linearly proportional to the visual scales but with different slopes. The lightness tolerances with different lightness levels but the same chroma showed the crispening effect to some extent, while the chroma and hue tolerances decreased with the increment of the lightness. For the color-difference tolerances with different chroma levels but the same lightness, there was no correlation between the lightness tolerances and the chroma levels, while the chroma and hue tolerances were nearly linearly proportional to the chroma levels.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149-151 (1978).
  2. K. Witt, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399-403 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25-42 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. S. Berns, “Color tolerance feasibility study comparing CRT-generated stimuli with an acrylic-lacquer coating,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 232-242 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB colour difference formula,” in Procceedings of AIC Color 97 Kyto, (AIC, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449.
  6. Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78-92 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Perez, “Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Baribeau and A. R. Robertson, “Estimation of hue discrimination thresholds using a computer interactive method,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 410-415 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1--development of formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. CIE, Industrial Color-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publ. 116 (CIE Central Bureau, 1995).
  13. M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formulae: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Xu and H. Yaguchi, “Visual evaluation at scale of threshold to suprathreshold color difference,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 198-208 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, “An evaluation of methods for producing desired colors on CRT monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Color-difference evaluation using CRT colors. Part I: data gathering and testing colour difference formulae,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 394-402 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 164-176 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, “Influence of random-dot textures on perception of suprathreshold color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2067-2076 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. S. Bern, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Indow and M. L. Morrison, “Construction of discrimination ellipsoids for surface colors by the method of constant stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139-151 (1989).
  21. M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part II-performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126-132 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, “A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 36-44 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Zhang and E. D. Montag, “How well can people use different color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 31, 445-457 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. H. Xin, C. C. Lam, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of the crispening effect using CRT-displayed colour samples,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 374-380 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. W. Pridmore and M. Melgosa, “Effect of luminance of samples on color discrimination ellipses: analysis and prediction of data,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 186-197 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. G. Kuehni, Color Space and Its Divisions (Wiley, 2003), pp. 331-344.

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

R. W. Pridmore and M. Melgosa, “Effect of luminance of samples on color discrimination ellipses: analysis and prediction of data,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 186-197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu and H. Yaguchi, “Visual evaluation at scale of threshold to suprathreshold color difference,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 198-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Baribeau and A. R. Robertson, “Estimation of hue discrimination thresholds using a computer interactive method,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 410-415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Perez, “Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Xin, C. C. Lam, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of the crispening effect using CRT-displayed colour samples,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 374-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, “A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 36-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Color-difference evaluation using CRT colors. Part I: data gathering and testing colour difference formulae,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 394-402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formulae: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 164-176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Witt, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399-403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

R. S. Berns, “Color tolerance feasibility study comparing CRT-generated stimuli with an acrylic-lacquer coating,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 232-242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bern, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

T. Indow and M. L. Morrison, “Construction of discrimination ellipsoids for surface colors by the method of constant stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139-151 (1989).

D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, “An evaluation of methods for producing desired colors on CRT monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1--development of formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part II-performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126-132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25-42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149-151 (1978).

Alman, D. H.

R. S. Bern, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Balonon-Rosen, M. R.

R. S. Bern, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baribeau, R.

R. Baribeau and A. R. Robertson, “Estimation of hue discrimination thresholds using a computer interactive method,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 410-415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bern, R. S.

R. S. Bern, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 164-176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, “Color tolerance feasibility study comparing CRT-generated stimuli with an acrylic-lacquer coating,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 232-242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Calhoun, C. S.

D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, “An evaluation of methods for producing desired colors on CRT monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, F. J.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cui, G.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formulae: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Color-difference evaluation using CRT colors. Part I: data gathering and testing colour difference formulae,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 394-402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guan, S. S.

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hita, E.

Huertas, R.

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, “Influence of random-dot textures on perception of suprathreshold color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2067-2076 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Perez, “Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Indow, T.

T. Indow and M. L. Morrison, “Construction of discrimination ellipsoids for surface colors by the method of constant stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139-151 (1989).

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB colour difference formula,” in Procceedings of AIC Color 97 Kyto, (AIC, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449.

Kuehni, R. G.

R. G. Kuehni, Color Space and Its Divisions (Wiley, 2003), pp. 331-344.

Lam, C. C.

J. H. Xin, C. C. Lam, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of the crispening effect using CRT-displayed colour samples,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 374-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Color-difference evaluation using CRT colors. Part I: data gathering and testing colour difference formulae,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 394-402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

J. H. Xin, C. C. Lam, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of the crispening effect using CRT-displayed colour samples,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 374-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Color-difference evaluation using CRT colors. Part I: data gathering and testing colour difference formulae,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 394-402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formulae: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part II-performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126-132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1--development of formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25-42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, R.

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Melgosa, M.

R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, “Influence of random-dot textures on perception of suprathreshold color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2067-2076 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pridmore and M. Melgosa, “Effect of luminance of samples on color discrimination ellipses: analysis and prediction of data,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 186-197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Perez, “Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Montag, E.

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montag, E. D.

H. Zhang and E. D. Montag, “How well can people use different color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 31, 445-457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, “A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 36-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 164-176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, M. L.

T. Indow and M. L. Morrison, “Construction of discrimination ellipsoids for surface colors by the method of constant stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139-151 (1989).

Nobbs, J. H.

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB colour difference formula,” in Procceedings of AIC Color 97 Kyto, (AIC, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449.

Perez, M. M.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Perez, “Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Post, D. L.

D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, “An evaluation of methods for producing desired colors on CRT monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pridmore, R. W.

R. W. Pridmore and M. Melgosa, “Effect of luminance of samples on color discrimination ellipses: analysis and prediction of data,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 186-197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, Y.

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reniff, L.

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bern, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Color-difference evaluation using CRT colors. Part I: data gathering and testing colour difference formulae,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 394-402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formulae: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1--development of formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part II-performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126-132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25-42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, A. R.

R. Baribeau and A. R. Robertson, “Estimation of hue discrimination thresholds using a computer interactive method,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 410-415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149-151 (1978).

Snyder, G. D.

R. S. Bern, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wilber, D. C.

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, “A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 36-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witt, K.

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399-403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xin, J. H.

J. H. Xin, C. C. Lam, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of the crispening effect using CRT-displayed colour samples,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 374-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

H. Xu and H. Yaguchi, “Visual evaluation at scale of threshold to suprathreshold color difference,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 198-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yaguchi, H.

H. Xu and H. Yaguchi, “Visual evaluation at scale of threshold to suprathreshold color difference,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 198-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yebra, A.

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Perez, “Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang and E. D. Montag, “How well can people use different color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 31, 445-457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (20)

A. R. Robertson, “CIE guidelines for coordinated research on colour difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 3, 149-151 (1978).

K. Witt, “CIE guidelines for coordinated future work on industrial colour-difference evaluation,” Color Res. Appl. 20, 399-403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “Chromaticity-discrimination ellipses for surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 11, 25-42 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, “Color tolerance feasibility study comparing CRT-generated stimuli with an acrylic-lacquer coating,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 232-242 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiao, R. S. Berns, L. Reniff, and E. Montag, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 302-313 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Witt, “Geometric relations between scales of small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 78-92 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, R. Huertas, A. Yebra, and M. M. Perez, “Are chroma tolerances dependent on hue-angle?” Color Res. Appl. 29, 420-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Baribeau and A. R. Robertson, “Estimation of hue discrimination thresholds using a computer interactive method,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 410-415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, and B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formulae: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 340-350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu and H. Yaguchi, “Visual evaluation at scale of threshold to suprathreshold color difference,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 198-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Post and C. S. Calhoun, “An evaluation of methods for producing desired colors on CRT monitors,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 172-186 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Cui, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and W. Li, “Color-difference evaluation using CRT colors. Part I: data gathering and testing colour difference formulae,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 394-402 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and R. S. Berns, “Visual determination of hue suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using CRT-generated stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 164-176 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Guan and M. R. Luo, “Investigation of parametric effects using small colour differences,” Color Res. Appl. 24, 331-343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Montag and D. C. Wilber, “A comparison of constant stimuli and gray-scale methods of color difference scaling,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 36-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang and E. D. Montag, “How well can people use different color attributes?” Color Res. Appl. 31, 445-457 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Xin, C. C. Lam, and M. R. Luo, “Evaluation of the crispening effect using CRT-displayed colour samples,” Color Res. Appl. 29, 374-380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pridmore and M. Melgosa, “Effect of luminance of samples on color discrimination ellipses: analysis and prediction of data,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 186-197 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bern, D. H. Alman, L. Reniff, G. D. Snyder, and M. R. Balonon-Rosen, “Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis,” Color Res. Appl. 16, 297-316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Indow and M. L. Morrison, “Construction of discrimination ellipsoids for surface colors by the method of constant stimuli,” Color Res. Appl. 14, 139-151 (1989).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Soc. Dyers Colour. (3)

F. J. J. Clarke, R. McDonald, and B. Rigg, “Modification to the JPC79 color-difference formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 100, 128-132 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part 1--development of formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 86-94 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo and B. Rigg, “BFD(l:c) colour-difference formula. Part II-performance of the formula,” J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 103, 126-132 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

CIE, Industrial Color-Difference Evaluation, CIE Publ. 116 (CIE Central Bureau, 1995).

D. H. Kim and J. H. Nobbs, “New weighting functions for the weighted CIELAB colour difference formula,” in Procceedings of AIC Color 97 Kyto, (AIC, 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 446-449.

R. G. Kuehni, Color Space and Its Divisions (Wiley, 2003), pp. 331-344.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Arrangement of the test stimuli pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Lightness, (b) chroma, and (c) hue tolerances for all the hue circles (square, L50C20S; diamond; L50C20M; circle, L50C20L; triangle up, L30C20S; triangle left, L70C20S; triangle right, L50C10S; triangle down, L50C30S).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of (a) S CH and (b) T functions of this study with those of the LCD and CIEDE2000 color-difference formulas, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Lightness, (b) chroma, and (c) hue tolerances with different visual scales.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Lightness, (b) chroma, and (c) hue tolerances with different lightness levels.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Lightness, (b) chroma, and (c) hue tolerances with different chroma levels.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Details of the Selected Hue Circles

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Table 2 CIELAB Values of the Background and Reference Pairs

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Table 3 Color-Difference Tolerances (T50) at Two Senses in Each Direction, 95% Fiducial Limits (UFL and LFL), and the Mean Tolerances (Mean) for All the Hue Circles with L * = 50 and C * a b = 20 with Different Visual Scales a

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Table 4 Color-Difference Tolerances (T50) at Two Senses in Each Direction, 95% Fiducial Limits (UFL and LFL), and the Mean Tolerances (Mean) for All the Hue Circles at Different Lightness and Chroma Levels with the Small Visual Scale a

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Table 5 Comparisons of Color-Difference Tolerances between L50C20S and the Other Hue Circles ( P F 3 Units)

Equations (6)

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Δ E m , s * = ( Δ L m * Δ L s * ) 2 + ( Δ a m * Δ a s * ) 2 + ( Δ b m * Δ b s * ) 2 ,
Δ L * = 0.73 Δ V + 1.33 ,
Δ C a b * = 1.20 Δ V + 3.97 ,
Δ H a b * = 1.09 Δ V + 1.76 ,
S C = Δ C a b * Δ V = 1 + 0.066 * C a b * ,
S H = Δ H a b * Δ V = 1 + 0.033 * C a b * .

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