Abstract

A figure is segregated from its background when the colored elements belonging to the figure are grouped together. We investigated the range of color distribution conditions in which a figure could be segregated from its background using the color distribution differences. The stimulus was a multicolored texture composed of randomly shaped pieces. It was divided into two regions: a test region and a background region. The pieces in these two regions had different color distributions in the OSA Uniform Color Space. In our experiments, the subject segregated the figure of the test region using two different procedures. Since the Euclidean distance in the OSA Uniform Color Space corresponds to perceived color difference, if segregation thresholds are determined by only color difference, the thresholds should be independent of position and direction in the color space. In the results, however, the thresholds did depend on position and direction in the OSA Uniform Color Space. This suggests that color difference is not the only factor in figure segregation by color. Moreover, the threshold dependence on position and direction is influenced by the distances in the cone-opponent space whose axes are normalized by discrimination thresholds, suggesting that figure segregation threshold is determined by similar factors in the cone-opponent space for color discrimination. The analysis of the results by categorical color naming suggests that categorical color perception may affect figure segregation only slightly.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Krauskoph, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. R. Gegenfurtner and D. C. Kiper, “Contrast detection in luminance and chromatic noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1880-1888 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Li and P. Lennie, “Mechanisms underlying segmentation of colored texture,” Vision Res. 37, 83-97 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Li and P. Lennie, “Importance of color in the segmentation of variegated surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1240-1251 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance,” Vision Res. 34, 1993-2020 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Livingstone and D. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, color, movement, and depth,” J. Neurosci. 7, 3416-3468 (1987).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  17. V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161-171 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. Yokoi and K. Uchikawa, “Color category influences heterogeneous visual search for color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2309-2317 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825-1833 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, and H. Shinoda, “Expression of color appearance in aperture and surface color modes with a category rating estimation method (in Japanese),” J. Illum. Eng. Ins. Jpn. 78, 83-93 (1994).
  22. B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1969).
  23. T. Indow, “A test of uniformities in the OSA-UCS and the NCS,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 277-283 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

T. Indow, “A test of uniformities in the OSA-UCS and the NCS,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 277-283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. T. Mullen and W. H. A. Beaudot, “Comparison of color and luminance vision on a global shape discrimination task,” Vision Res. 42, 565-575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

A. Li and P. Lennie, “Mechanisms underlying segmentation of colored texture,” Vision Res. 37, 83-97 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance,” Vision Res. 34, 1993-2020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, and H. Shinoda, “Expression of color appearance in aperture and surface color modes with a category rating estimation method (in Japanese),” J. Illum. Eng. Ins. Jpn. 78, 83-93 (1994).

1992 (2)

J. Krauskoph and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165-2175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Gegenfurtner and D. C. Kiper, “Contrast detection in luminance and chromatic noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1880-1888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. D. Mollon, “'Tho' she kneel'd in that place where the grew...,' The uses and origins of primate colour vision,” J. Exp. Biol. 146, 21-38 (1989).
[PubMed]

1987 (3)

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94-105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825-1833 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Livingstone and D. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, color, movement, and depth,” J. Neurosci. 7, 3416-3468 (1987).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

1983 (2)

D. H. Kelly, “Spatiotemporal variation of chromatic and achromatic contrast thresholds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 742-750 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton, A. L. Nagy, and C. X. Olson, “A flaw in equations for predicting chromatic differences,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 69-74 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. Krauskoph, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. Nickerson, “OSA Uniform Color Space samples: a unique set,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 7-33 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1975 (1)

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161-171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaudot, W. H. A.

K. T. Mullen and W. H. A. Beaudot, “Comparison of color and luminance vision on a global shape discrimination task,” Vision Res. 42, 565-575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berlin, B.

B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1969).

Boynton, R. M.

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825-1833 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94-105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, A. L. Nagy, and C. X. Olson, “A flaw in equations for predicting chromatic differences,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 69-74 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. I. A. MacLeod and R. M. Boynton, “Chromaticity diagram showing cone excitation by stimuli of equal luminance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1183-1186 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derrington, A. M.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

Gegenfurtner, K. R.

J. Krauskoph and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165-2175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Gegenfurtner and D. C. Kiper, “Contrast detection in luminance and chromatic noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1880-1888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeley, D. W.

J. Krauskoph, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hubel, D.

M. Livingstone and D. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, color, movement, and depth,” J. Neurosci. 7, 3416-3468 (1987).
[PubMed]

Indow, T.

T. Indow, “A test of uniformities in the OSA-UCS and the NCS,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 277-283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kay, P.

B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1969).

Kelly, D. H.

Kiper, D. C.

Krauskopf, J.

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

Krauskoph, J.

J. Krauskoph and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165-2175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Krauskoph, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kuriki, I.

K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, and H. Shinoda, “Expression of color appearance in aperture and surface color modes with a category rating estimation method (in Japanese),” J. Illum. Eng. Ins. Jpn. 78, 83-93 (1994).

Lennie, P.

A. Li and P. Lennie, “Importance of color in the segmentation of variegated surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1240-1251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Li and P. Lennie, “Mechanisms underlying segmentation of colored texture,” Vision Res. 37, 83-97 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

Li, A.

A. Li and P. Lennie, “Importance of color in the segmentation of variegated surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1240-1251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Li and P. Lennie, “Mechanisms underlying segmentation of colored texture,” Vision Res. 37, 83-97 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Livingstone, M.

M. Livingstone and D. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, color, movement, and depth,” J. Neurosci. 7, 3416-3468 (1987).
[PubMed]

MacLeod, D. I. A.

Mollon, J. D.

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance,” Vision Res. 34, 1993-2020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mollon, “'Tho' she kneel'd in that place where the grew...,' The uses and origins of primate colour vision,” J. Exp. Biol. 146, 21-38 (1989).
[PubMed]

Mullen, K. T.

K. T. Mullen and W. H. A. Beaudot, “Comparison of color and luminance vision on a global shape discrimination task,” Vision Res. 42, 565-575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Sankeralli and K. T. Mullen, “Ratio model for suprathreshold hue-increment detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2625-2637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nagy, A. L.

R. M. Boynton, A. L. Nagy, and C. X. Olson, “A flaw in equations for predicting chromatic differences,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 69-74 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nickerson, D.

D. Nickerson, “OSA Uniform Color Space samples: a unique set,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 7-33 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Olson, C. X.

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94-105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton, A. L. Nagy, and C. X. Olson, “A flaw in equations for predicting chromatic differences,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 69-74 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pokorny, J.

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161-171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sankeralli, M. J.

Shinoda, H.

K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, and H. Shinoda, “Expression of color appearance in aperture and surface color modes with a category rating estimation method (in Japanese),” J. Illum. Eng. Ins. Jpn. 78, 83-93 (1994).

Smith, V. C.

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161-171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchikawa, K.

K. Yokoi and K. Uchikawa, “Color category influences heterogeneous visual search for color,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2309-2317 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, and H. Shinoda, “Expression of color appearance in aperture and surface color modes with a category rating estimation method (in Japanese),” J. Illum. Eng. Ins. Jpn. 78, 83-93 (1994).

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825-1833 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webster, M. A.

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance,” Vision Res. 34, 1993-2020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

J. Krauskoph, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, K.

Color Res. Appl. (4)

R. M. Boynton, A. L. Nagy, and C. X. Olson, “A flaw in equations for predicting chromatic differences,” Color Res. Appl. 8, 69-74 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Nickerson, “OSA Uniform Color Space samples: a unique set,” Color Res. Appl. 6, 7-33 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Boynton and C. X. Olson, “Locating basic colors in the OSA space,” Color Res. Appl. 12, 94-105 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Indow, “A test of uniformities in the OSA-UCS and the NCS,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 277-283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Biol. (1)

J. D. Mollon, “'Tho' she kneel'd in that place where the grew...,' The uses and origins of primate colour vision,” J. Exp. Biol. 146, 21-38 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. Illum. Eng. Ins. Jpn. (1)

K. Uchikawa, I. Kuriki, and H. Shinoda, “Expression of color appearance in aperture and surface color modes with a category rating estimation method (in Japanese),” J. Illum. Eng. Ins. Jpn. 78, 83-93 (1994).

J. Neurosci. (1)

M. Livingstone and D. Hubel, “Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, color, movement, and depth,” J. Neurosci. 7, 3416-3468 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, “Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque,” J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).

Nature (1)

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation,” Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (7)

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, “The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance,” Vision Res. 34, 1993-2020 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li and P. Lennie, “Mechanisms underlying segmentation of colored texture,” Vision Res. 37, 83-97 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskoph, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, “Cardinal directions of color space,” Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Smith and J. Pokorny, “Spectral sensitivity of the foveal cone photopigments between 400 and 500 nm,” Vision Res. 15, 161-171 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchikawa and R. M. Boynton, “Categorical color perception of Japanese observers: comparison with that of Americans,” Vision Res. 27, 1825-1833 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Krauskoph and K. R. Gegenfurtner, “Color discrimination and adaptation,” Vision Res. 32, 2165-2175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Mullen and W. H. A. Beaudot, “Comparison of color and luminance vision on a global shape discrimination task,” Vision Res. 42, 565-575 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. Berlin and P. Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1969).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Stimulus used in Experiment 1 (color versions were used in the actual experiments but are shown here in grayscale). This stimulus consists of 40 × 40 small pieces. The region near the center is the test region, and the region surrounding the test region is the background region. (b) Diagram of two color distributions of the test and background regions in the OSA-UCS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A subject’s response in Experiment 1. The pieces in the test region are shown in dark gray and white, and those in the background region are shown in black and light gray, respectively. The dark gray and black pieces lie within the contour of the subject’s drawing. The area of black pieces is referred to as the error region B, and the area of white pieces is called the error region T.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DIs (see text) as functions of the shift distance for subject TN. DI approaches 0 as the between-center distance increases.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thresholds for all experimental conditions in Experiment 1. The horizontal axis represents the radius of color distributions. The bar patterns represent the shift directions of the test color distribution. Each panel corresponds to a different subject’s result. Error bars are standard errors of thresholds estimated from the logistic analysis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Correct percentages for four color distribution radii as functions of the center distance between test and background distributions. Each symbol corresponds to a distribution radius. These correct percentages are averaged over four ( ± j and ± g ) shift directions. (b) Percent correct for four distribution radii as functions of nonoverlapping ratio of test color distribution (see text for detail).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Stimulus used in Experiment 2 (colored in the experiment but shown here in grayscale). Each square consists of 30 × 30 pieces. The region with a random figure near the center of each square is the test region, and the region surrounding the test region is the background region.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Procedure for a trial in Experiment 2. After the subject pressed a button, two stimuli presented for 507 ms separated by a 507 ms gray interval. Either of the two stimuli had different test figures in the right and left squares. The subject indicated which stimulus had different test figures.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Thresholds for all experimental conditions in Experiment 2. The horizontal axis represents color distribution positions. The bar patterns represent shift directions. Each panel corresponds to one subject’s result. Error bars are standard errors of thresholds estimated from the logistic analysis.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) OSA color samples near the contours of three background color distributions in Experiment 2 plotted in the isoluminant cone-opponent plane. Each symbol corresponds to one color distribution. The large plot at the center of each color distribution represents the center sample of the distribution. The arrows from the center sample represent ± j and ± g shift directions. Dashed lines are drawn from the origin to the center samples. (b) Reciprocals of distances of 2 OSA units from the center samples ± j and ± g directions in cone-opponent plane. The horizontal axis represents color distribution positions. The bar patterns represent shift directions.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Thresholds of Experiment 2 as functions of the reciprocal of shift distances of 2 OSA units in the cone-opponent plane. Symbols represent the color distribution positions. The straight line is the result of a linear regression analysis by the least-squares method. Each panel corresponds to one subject’s result.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Threshold values of d o , a modified color-difference measure, for subject TS in Experiment 2 (see text).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Thresholds of subject TS in Experiment 2 expressed as distances in the cone-opponent plane.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Thresholds of Experiment 2 as functions of CTI (see text) calculated from the results of Experiment 3. Symbols represent the color distribution positions. The straight line is a linear regression solution using the least-squares method. Each panel corresponds to one subject’s result.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D I = D t 2 N t + D b 2 N r .
d o = d o α ( d c d c m ) + d c m d c m ,
CTI = i = 1 11 ( w b i w t i ) 2 .

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