Abstract

Laser guide star (LGS) atmospheric tomography is described in the literature as integrated minimum-variance tomographic wavefront reconstruction from a concatenated wavefront-sensor measurement vector consisting of many high-order, tip/tilt (TT)-removed LGS measurements, supplemented by a few low-order natural guide star (NGS) components essential to estimating the TT and tilt anisoplanatism (TA) modes undetectable by the TT-removed LGS wavefront sensors (WFSs). The practical integration of these NGS WFS measurements into the tomography problem is the main subject of this paper. A split control architecture implementing two separate control loops driven independently by closed-loop LGS and NGS measurements is proposed in this context. Its performance is evaluated in extensive wave optics Monte Carlo simulations for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) LGS multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) system, against the delivered performance of the integrated control architecture. Three iterative algorithms are analyzed for atmospheric tomography in both cases: a previously proposed Fourier domain preconditioned conjugate gradient (FDPCG) algorithm, a simple conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm without preconditioning, and a novel layer-oriented block Gauss–Seidel conjugate gradient algorithm (BGS-CG). Provided that enough iterations are performed, all three algorithms yield essentially identical closed-loop residual RMS wavefront errors for both control architectures, with the caveat that a somewhat smaller number of iterations are required by the CG and BGS-CG algorithms for the split approach. These results demonstrate that the split control approach benefits from (i) a simpler formulation of minimum-variance atmospheric tomography allowing for algorithms with reduced computational complexity and cost (processing requirements), (ii) a simpler, more flexible control of the NGS-controlled modes, and (iii) a reduced coupling between the LGS- and NGS-controlled modes. Computation and memory requirements for all three algorithms are also given for the split control approach for the TMT LGS AO system and appear feasible in relation to the performance specifications of current hardware technology.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Bouy, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, E. L. Martín, N. Huélamo and D. B. Navascués, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics images of the Trapezium cluster,” Astron. Astrophys. 477, 681-690 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. L. Ellerbroek, “Efficient computation of minimum-variance wave-front reconstructors using sparse matrix techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1803-1816 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. L. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and C. R. Vogel, “Numerical simulations of multi-conjugate adaptive optics wavefront reconstruction on giant telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4811-4818 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. R. Vogel and Q. Yang, “Fast optimal wavefront reconstruction for multi-conjugate adaptive optics using the Fourier domain preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm,” Opt. Express 14, 7487-7498 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).
  7. B. L. Ellerbroek and G. M. Cochran, “A wave optics propagation code for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 104-120 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. L. Ellerbroek and F. Rigaut, “Methods for correcting tilt anisoplanatism in laser-guide-star-based multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2539-2547 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. L. Ellerbroek, “Evaluating and optimizing control algorithms for combined LGS/NGS MCAO systems,” Appendix E of the Conceptual Design Review Documents for MCAO for Gemini South, Gemini Observatory (2002), available online at http://www.gemini.edu/sciops/instruments/adaptive-optics/.
  10. N. Kehtarnavaz and M. Gamadia, Real-Time Image and Video Processing: From Research to Reality (Morgan and Claypool, 2006), available online at http://www.morganclaypool.com/.
  11. L. Gilles, “Closed-loop stability and performance analysis of least-squares and minimum-variance control algorithms for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 44, 993-1002 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. A. Hyver and R. M. Blankinship, “ALI high power beam control,” Adv. Astronaut. Sci. 88, 445-460 (1995).
  13. B. L. Ellerbroek and C. R. Vogel, “Simulations of closed-loop wavefront reconstruction for multi-conjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 206-217 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. H. Lawton, “Loopshaped wavefront control using open-loop reconstructors,” Opt. Express 14, 7477-7486 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Gilles, B. L. Ellerbroek, and C. R. Vogel, “A comparison of multigrid V-cycle versus Fourier domain preconditioning for laser guide star atmospheric tomography,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Optical Society of America Topical Meeting Technical Digest 2007, paper JTuA1, available online at http://www.opticsinfobase.org.
    [PubMed]
  16. L. Lessard, M. West, D. MacMynowski, and S. Lall, “Warm-started wavefront reconstruction for adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1147-1155 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Saad, Iterative Methods for Sparse Linear Sytems, 2nd ed. (SIAM, 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. Ellerbroek, “Wavefront error budget development for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide adaptive optics system,” in “Adaptive Optics Systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, (2008) (to be published).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159-1161 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. Bouy, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, E. L. Martín, N. Huélamo and D. B. Navascués, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics images of the Trapezium cluster,” Astron. Astrophys. 477, 681-690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. Ellerbroek, “Wavefront error budget development for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide adaptive optics system,” in “Adaptive Optics Systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

L. Lessard, M. West, D. MacMynowski, and S. Lall, “Warm-started wavefront reconstruction for adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1147-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

L. H. Lawton, “Loopshaped wavefront control using open-loop reconstructors,” Opt. Express 14, 7477-7486 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Vogel and Q. Yang, “Fast optimal wavefront reconstruction for multi-conjugate adaptive optics using the Fourier domain preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm,” Opt. Express 14, 7487-7498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

B. L. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and C. R. Vogel, “Numerical simulations of multi-conjugate adaptive optics wavefront reconstruction on giant telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4811-4818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Ellerbroek and C. R. Vogel, “Simulations of closed-loop wavefront reconstruction for multi-conjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 206-217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. L. Ellerbroek, “Efficient computation of minimum-variance wave-front reconstructors using sparse matrix techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1803-1816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek and G. M. Cochran, “A wave optics propagation code for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 104-120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1995

G. A. Hyver and R. M. Blankinship, “ALI high power beam control,” Adv. Astronaut. Sci. 88, 445-460 (1995).

1992

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).

Adkins, S.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Atwood, J.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Blankinship, R. M.

G. A. Hyver and R. M. Blankinship, “ALI high power beam control,” Adv. Astronaut. Sci. 88, 445-460 (1995).

Bouchez, A. H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouy, H.

H. Bouy, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, E. L. Martín, N. Huélamo and D. B. Navascués, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics images of the Trapezium cluster,” Astron. Astrophys. 477, 681-690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, C.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Byrnes, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, R. D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. C. Y.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cochran, G. M.

B. L. Ellerbroek and G. M. Cochran, “A wave optics propagation code for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 104-120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Contos, A. R.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. Ellerbroek, “Wavefront error budget development for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide adaptive optics system,” in “Adaptive Optics Systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Ellerbroek and C. R. Vogel, “Simulations of closed-loop wavefront reconstruction for multi-conjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 206-217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and C. R. Vogel, “Numerical simulations of multi-conjugate adaptive optics wavefront reconstruction on giant telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4811-4818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Ellerbroek, “Efficient computation of minimum-variance wave-front reconstructors using sparse matrix techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1803-1816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek and G. M. Cochran, “A wave optics propagation code for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 104-120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek and F. Rigaut, “Methods for correcting tilt anisoplanatism in laser-guide-star-based multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2539-2547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, B. L. Ellerbroek, and C. R. Vogel, “A comparison of multigrid V-cycle versus Fourier domain preconditioning for laser guide star atmospheric tomography,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Optical Society of America Topical Meeting Technical Digest 2007, paper JTuA1, available online at http://www.opticsinfobase.org.
[PubMed]

B. L. Ellerbroek, “Evaluating and optimizing control algorithms for combined LGS/NGS MCAO systems,” Appendix E of the Conceptual Design Review Documents for MCAO for Gemini South, Gemini Observatory (2002), available online at http://www.gemini.edu/sciops/instruments/adaptive-optics/.

Gamadia, M.

N. Kehtarnavaz and M. Gamadia, Real-Time Image and Video Processing: From Research to Reality (Morgan and Claypool, 2006), available online at http://www.morganclaypool.com/.

Gendron, E.

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).

Gilles, L.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. Ellerbroek, “Wavefront error budget development for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide adaptive optics system,” in “Adaptive Optics Systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles and B. L. Ellerbroek, “Constrained matched filtering for extended dynamic range and improved noise rejection for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1159-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gilles, “Closed-loop stability and performance analysis of least-squares and minimum-variance control algorithms for multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 44, 993-1002 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and C. R. Vogel, “Numerical simulations of multi-conjugate adaptive optics wavefront reconstruction on giant telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4811-4818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gilles, B. L. Ellerbroek, and C. R. Vogel, “A comparison of multigrid V-cycle versus Fourier domain preconditioning for laser guide star atmospheric tomography,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Optical Society of America Topical Meeting Technical Digest 2007, paper JTuA1, available online at http://www.opticsinfobase.org.
[PubMed]

Hartman, S. K.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, G.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Hickson, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Hileman, E.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Huélamo, N.

H. Bouy, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, E. L. Martín, N. Huélamo and D. B. Navascués, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics images of the Trapezium cluster,” Astron. Astrophys. 477, 681-690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hyver, G. A.

G. A. Hyver and R. M. Blankinship, “ALI high power beam control,” Adv. Astronaut. Sci. 88, 445-460 (1995).

Johansson, E. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joyce, D.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Kehtarnavaz, N.

N. Kehtarnavaz and M. Gamadia, Real-Time Image and Video Processing: From Research to Reality (Morgan and Claypool, 2006), available online at http://www.morganclaypool.com/.

Kolb, J.

H. Bouy, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, E. L. Martín, N. Huélamo and D. B. Navascués, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics images of the Trapezium cluster,” Astron. Astrophys. 477, 681-690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lafon, R. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lall, S.

Lawton, L. H.

Le Mignant, D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leckie, B.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Lessard, L.

Lewis, H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, M.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

MacMynowski, D.

Marchetti, E.

H. Bouy, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, E. L. Martín, N. Huélamo and D. B. Navascués, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics images of the Trapezium cluster,” Astron. Astrophys. 477, 681-690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martín, E. L.

H. Bouy, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, E. L. Martín, N. Huélamo and D. B. Navascués, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics images of the Trapezium cluster,” Astron. Astrophys. 477, 681-690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Navascués, D. B.

H. Bouy, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, E. L. Martín, N. Huélamo and D. B. Navascués, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics images of the Trapezium cluster,” Astron. Astrophys. 477, 681-690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfrommer, T.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, F.

B. L. Ellerbroek and F. Rigaut, “Methods for correcting tilt anisoplanatism in laser-guide-star-based multiconjugate adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2539-2547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).

Saad, Y.

Y. Saad, Iterative Methods for Sparse Linear Sytems, 2nd ed. (SIAM, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Sinquin, J.-C.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Stromski, P. J.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summers, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, M. A.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Véran, J.-P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, C. R.

C. R. Vogel and Q. Yang, “Fast optimal wavefront reconstruction for multi-conjugate adaptive optics using the Fourier domain preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm,” Opt. Express 14, 7487-7498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Ellerbroek, L. Gilles, and C. R. Vogel, “Numerical simulations of multi-conjugate adaptive optics wavefront reconstruction on giant telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4811-4818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Ellerbroek and C. R. Vogel, “Simulations of closed-loop wavefront reconstruction for multi-conjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 206-217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, B. L. Ellerbroek, and C. R. Vogel, “A comparison of multigrid V-cycle versus Fourier domain preconditioning for laser guide star atmospheric tomography,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Optical Society of America Topical Meeting Technical Digest 2007, paper JTuA1, available online at http://www.opticsinfobase.org.
[PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. Ellerbroek, “Wavefront error budget development for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide adaptive optics system,” in “Adaptive Optics Systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

Welle, P.

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

West, M.

Wizinowich, P. L.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Adv. Astronaut. Sci.

G. A. Hyver and R. M. Blankinship, “ALI high power beam control,” Adv. Astronaut. Sci. 88, 445-460 (1995).

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

H. Bouy, J. Kolb, E. Marchetti, E. L. Martín, N. Huélamo and D. B. Navascués, “Multi-conjugate adaptive optics images of the Trapezium cluster,” Astron. Astrophys. 477, 681-690 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677-684 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

B. Ellerbroek, S. Adkins, D. Andersen, J. Atwood, C. Boyer, P. Byrnes, R. Conan, L. Gilles, G. Herriot, P. Hickson, E. Hileman, D. Joyce, B. Leckie, M. Liang, T. Pfrommer, J.-C. Sinquin, J.-P. Véran, L. Wang, and P. Welle, “Progress towards developing the TMT adaptive optical systems and their components,” Proc. SPIE 7015 (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, L. Wang, and B. Ellerbroek, “Wavefront error budget development for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide adaptive optics system,” in “Adaptive Optics Systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, (2008) (to be published).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek and G. M. Cochran, “A wave optics propagation code for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 4494, 104-120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek and C. R. Vogel, “Simulations of closed-loop wavefront reconstruction for multi-conjugate adaptive optics on giant telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 5169, 206-217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stromski, and D. M. Summers, “The W. M. Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297-309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Saad, Iterative Methods for Sparse Linear Sytems, 2nd ed. (SIAM, 2003).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Ellerbroek, “Evaluating and optimizing control algorithms for combined LGS/NGS MCAO systems,” Appendix E of the Conceptual Design Review Documents for MCAO for Gemini South, Gemini Observatory (2002), available online at http://www.gemini.edu/sciops/instruments/adaptive-optics/.

N. Kehtarnavaz and M. Gamadia, Real-Time Image and Video Processing: From Research to Reality (Morgan and Claypool, 2006), available online at http://www.morganclaypool.com/.

L. Gilles, B. L. Ellerbroek, and C. R. Vogel, “A comparison of multigrid V-cycle versus Fourier domain preconditioning for laser guide star atmospheric tomography,” in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis, Optical Society of America Topical Meeting Technical Digest 2007, paper JTuA1, available online at http://www.opticsinfobase.org.
[PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Integrated (top) versus split (bottom) tomography block diagrams. Dashed lines indicate signals used to compute pseudo-open-loop (POL) measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Graphical representation of the ray-tracing operation for a finite-range point source, illustrating an upper altitude grid in either a compressed or an uncompressed coordinate system. The origin is common to both compressed and uncompressed grids. For an LGS off axis, the ray intercept offset is constant for the compressed grid.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Quadrature Difference (nm) from Closed-Loop Residual Wavefront Errors Obtained with Three Warm-Started Split Tomography FDPCG Iterations, Followed by Four Warm-Started DM Fitting CG Iterations a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Computation and Memory Requirements for the TMT LGS AO System for the Split Tomography Architecture a

Equations (31)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ s dm ] k = Γ k [ [ H dm gs ] k 1 [ H dm gs ] k N dm ] [ [ x ̂ ] 1 [ x ̂ ] N dm ] , 1 k N gs ,
[ s pol ] k = [ s ] k + [ s dm ] k ,
w = [ β y 1 β y ] [ 1 β x β x ] = [ ( 1 β x ) β y β x β y ( 1 β x ) ( 1 β y ) β x ( 1 β y ) ] ,
w x = 1 d sa [ 1 2 0 1 2 1 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 ] , w y = w x T .
w x = 1 d sa [ 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 ] , w y = w x T ,
w x = 1 d sa [ 1 1 ] , w y = w x T .
[ y ] k = Γ k T W k ϴ k [ s pol ] k , 1 k N gs
[ b ] l = [ [ H atm gs ] 1 l T [ H atm gs ] N gs l T ] [ [ y ] 1 [ y ] N gs ] , 1 l N ps ,
ψ = Diag ( Γ 1 T W 1 ϴ 1 Γ 1 , , Γ N gs T W N gs ϴ N gs Γ N gs ) [ [ H atm gs ] 1 l [ H atm gs ] N gs l ] [ v ] l ,
[ p ] k = [ [ H atm gs ] 1 k T [ H atm gs ] N gs k T ] ψ ,
[ q ] l = γ l L 2 [ v ] l ,
[ A ] k l [ v ] l = [ p ] k + [ q ] l δ k l ,
( A D + A L ) x = y ,
y = b A U x ( 0 ) .
[ y ] N ps = [ b ] N ps ; ψ = 0
ψ ψ + Diag ( Γ 1 T W 1 ϴ 1 Γ 1 , , Γ N gs T W N gs ϴ N gs Γ N gs ) [ [ H atm gs ] 1 k + 1 [ H atm gs ] N gs k + 1 ] [ x ( 0 ) ] k + 1
[ y ] k = [ b ] k [ [ H atm gs ] 1 k T [ H atm gs ] N gs k T ] ψ
[ x ̂ ] 1 = CG ( [ A ] 11 , [ y ] 1 ) ; ψ = 0
ψ ψ + Diag ( Γ 1 T W 1 ϴ 1 Γ 1 , , Γ N gs T W N gs ϴ N gs Γ N gs ) [ [ H atm gs ] 1 k 1 [ H atm gs ] N gs k 1 ] [ x ̂ ] k 1
[ v ] k = [ y ] k [ [ H atm gs ] 1 k T [ H atm gs ] N gs k T ] ψ
[ x ̂ ] k = CG ( [ A ] k k , [ v ] k )
[ y ] k = [ [ H atm sc ] k 1 [ H atm sc ] k N ps ] [ [ x ̂ ] 1 [ x ̂ ] N ps ] , 1 k N fit ,
[ q ] k = ω k W [ y ] k , 1 k N fit
[ b ] l = [ [ H dm sc ] 1 l T [ H dm sc ] N fit l T ] [ [ q ] 1 [ q ] N fit ] , 1 l N dm ,
ψ = Diag ( ω 1 W , , ω N fit W ) [ [ H dm ] 1 l [ H dm ] N fit l ] [ v ] l ,
[ A ] k l [ v ] l = [ [ H dm ] 1 k T [ H dm ] N fit k T ] ψ .
R = G M ,
G M = ( G M T W ngs G M ) 1 G M T W ngs ,
R G a = M = ( M T W a M ) 1 M T W a ,
W a = G a T W ngs G a ,
M R G a = P a = M M ,

Metrics