Zernike circle polynomials are in widespread use for wavefront analysis because of their orthogonality over a circular pupil and their representation of balanced classical aberrations. In recent papers, we derived closed-form polynomials that are orthonormal over a hexagonal pupil, such as the hexagonal segments of a large mirror. We extend our work to elliptical, rectangular, and square pupils. Using the circle polynomials as the basis functions for their orthogonalization over such pupils, we derive closed-form polynomials that are orthonormal over them. These polynomials are unique in that they are not only orthogonal across such pupils, but also represent balanced classical aberrations, just as the Zernike circle polynomials are unique in these respects for circular pupils. The polynomials are given in terms of the circle polynomials as well as in polar and Cartesian coordinates. Relationships between the orthonormal coefficients and the corresponding Zernike coefficients for a given pupil are also obtained. The orthonormal polynomials for a one-dimensional slit pupil are obtained as a limiting case of a rectangular pupil.
© 2007 Optical Society of America
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