Abstract

The minimum number of samples necessary to fully characterize the aberration pattern of the eye is a question under debate in the clinical as well as the scientific community. We performed repeated measurements of ocular aberrations in 12 healthy nonsurgical human eyes and in 3 artificial eyes, using different sampling patterns (hexagonal, circular, and rectangular with 19 to 177 samples, and 3 radial patterns with 49 sample coordinates corresponding to zeros of the Albrecht, Jacobi, and Legendre functions). For each measurement set we computed two different metrics based on the root-mean-square (RMS) of difference maps (RMS_Diff) and the proportional change in the wavefront (W%). These metrics are used to compare wavefront estimates as well as to summarize results across eyes. We used computer simulations to extend our results to “abnormal eyes” (keratoconic, post-LASIK, and post–radial keratotomy eyes). We found that the spatial distribution of the samples can be more important than the number of samples for both our measured as well as our simulated “abnormal” eyes. Experimentally, we did not find large differences across patterns except, as expected, for undersampled patterns.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

2005

2004

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, D. Cano, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Myopic versus hyperopic eyes: axial length, corneal shape and optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 288-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. A. Burns, J. S. McLellan, and S. Marcos, "Sampling effects on measurements of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 2, 44, U463 (2003).

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Predicting and assessing visual performance with multizone bifocal contact lenses," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 812-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorronsoro, S. Barbero, L. Llorente, and S. Marcos, "On-eye measurement of optical performance of rigid gas permeable contact lenses based on ocular and corneal aberrometry," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 115-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and I. Jimenez-Alfaro, "Optical aberrations of intraocular lenses measured in vivo andin vitro," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1841-1851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smolek and S. D. Klyce, "Zernike polynomial fitting fails to represent all visually significant corneal aberrations," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676-4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo, "Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 142-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-270 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bará, "Contrast improvement for confocal retinal imaging using phase correcting plates," Opt. Lett. 27, 400-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, I. Donnelly, W. J. H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Marcos, L. Díaz-Santana, L. Llorente, and D. C., "Ocular aberrations with ray tracing and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors: Does polarization play a role?" J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1063-1072 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1143-1151 (2002).

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, "Are all aberrations equal?" J. Refract. Surg. 18, S556-S562 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. Nuijts, V. A. Nabar, W. J. Hament, and F. Eggink, "Wavefront-guided versus standard laser in situ keratomileusis to correct low to moderate myopia," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1907-1913 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and S. A. Burns, "Comparing laser ray tracing, spatially resolved refractometer and Hartmann-Shack sensor to measure the ocular wavefront aberration," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 152-156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Hong, N. Himebaugh, and L. Thibos, "On-eye evaluation of optical performance of rigid and soft contact lenses," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 872-880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).

S. Marcos, B. Barbero, L. Llorente, and J. Merayo-Lloves, "Optical response to LASIK for myopia from total and corneal aberrations," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 3349-3356 (2001).

2000

T. Seiler, M. Kaemmerer, P. Mierdel, and H.-E. Krinke, "Ocular optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy for myopia and myopic astigmatism," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 17-21 (2000).

1999

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, "Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

R. Calver, M. Cox, and D. Elliott, "Effect of aging on the monochromatic aberrations of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2069-2078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Rios, E. Acosta, and S. Bara, "Hartmann sensing with Albrecht grids," Opt. Commun. 133, 443-453 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, "Aberrations and relative efficiency of light pencils in the living human eye," Optom. Vision Sci. 74, 540-547 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

D. Atchison, M. Collins, C. Wildsoet, J. Christensen, and M. Waterworth, "Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the Howland aberroscope technique," Vision Res. 35, 313-323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1980

1979

Acosta, E.

Applegate, R. A.

J. D. Marsack, K. Pesudovs, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, "Impact of Zernike-fit error on simulated high- and low-contrast acuity in keratoconus: implications for using Zernike-based corrections," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 769-776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, "Are all aberrations equal?" J. Refract. Surg. 18, S556-S562 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, "Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

Artal, P.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1143-1151 (2002).

Atchison, D.

D. Atchison, M. Collins, C. Wildsoet, J. Christensen, and M. Waterworth, "Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the Howland aberroscope technique," Vision Res. 35, 313-323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bara, S.

S. Rios, E. Acosta, and S. Bara, "Hartmann sensing with Albrecht grids," Opt. Commun. 133, 443-453 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bara, S. X.

Bará, S.

Barbero, B.

S. Marcos, B. Barbero, L. Llorente, and J. Merayo-Lloves, "Optical response to LASIK for myopia from total and corneal aberrations," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 3349-3356 (2001).

Barbero, S.

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, D. Cano, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Myopic versus hyperopic eyes: axial length, corneal shape and optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 288-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorronsoro, S. Barbero, L. Llorente, and S. Marcos, "On-eye measurement of optical performance of rigid gas permeable contact lenses based on ocular and corneal aberrometry," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 115-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and I. Jimenez-Alfaro, "Optical aberrations of intraocular lenses measured in vivo andin vitro," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1841-1851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-270 (2002).
[PubMed]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).

Bille, J. F.

Burns, S. A.

J. S. McLellan, P. M. Prieto, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality," Vision Res. 46, 3009-3016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, J. S. McLellan, and S. Marcos, "Sampling effects on measurements of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 2, 44, U463 (2003).

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bará, "Contrast improvement for confocal retinal imaging using phase correcting plates," Opt. Lett. 27, 400-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and S. A. Burns, "Comparing laser ray tracing, spatially resolved refractometer and Hartmann-Shack sensor to measure the ocular wavefront aberration," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 152-156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. He, S. Marcos, R. H. Webb, and S. A. Burns, "Measurement of the wave-front aberration of the eye by a fast psychophysical procedure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2449-2456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Llorente, C. Dorronsoro, S. A. Burns, and S. Marcos, "Influence of pupil sampling and density on ocular wave aberration measurements," presented at the Second International Topical Meeting on Physiological Optics, Granada, Spain (European Optical Society), September 20-23, 2004. http://www.ugr.es/~phoeos04/proceeding.pdf.

C., D.

Calver, R.

Campbell, C. E.

C. E. Campbell, "A test eye for wavefront eye refractors," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 21, 127-140 (2005).

Campbell, M. C. W.

Cano, D.

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, D. Cano, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Myopic versus hyperopic eyes: axial length, corneal shape and optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 288-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, "Aberrations and myopia," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 25, 285-301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christensen, J.

D. Atchison, M. Collins, C. Wildsoet, J. Christensen, and M. Waterworth, "Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the Howland aberroscope technique," Vision Res. 35, 313-323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, M.

D. Atchison, M. Collins, C. Wildsoet, J. Christensen, and M. Waterworth, "Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the Howland aberroscope technique," Vision Res. 35, 313-323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, M.

Cubalchini, R.

Davies, N.

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo, "Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 142-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Santana, L.

L. Diaz-Santana, G. Walker, and S. X. Bara, "Sampling geometries for ocular aberrometry: a model for evaluation of performance," Opt. Express 13, 8801-8818 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo, "Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 142-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Díaz-Santana, L.

Donnelly, I.

Dorronsoro, C.

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, D. Cano, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Myopic versus hyperopic eyes: axial length, corneal shape and optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 288-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorronsoro, S. Barbero, L. Llorente, and S. Marcos, "On-eye measurement of optical performance of rigid gas permeable contact lenses based on ocular and corneal aberrometry," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 115-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Llorente, C. Dorronsoro, S. A. Burns, and S. Marcos, "Influence of pupil sampling and density on ocular wave aberration measurements," presented at the Second International Topical Meeting on Physiological Optics, Granada, Spain (European Optical Society), September 20-23, 2004. http://www.ugr.es/~phoeos04/proceeding.pdf.

Eggink, F.

R. Nuijts, V. A. Nabar, W. J. Hament, and F. Eggink, "Wavefront-guided versus standard laser in situ keratomileusis to correct low to moderate myopia," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1907-1913 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, D.

Elsner, A. E.

Geraghty, E.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1143-1151 (2002).

Goelz, S.

Grimm, B.

Guirao, A.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1143-1151 (2002).

Hament, W. J.

R. Nuijts, V. A. Nabar, W. J. Hament, and F. Eggink, "Wavefront-guided versus standard laser in situ keratomileusis to correct low to moderate myopia," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1907-1913 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, J. C.

Hebert, T. J.

Himebaugh, N.

X. Hong, N. Himebaugh, and L. Thibos, "On-eye evaluation of optical performance of rigid and soft contact lenses," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 872-880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, X.

X. Hong, N. Himebaugh, and L. Thibos, "On-eye evaluation of optical performance of rigid and soft contact lenses," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 872-880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Howland, H. C.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, "Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

Jimenez-Alfaro, I.

Kaemmerer, M.

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Seiler, M. Kaemmerer, P. Mierdel, and H.-E. Krinke, "Ocular optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy for myopia and myopic astigmatism," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 17-21 (2000).

Khemsara, V.

R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, "Are all aberrations equal?" J. Refract. Surg. 18, S556-S562 (2002).
[PubMed]

Klyce, S. D.

M. K. Smolek and S. D. Klyce, "Zernike polynomial fitting fails to represent all visually significant corneal aberrations," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676-4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, "Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

Krinke, H.-E.

T. Seiler, M. Kaemmerer, P. Mierdel, and H.-E. Krinke, "Ocular optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy for myopia and myopic astigmatism," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 17-21 (2000).

Lara-Saucedo, D.

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo, "Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 142-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Liang, J. Z.

Llorente, L.

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, D. Cano, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Myopic versus hyperopic eyes: axial length, corneal shape and optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 288-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorronsoro, S. Barbero, L. Llorente, and S. Marcos, "On-eye measurement of optical performance of rigid gas permeable contact lenses based on ocular and corneal aberrometry," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 115-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Marcos, L. Díaz-Santana, L. Llorente, and D. C., "Ocular aberrations with ray tracing and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors: Does polarization play a role?" J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1063-1072 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).

S. Marcos, B. Barbero, L. Llorente, and J. Merayo-Lloves, "Optical response to LASIK for myopia from total and corneal aberrations," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 3349-3356 (2001).

L. Llorente, C. Dorronsoro, S. A. Burns, and S. Marcos, "Influence of pupil sampling and density on ocular wave aberration measurements," presented at the Second International Topical Meeting on Physiological Optics, Granada, Spain (European Optical Society), September 20-23, 2004. http://www.ugr.es/~phoeos04/proceeding.pdf.

Losada, M. A.

R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, "Aberrations and relative efficiency of light pencils in the living human eye," Optom. Vision Sci. 74, 540-547 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, S.

J. S. McLellan, P. M. Prieto, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality," Vision Res. 46, 3009-3016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, D. Cano, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Myopic versus hyperopic eyes: axial length, corneal shape and optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 288-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, J. S. McLellan, and S. Marcos, "Sampling effects on measurements of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 2, 44, U463 (2003).

C. Dorronsoro, S. Barbero, L. Llorente, and S. Marcos, "On-eye measurement of optical performance of rigid gas permeable contact lenses based on ocular and corneal aberrometry," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 115-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and I. Jimenez-Alfaro, "Optical aberrations of intraocular lenses measured in vivo andin vitro," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1841-1851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Marcos, L. Díaz-Santana, L. Llorente, and D. C., "Ocular aberrations with ray tracing and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors: Does polarization play a role?" J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1063-1072 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-270 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. A. Burns, S. Marcos, A. E. Elsner, and S. Bará, "Contrast improvement for confocal retinal imaging using phase correcting plates," Opt. Lett. 27, 400-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).

E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and S. A. Burns, "Comparing laser ray tracing, spatially resolved refractometer and Hartmann-Shack sensor to measure the ocular wavefront aberration," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 152-156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Marcos, B. Barbero, L. Llorente, and J. Merayo-Lloves, "Optical response to LASIK for myopia from total and corneal aberrations," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 3349-3356 (2001).

J. C. He, S. Marcos, R. H. Webb, and S. A. Burns, "Measurement of the wave-front aberration of the eye by a fast psychophysical procedure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2449-2456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Llorente, C. Dorronsoro, S. A. Burns, and S. Marcos, "Influence of pupil sampling and density on ocular wave aberration measurements," presented at the Second International Topical Meeting on Physiological Optics, Granada, Spain (European Optical Society), September 20-23, 2004. http://www.ugr.es/~phoeos04/proceeding.pdf.

Marsack, J. D.

Martin, J. A.

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Predicting and assessing visual performance with multizone bifocal contact lenses," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 812-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McLellan, J. S.

J. S. McLellan, P. M. Prieto, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality," Vision Res. 46, 3009-3016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, J. S. McLellan, and S. Marcos, "Sampling effects on measurements of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 2, 44, U463 (2003).

Members, V. S. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

Merayo-Lloves, J.

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-270 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Marcos, B. Barbero, L. Llorente, and J. Merayo-Lloves, "Optical response to LASIK for myopia from total and corneal aberrations," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 3349-3356 (2001).

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).

Mierdel, P.

T. Seiler, M. Kaemmerer, P. Mierdel, and H.-E. Krinke, "Ocular optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy for myopia and myopic astigmatism," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 17-21 (2000).

Miller, D. T.

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-270 (2002).
[PubMed]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).

E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and S. A. Burns, "Comparing laser ray tracing, spatially resolved refractometer and Hartmann-Shack sensor to measure the ocular wavefront aberration," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 152-156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mrochen, M.

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nabar, V. A.

R. Nuijts, V. A. Nabar, W. J. Hament, and F. Eggink, "Wavefront-guided versus standard laser in situ keratomileusis to correct low to moderate myopia," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1907-1913 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, R.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and S. A. Burns, "Comparing laser ray tracing, spatially resolved refractometer and Hartmann-Shack sensor to measure the ocular wavefront aberration," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 152-156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).

R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, "Aberrations and relative efficiency of light pencils in the living human eye," Optom. Vision Sci. 74, 540-547 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Norrby, S.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1143-1151 (2002).

Nuijts, R.

R. Nuijts, V. A. Nabar, W. J. Hament, and F. Eggink, "Wavefront-guided versus standard laser in situ keratomileusis to correct low to moderate myopia," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1907-1913 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oshika, T.

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, "Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

Pesudovs, K.

Piers, P.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1143-1151 (2002).

Prieto, P. M.

J. S. McLellan, P. M. Prieto, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality," Vision Res. 46, 3009-3016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queener, W. J. H.

Redondo, M.

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1143-1151 (2002).

Rios, S.

S. Rios, E. Acosta, and S. Bara, "Hartmann sensing with Albrecht grids," Opt. Commun. 133, 443-453 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ríos, S.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Predicting and assessing visual performance with multizone bifocal contact lenses," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 812-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, I. Donnelly, W. J. H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sarver, E. J.

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

Seiler, T.

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Seiler, M. Kaemmerer, P. Mierdel, and H.-E. Krinke, "Ocular optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy for myopia and myopic astigmatism," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 17-21 (2000).

Smolek, M. K.

M. K. Smolek and S. D. Klyce, "Zernike polynomial fitting fails to represent all visually significant corneal aberrations," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676-4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soloviev, O.

Southwell, W. H.

Thibos, L.

X. Hong, N. Himebaugh, and L. Thibos, "On-eye evaluation of optical performance of rigid and soft contact lenses," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 872-880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

Vdovin, G.

Walker, G.

Waterworth, M.

D. Atchison, M. Collins, C. Wildsoet, J. Christensen, and M. Waterworth, "Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the Howland aberroscope technique," Vision Res. 35, 313-323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

J. C. He, S. Marcos, R. H. Webb, and S. A. Burns, "Measurement of the wave-front aberration of the eye by a fast psychophysical procedure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2449-2456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

Wildsoet, C.

D. Atchison, M. Collins, C. Wildsoet, J. Christensen, and M. Waterworth, "Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the Howland aberroscope technique," Vision Res. 35, 313-323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago)

T. Seiler, M. Kaemmerer, P. Mierdel, and H.-E. Krinke, "Ocular optical aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy for myopia and myopic astigmatism," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 118, 17-21 (2000).

A. Guirao, M. Redondo, E. Geraghty, P. Piers, S. Norrby, and P. Artal, "Corneal optical aberrations and retinal image quality in patients in whom monofocal intraocular lenses were implanted," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 120, 1143-1151 (2002).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, "Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396-1403 (2001).

T. Oshika, S. D. Klyce, R. A. Applegate, and H. C. Howland, "Changes in corneal wavefront aberrations with aging," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 40, 1351-1355 (1999).

S. A. Burns, J. S. McLellan, and S. Marcos, "Sampling effects on measurements of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. Suppl. 2, 44, U463 (2003).

S. Marcos, B. Barbero, L. Llorente, and J. Merayo-Lloves, "Optical response to LASIK for myopia from total and corneal aberrations," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 3349-3356 (2001).

M. K. Smolek and S. D. Klyce, "Zernike polynomial fitting fails to represent all visually significant corneal aberrations," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676-4681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refractive Surg.

C. E. Campbell, "A test eye for wavefront eye refractors," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 21, 127-140 (2005).

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Clinical results of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis 3 months after surgery," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 201-207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Nuijts, V. A. Nabar, W. J. Hament, and F. Eggink, "Wavefront-guided versus standard laser in situ keratomileusis to correct low to moderate myopia," J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 28, 1907-1913 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. D. Marsack, K. Pesudovs, E. J. Sarver, and R. A. Applegate, "Impact of Zernike-fit error on simulated high- and low-contrast acuity in keratoconus: implications for using Zernike-based corrections," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 769-776 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Marcos, L. Díaz-Santana, L. Llorente, and D. C., "Ocular aberrations with ray tracing and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors: Does polarization play a role?" J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1063-1072 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, and I. Jimenez-Alfaro, "Optical aberrations of intraocular lenses measured in vivo andin vitro," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 1841-1851 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Z. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1949-1957 (1994).
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R. Calver, M. Cox, and D. Elliott, "Effect of aging on the monochromatic aberrations of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2069-2078 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. He, S. Marcos, R. H. Webb, and S. A. Burns, "Measurement of the wave-front aberration of the eye by a fast psychophysical procedure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2449-2456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bará, S. Ríos, and E. Acosta, "Integral evaluation of the modal phase coefficients in curvature sensing: Albrecht's cubatures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1467-1474 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Refract. Surg.

S. Barbero, S. Marcos, J. Merayo-Lloves, and E. Moreno-Barriuso, "Validation of the estimation of corneal aberrations from videokeratography in keratoconus," J. Refract. Surg. 18, 263-270 (2002).
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R. A. Applegate, E. J. Sarver, and V. Khemsara, "Are all aberrations equal?" J. Refract. Surg. 18, S556-S562 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Vision

L. Llorente, S. Barbero, D. Cano, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, "Myopic versus hyperopic eyes: axial length, corneal shape and optical aberrations," J. Vision 4, 288-298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.

W. N. Charman, "Aberrations and myopia," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 25, 285-301 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

S. Rios, E. Acosta, and S. Bara, "Hartmann sensing with Albrecht grids," Opt. Commun. 133, 443-453 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Optom. Vision Sci.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and S. A. Burns, "Comparing laser ray tracing, spatially resolved refractometer and Hartmann-Shack sensor to measure the ocular wavefront aberration," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 152-156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo, "Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 142-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, "Aberrations and relative efficiency of light pencils in the living human eye," Optom. Vision Sci. 74, 540-547 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Hong, N. Himebaugh, and L. Thibos, "On-eye evaluation of optical performance of rigid and soft contact lenses," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 872-880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, "Predicting and assessing visual performance with multizone bifocal contact lenses," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 812-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorronsoro, S. Barbero, L. Llorente, and S. Marcos, "On-eye measurement of optical performance of rigid gas permeable contact lenses based on ocular and corneal aberrometry," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 115-125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

D. Atchison, M. Collins, C. Wildsoet, J. Christensen, and M. Waterworth, "Measurement of monochromatic ocular aberrations of human eyes as a function of accommodation by the Howland aberroscope technique," Vision Res. 35, 313-323 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. McLellan, P. M. Prieto, S. Marcos, and S. A. Burns, "Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality," Vision Res. 46, 3009-3016 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. Llorente, C. Dorronsoro, S. A. Burns, and S. Marcos, "Influence of pupil sampling and density on ocular wave aberration measurements," presented at the Second International Topical Meeting on Physiological Optics, Granada, Spain (European Optical Society), September 20-23, 2004. http://www.ugr.es/~phoeos04/proceeding.pdf.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. H. Webb, and V. S. T. Members, "Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes," in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 35 of 2000 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 110-130.

American National Standards Institute, "American National Standard for the safe use of lasers," Standard Z-136.1-1993 (The Laser Institute of America, 1993).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pupil sampling patterns used in the measurement of the ocular aberrations for this work. (a) The different sampling spatial distributions include, from left to right, equally spaced hexagonal (H), rectangular (R), and circular (C), distributions and polar distributions with 49 coordinates corresponding to zeros of the Albrecht, Jacobi, and Legendre functions (A49, J49, and L49, respectively). (b) The different sampling densities include patterns with 19, 37, 91, and 177 samples over a 6 mm pupil. Asterisks indicate those patterns used only for artificial eyes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wave aberration maps for third and higher Zernike orders and corresponding difference maps (after subtracting the reference) obtained using the different sampling patterns for artificial eye A3. Contour lines are plotted every 0.5 and 0.1 μ m for the wave aberration maps and the difference maps, respectively. Thicker contour lines indicate positive values. The RMSs for wave aberration and difference maps are indicated below each map. Each pattern is labeled according to the nomenclature described in Fig. 1. The number after H 37 _ indicates four different repetitions throughout the measurement. The wave aberration map corresponding to the reference (H91) is plotted in the top right-hand corner, with its corresponding RMS to the left of the map.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots (a), (b), and (c) represent the RMS _ Diff values corresponding to each pattern obtained for artificial eyes A1, A2, and A3, respectively. Larger values of this metric indicate greater differences between the pattern and the reference. The thicker horizontal line represents the threshold corresponding to each eye for this metric. Values of RMS _ Diff below this threshold indicate that the differences are due to variability in the measurement and not to differences between patterns. Plots (d), (e), and (f) show the dendrogram obtained from the hierarchical cluster analysis for eyes A1, A2, and A3, respectively. “Dist.” stands for “distance.” The less distance between patterns, the greater the similarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results obtained for the human eye R12, using the different sampling patterns. First row, wave aberration maps for third- and higher-order aberrations. Second row, corresponding difference maps (after subtracting the reference). Contour lines are plotted every 0.3 and 0.15 μ m for the wave aberration maps and the difference maps, respectively. Thicker contour lines indicate positive values. RMSs for wave aberration and difference maps are indicated below each map. Third row, probability maps representing the probability values obtained, point by point, when comparing the wavefront height values obtained using the reference pattern and those corresponding to the assessed pattern. Fourth row, regions of the pupil where the significance values were above 0.05 (significantly different areas). The number below each map indicates the corresponding value of the metric W % ; i.e., the percentage of the pupil that is significantly different between the pattern and the reference. The reference wave aberration map and its corresponding RMS are located in the top right-hand corner.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a), (d) Ranking values for RMS _ Diff corresponding to each sampling pattern across the measured and simulated human eyes, respectively. (b), (e) Ranking values for W % corresponding to each sampling pattern across the measured and simulated human eyes, respectively. (c), (f) Dendrogram corresponding to the hierarchical cluster analysis for the measured and simulated human eyes, respectively. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines indicate “good,” “medium,” and “bad” clusters, respectively, according to the classification obtained from the metrics. “Dist.” stands for “distance.”

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the classification yielded by the global hierarchical cluster analysis on the 12 human eyes with the classifications yielded by eye-by-eye hierarchical cluster analysis for these eyes. The check mark indicates matching between the results from the global and the individual analyses for each particular eye (i.e., the pattern belongs to the same cluster indicated by the global analysis), whereas the cross mark means there is no matching between the results of both analyses (global and individual) for that eye. The circle indicates that A49 was grouped with J49 and L49.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results obtained for the keratoconic [first row: (a), (b), (c)], post-LASIK [second row: (d), (e), (f)], and post-RK [third row: (g), (h), (i)] eyes. The first [(a), (d), (g)] and second columns [(b), (e), (h)] show the results for the metrics RMS _ Diff and W % , respectively, corresponding to each pattern. The thicker horizontal line represents the threshold corresponding to each eye for the corresponding metric. Values of the metric below this threshold indicate that the differences are due to variability in the measurement and not to differences between patterns. The third column [(c), (f), (i)] shows the dendrograms corresponding to the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for the keratoconic, post-LASIK, and post-RK eyes. “Dist.” stands for “distance.” The less distance between patterns, the more similarity between them. Solid, dashed, and dotted lines indicate “good,” “medium,” and “bad” clusters, respectively, according to the classification obtained from the metrics.

Metrics