Abstract

A network of sensors is considered one of the most attractive remote sensing technologies available at present. In the system under consideration a network of sensors and a remote base station communicate using optical wireless links. This is accomplished by a base station that acquires and identifies sensors using a unique subcarrier frequency. The sensors use an active retroreflector to communicate with the base station, which reduces the complexity, cost, and power consumption of the sensors. The base station employs an imaging receiver (detector matrix), in which signals arriving from different directions are detected by different pixels. The imaging receiver mitigates ambient light noise and interference between simultaneous uplink transmissions from different sensors, provided that the transmissions are imaged onto disjoint sets of pixels. We describe a scheme that allows simultaneous acquisition and identification of a sensor in a network by an imaging receiver. A probability model of erroneous acquisition of this scheme due to noise is derived. The model’s results indicate that the matrix size, the signal, and the noise powers have the greatest influence in determining acquisition probability.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Y. Chong and S. P. Kumar, "Sensor networks: evolution, opportunities, and challenges," Proc. IEEE 91, 1247-1256 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Kedar and S. Arnon, "Laser "firefly" clustering; a new concept in atmospheric probing," Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.: Biol. Sci. 15, 1672-1674 (2003).
  3. D. Kedar and S. Arnon, "Second generation laser firefly clusters: an improved scheme for distributed sensing in the atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 44, 984-992 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Arnon, "Deriving an upper bound on the average operation lifetime of a wireless sensor network," IEEE Commun. Lett. 9, 154-156 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Gharavi and K. Ban, "Master-slave cluster-based multihop ad-hoc networking," Electron. Lett. 38, 1756-1757 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Mao and J. M. Kahn, "Free-space heterochronous imaging reception of multiple optical signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 269-279 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Liebowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, "An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510-1515.
  8. S. Arnon and N. S. Kopeika, "Adaptive sub-optimum detection of optical pulse-position-modulation signal with detection matrix and centroid tracking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 443-448 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communication, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1995).
  10. W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, M. L. Biermann, and G. C. Gilbreath, "A cat's eye quantum well modulating retro-reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 401-403 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Arnon, "Optical wireless communication," in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering (EOE), R.G.Driggers, ed. (Dekker, 2003), pp. 1866-1886.
  13. J. G. Proakis and D. Manolakis, Introduction to Digital Signal Processing (Maxwell Macmillan, 1988).
  14. B. P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 1998).
  15. J. R. Barry, Wireless Infrared Communications (Kluwer, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. You and J. M. Kahn, "Average power reduction techniques for multiple-subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2164-2171 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. E. Darcie, "Subcarrier multiplexing for lightwave networks and video distribution systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1240-1248 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Stuber, Principles of Mobile Communication, 2nd ed. (Kluwer, 2000).
  19. W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Schwartz, Information transmission, modulation, and Noise: a Unified Approach to Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1980).
  21. X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, "Second generation laser firefly clusters: an improved scheme for distributed sensing in the atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 44, 984-992 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arnon, "Deriving an upper bound on the average operation lifetime of a wireless sensor network," IEEE Commun. Lett. 9, 154-156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

W. Mao and J. M. Kahn, "Free-space heterochronous imaging reception of multiple optical signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 269-279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

C. Y. Chong and S. P. Kumar, "Sensor networks: evolution, opportunities, and challenges," Proc. IEEE 91, 1247-1256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, "Laser "firefly" clustering; a new concept in atmospheric probing," Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.: Biol. Sci. 15, 1672-1674 (2003).

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, M. L. Biermann, and G. C. Gilbreath, "A cat's eye quantum well modulating retro-reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 401-403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Gharavi and K. Ban, "Master-slave cluster-based multihop ad-hoc networking," Electron. Lett. 38, 1756-1757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. You and J. M. Kahn, "Average power reduction techniques for multiple-subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2164-2171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1990 (1)

T. E. Darcie, "Subcarrier multiplexing for lightwave networks and video distribution systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1240-1248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ågren, D.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Allard, L.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arnon, S.

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, "Second generation laser firefly clusters: an improved scheme for distributed sensing in the atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 44, 984-992 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arnon, "Deriving an upper bound on the average operation lifetime of a wireless sensor network," IEEE Commun. Lett. 9, 154-156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, "Laser "firefly" clustering; a new concept in atmospheric probing," Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.: Biol. Sci. 15, 1672-1674 (2003).

S. Arnon and N. S. Kopeika, "Adaptive sub-optimum detection of optical pulse-position-modulation signal with detection matrix and centroid tracking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 443-448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnon, "Optical wireless communication," in Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering (EOE), R.G.Driggers, ed. (Dekker, 2003), pp. 1866-1886.

Ban, K.

H. Gharavi and K. Ban, "Master-slave cluster-based multihop ad-hoc networking," Electron. Lett. 38, 1756-1757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barry, J. R.

J. R. Barry, Wireless Infrared Communications (Kluwer, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Bellew, C. L.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Liebowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, "An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510-1515.

Biermann, M. L.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, M. L. Biermann, and G. C. Gilbreath, "A cat's eye quantum well modulating retro-reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 401-403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Binari, S. C.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, M. L. Biermann, and G. C. Gilbreath, "A cat's eye quantum well modulating retro-reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 401-403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boser, B. E.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Liebowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, "An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510-1515.

Burris, H. R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chediak, J. A.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Liebowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, "An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510-1515.

Chong, C. Y.

C. Y. Chong and S. P. Kumar, "Sensor networks: evolution, opportunities, and challenges," Proc. IEEE 91, 1247-1256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Darcie, T. E.

T. E. Darcie, "Subcarrier multiplexing for lightwave networks and video distribution systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1240-1248 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Engström, D.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, R. M.

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communication, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1995).

Gharavi, H.

H. Gharavi and K. Ban, "Master-slave cluster-based multihop ad-hoc networking," Electron. Lett. 38, 1756-1757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gilbreath, G. C.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, M. L. Biermann, and G. C. Gilbreath, "A cat's eye quantum well modulating retro-reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 401-403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, P. G.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, M. L. Biermann, and G. C. Gilbreath, "A cat's eye quantum well modulating retro-reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 401-403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hällstig, E.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hård, S.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Junique, S.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

W. Mao and J. M. Kahn, "Free-space heterochronous imaging reception of multiple optical signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 269-279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. You and J. M. Kahn, "Average power reduction techniques for multiple-subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2164-2171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Liebowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, "An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510-1515.

Karp, S.

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communication, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1995).

Katzer, D. S.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, M. L. Biermann, and G. C. Gilbreath, "A cat's eye quantum well modulating retro-reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 401-403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kedar, D.

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, "Second generation laser firefly clusters: an improved scheme for distributed sensing in the atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 44, 984-992 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kedar and S. Arnon, "Laser "firefly" clustering; a new concept in atmospheric probing," Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.: Biol. Sci. 15, 1672-1674 (2003).

Kopeika, N. S.

Koplow, J.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S. P.

C. Y. Chong and S. P. Kumar, "Sensor networks: evolution, opportunities, and challenges," Proc. IEEE 91, 1247-1256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lathi, B. P.

B. P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Oxford, 1998).

Liebowitz, B. S.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Liebowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, "An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510-1515.

Mahon, R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, M. L. Biermann, and G. C. Gilbreath, "A cat's eye quantum well modulating retro-reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 401-403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manolakis, D.

J. G. Proakis and D. Manolakis, Introduction to Digital Signal Processing (Maxwell Macmillan, 1988).

Mao, W.

W. Mao and J. M. Kahn, "Free-space heterochronous imaging reception of multiple optical signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 269-279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. I.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noharet, B.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh, E.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Öhgren, J.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pister, K. S. J.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Liebowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, "An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510-1515.

Proakis, J. G.

J. G. Proakis and D. Manolakis, Introduction to Digital Signal Processing (Maxwell Macmillan, 1988).

Rabinovich, W. S.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, M. L. Biermann, and G. C. Gilbreath, "A cat's eye quantum well modulating retro-reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 401-403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, M.

M. Schwartz, Information transmission, modulation, and Noise: a Unified Approach to Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1980).

Scott, M. D.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Liebowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, "An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510-1515.

Sjöqvist, L.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stell, M. F.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stuber, G.

G. Stuber, Principles of Mobile Communication, 2nd ed. (Kluwer, 2000).

Suite, M. R.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swingen, L.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vilcheck, M. J.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waluschka, E.

W. S. Rabinovich, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, E. Waluschka, D. S. Katzer, S. C. Binari, M. L. Biermann, and G. C. Gilbreath, "A cat's eye quantum well modulating retro-reflector," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 401-403 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

L. Sjöqvist, E. Hällstig, J. Öhgren, and L. Allard, D. Ågren, S. Junique, Q. Wang, B. Noharet, D. Engström, and S. Hård, "A novel free-space retrocommunication link," Proc. SPIE 5614, 10-23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Warneke, B. A.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Liebowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, "An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510-1515.

Witkowsky, J. L.

W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, H. R. Burris, G. C. Gilbreath, P. G. Goetz, C. I. Moore, M. F. Stell, M. J. Vilcheck, J. L. Witkowsky, L. Swingen, M. R. Suite, E. Oh, and J. Koplow, "Free-space optical communications link at 1550 nm using multiple-quantum-well modulating retroreflectors in a marine environment," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 55, 056001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

You, R.

R. You and J. M. Kahn, "Average power reduction techniques for multiple-subcarrier intensity-modulated optical signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2164-2171 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

B. A. Warneke, M. D. Scott, B. S. Liebowitz, L. Zhou, C. L. Bellew, J. A. Chediak, J. M. Kahn, B. E. Boser, and K. S. J. Pister, "An autonomous 16 mm3 solar-powered node for distributed wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Sensors (IEEE, 2002), pp. 1510-1515.

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu and J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293 (2002).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sensor network and base station.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Model for acquiring and identifying sensors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Implementation of the model by a DSP technique.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Erroneous acquisition probability as a function of distance. The parameters of the calculation were taken from Table 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Erroneous acquisition probability as a function of signal ( S j n , m ) 2 for a matrix size of 10 5   pixels .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Erroneous acquisition probability as a function of matrix size. The noise σ 2 equals 0 dBm .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of Practical Parameters, Results of Intermediates Calculation, and the Final Results a

Equations (18)

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f ( ρ ) = ( ( π D Rec 2 4 λ f c ) ( 2 J 1 ( π D Rec ρ λ f c ) π D Rec ρ λ f c ) ) 2 ,
S size = 2 λ f c D Rec .
θ HZ tan 1 ( n d f c ) ,
θ VE tan 1 ( m d f ) ,
b j ( t ) = C ( 1 + mo ( u = ( a j c u cos ( ω j ( t τ j ) + ϕ j ) ) + u = ( a j s u sin ( ω j ( t τ j ) + ϕ j ) ) ) g ( t u T τ j ) ) ,
( 1 + mo ( u = ( a j c u cos ( ω j ( t τ j ) + ϕ j ) ) + u = ( a j s u sin ( ω j ( t τ j ) + ϕ j ) ) ) ) 1 .
i j n , m ( t ) = R P T D Retro 4 D Rec 2 λ 2 Z j 4 θ div 2 [ 1 1 N ext ] exp ( 2 α mod L mod ) exp ( 2 α atm Z j ) b ( t ) ,
R = η q h c λ ,
S j n , m = [ 0 T ( P T R D Retro 4 D Rec 2 λ 2 Z j 4 θ div 2 [ 1 1 N ext ] exp ( 2 α mod L mod ) exp ( 2 α atm Z j ) ( a j c k cos ( ω j ( t τ j ) + ϕ j ) ) ) 2 ] 0.5 d t .
g ( t ) = { 1 , 0 t < T 0 , t < 0 , t T } .
S j n , m = T 0.5 R P T D Retro 4 D Rec 2 2 Z j 4 θ div 2 λ 2 [ 1 1 N ext ] exp ( 2 α mod L mod ) exp ( 2 α atm Z j ) .
f j n , m ( x 1 ) = x σ 2 I o ( x S j n , m σ 2 ) exp ( x 2 + ( S j n , m ) 2 2 σ 2 ) ,
f ( x 0 ) = x σ 2 exp ( x 2 2 σ 2 ) .
σ BG 2 = 2 q N × M R radiance Δ λ Ω D Rec 2 4 π ,
σ TH 2 = 4 k T e F R L ,
σ 2 = σ TH 2 + σ BG 2 .
Pe j n , m = [ 1 ( 0 f j n , m ( x 1 ) ( 0 x f ( y 0 ) d y ) M * N 1 d x ) ] .
Pe j n , m = [ 1 ( 0 x σ 2 I o ( x S j n , m σ 2 ) exp ( x 2 + ( S j n , m ) 2 2 σ 2 ) ( 1 exp ( x 2 2 σ 2 ) ) M * N 1 d x ) ] .

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