Abstract

Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner's hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to sensitivity and examined a family of parametric models of adaptation. Our results show that both appearance and discrimination are consistent with the same mechanism of adaptation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  19. G. Sclar, P. Lennie, and D. DePriest, "Contrast adaptation in striate cortex of macaque," Vision Res. 29, 747-755 (1989).
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  20. D. J. Heeger, "Normalization of cell responses in cat striate cortex," Visual Neurosci. 9, 181-197 (1992).
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  31. J. Nachmias and R. Sansbury, "Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection," Vision Res. 14, 1039-1042 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. C. Chen, J. M. Foley, and D. H. Brainard, "Detection of chromoluminance patterns on chromoluminance pedestals I: threshold measurements," Vision Res. 40, 773-788 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  36. E. Heinemann, "The relation of apparent brightness to the threshold for differences in luminance," J. Exp. Psychol. 61, 389-399 (1961).
  37. A. J. M. Houtsma, N. I. Durlach, and L. D. Braida, "Intensity perception XI. Experimental results on the relation of intensity resolution to loudness matching," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 68(3), 807-813 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J. Hillis and D. H. Brainard, "A shadowy dissociation between discriminability and identity," J. Vision 4, 56a (2004).
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  40. H. Akaike, "A new look at the statistical model identification," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 19, 716-723 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  41. G. Schwartz, "Estimating the dimension of a model," Ann. Stat. 6, 461-464 (1978).
  42. T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J. Friedman, The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference and Prediction, Springer Series in Statistics (Springer,2001).
  43. K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model Selection and Multi-Model Inference (Springer, 2002).
  44. P. Bickel and K. Doksum, Mathematical Statistics (Holden-Day, 1977).
  45. A. E. Rafferty, "Bayesian model selection in social research," Sociol. Methodol. 25, 111-163 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  47. M. J. Wainright, "Visual adaptation as optimal information transmission," Vision Res. 39, 3960-3974 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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  54. In our hands, the common mechanism hypothesis includes the possibility that appearance and sensitivity are mediated by physiologically distinct processing streams that encode and adapt identically. In general, distinguishing two separate physiological mechanisms that behave identically is not possible with psychophysical data alone, and an experimental approach to this possibility would require both physiological data and a sharp theory linking that data to performance on the two types of psychophysical tasks.
  55. M. Cannon and S. Fullenkamp, "Spatial interactions in apparent contrast--inhibitory effects among gratings," Vision Res. 31, 1985-1998 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  56. B. Singer and M. D'Zmura, "Color contrast induction," Vision Res. 34, 3111-3126 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  57. J. Loomis and T. Berger, "Effects of chromatic adaptation on color discrimination and color appearance," Vision Res. 19, 891-901 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  58. E. N. Pugh and J. Larimer, "Test of the identity of the site of blue/yellow hue cancellation and the site of chromatic antagonism in the π1 pathway," Vision Res. 20, 779-788 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  59. J. Walraven, "Perceived color under conditions of chromatic adaptation: evidence for again control by π-mechanisms," Vision Res. 21, 611-620 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  60. P. Whittle, "Increments and decrements: luminance discrimination," Vision Res. 26, 1677-1691 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  61. O. Rinner and K. Gegenfurtner, "Time course of chromatic adaptation for color appearance and discrimination," Vision Res. 40, 1813-1826 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  62. M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, "The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance," Vision Res. 34, 1993-2020 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  63. M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, "Colour constancy influenced by contrast adaptation," Nature 373, 694-698 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2004

J. Hillis and D. H. Brainard, "A shadowy dissociation between discriminability and identity," J. Vision 4, 56a (2004).

2003

A. G. Shapiro, J. L. Beere, and Q. Zaidi, "Time-course of S-cone system adaptation to simple and complex fields," Vision Res. 43, 1135-1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

F. Wichmann and N. Hill, "The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling," Percept. Psychophys. 63, 1314-1329 (2001).

2000

C. C. Chen, J. M. Foley, and D. H. Brainard, "Detection of chromoluminance patterns on chromoluminance pedestals I: threshold measurements," Vision Res. 40, 773-788 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Myung, M. Forster, and M. Browne, "Guest editor's introduction: special issue on model selection," J. Math. Psychol. 44, 1-2 (2000).

D. M. Dacey, "Parallel pathways for spectral coding in primate retina," Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23, 743-775 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Rinner and K. Gegenfurtner, "Time course of chromatic adaptation for color appearance and discrimination," Vision Res. 40, 1813-1826 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. J. Wainright, "Visual adaptation as optimal information transmission," Vision Res. 39, 3960-3974 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

R. O. Brown and D. I. A. MacLeod, "Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors," Curr. Biol. 7, 844-849 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. E. Rafferty, "Bayesian model selection in social research," Sociol. Methodol. 25, 111-163 (1995).

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, "Colour constancy influenced by contrast adaptation," Nature 373, 694-698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Foley, "Human luminance pattern-vision mechanisms: masking experiments require a new model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1710-1719 (1994).

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, "The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance," Vision Res. 34, 1993-2020 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Singer and M. D'Zmura, "Color contrast induction," Vision Res. 34, 3111-3126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. Whittle, "Brightness, discriminability and the 'crispening effect'," Vision Res. 32, 1493-1507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Heeger, "Normalization of cell responses in cat striate cortex," Visual Neurosci. 9, 181-197 (1992).

A. G. Shapiro and Q. Zaidi, "The effects of prolonged temporal modulation on the differential response of color mechanisms," Vision Res. 32, 2065-2075 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. Webster and J. Mollon, "Changes in colour appearance following postreceptoral adaptation," Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Felleman and D. Van Essen, "Distributed hierarchial processing in the primate cerebral cortex," Cereb. Cortex 1, 1-47 (1991).

M. Cannon and S. Fullenkamp, "Spatial interactions in apparent contrast--inhibitory effects among gratings," Vision Res. 31, 1985-1998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

G. Sclar, P. Lennie, and D. DePriest, "Contrast adaptation in striate cortex of macaque," Vision Res. 29, 747-755 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Chubb, G. Sperling, and J. A. Solomon, "Texture interactions determine perceived contrast." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9631-9635 (1989).

1986

P. Whittle, "Increments and decrements: luminance discrimination," Vision Res. 26, 1677-1691 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

W. S. Geisler, "Mechanisms of visual sensitivity: backgrounds and early dark adaptation," Vision Res. 23, 1423-1432 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. Mollon, "Color vision," Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41-85 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Adelson, "Saturation and adaptation in the rod system," Vision Res. 22, 1299-1312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, "Cardinal directions of color space." Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

S. Laughlin, "A simple coding procedure enhances a neuron's information capacity," Z. Naturforsch. 36, 910-912 (1981).

J. Walraven, "Perceived color under conditions of chromatic adaptation: evidence for again control by π-mechanisms," Vision Res. 21, 611-620 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

E. N. Pugh and J. Larimer, "Test of the identity of the site of blue/yellow hue cancellation and the site of chromatic antagonism in the π1 pathway," Vision Res. 20, 779-788 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Legge and J. M. Foley, "Contrast masking in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1458-1471 (1980).

A. J. M. Houtsma, N. I. Durlach, and L. D. Braida, "Intensity perception XI. Experimental results on the relation of intensity resolution to loudness matching," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 68(3), 807-813 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. Loomis and T. Berger, "Effects of chromatic adaptation on color discrimination and color appearance," Vision Res. 19, 891-901 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

G. Schwartz, "Estimating the dimension of a model," Ann. Stat. 6, 461-464 (1978).

1977

D. Hubel and T. Wiesel, "Functional architecture of macaque monkey visual cortex," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 198, 1-59 (1977).

1976

H. B. Barlow, D. MacLeod, and A. van Meeteeren, "Adaptation to gratings: no compensatory advantages found," Vision Res. 16, 1043-1045 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

H. Akaike, "A new look at the statistical model identification," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 19, 716-723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Nachmias and R. Sansbury, "Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection," Vision Res. 14, 1039-1042 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971

D. Krantz, "Integration of just-noticable differences," J. Math. Psychol. 8, 591-599 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. Land and J. McCann, "Lightness and retinex theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1-11 (1971).

1966

K. Naka and W. Rushton, "S-potentials from colour units in the retina of fish (Cyprinidae)," J. Physiol. (London) 185, 536-555 (1966).

1961

E. Heinemann, "The relation of apparent brightness to the threshold for differences in luminance," J. Exp. Psychol. 61, 389-399 (1961).

1958

R. D. Luce and W. Edwards, "The derivation of subjective scales from just noticeable differences," Physiol. Rev. 65, 222-236 (1958).

Abrams, A.

A. Abrams, J. Hillis, and D. H. Brainard, "The relation between color discrimination and color constancy: when is optimal adaptation task dependent?" Neural Comput. (to be published).

Adelson, E. H.

E. H. Adelson, "Saturation and adaptation in the rod system," Vision Res. 22, 1299-1312 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Akaike, H.

H. Akaike, "A new look at the statistical model identification," IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 19, 716-723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. R.

K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model Selection and Multi-Model Inference (Springer, 2002).

Barlow, H.

H. Barlow, "Possible principles underlying the transformations of sensory messages," in Sensory Communication, W.Rosenblith, ed. (MIT, 1961), pp. 217-234.

Barlow, H. B.

H. B. Barlow, D. MacLeod, and A. van Meeteeren, "Adaptation to gratings: no compensatory advantages found," Vision Res. 16, 1043-1045 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Barlow and P. Foldiak, "Adaptation and decorrelation in the cortex," in The Computing Neuron, C.Miall, R.Durbin, and G.Mitchison, eds. (Addison-Wesley, 1989), pp. 54-72.

Beere, J. L.

A. G. Shapiro, J. L. Beere, and Q. Zaidi, "Time-course of S-cone system adaptation to simple and complex fields," Vision Res. 43, 1135-1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berger, T.

J. Loomis and T. Berger, "Effects of chromatic adaptation on color discrimination and color appearance," Vision Res. 19, 891-901 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bickel, P.

P. Bickel and K. Doksum, Mathematical Statistics (Holden-Day, 1977).

Boynton, R. M.

P. K. Kaiser and R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, 1996).

Braida, L. D.

A. J. M. Houtsma, N. I. Durlach, and L. D. Braida, "Intensity perception XI. Experimental results on the relation of intensity resolution to loudness matching," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 68(3), 807-813 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Brainard, D. H.

J. Hillis and D. H. Brainard, "Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Uniform backgrounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2090-2106 (2005).

J. Hillis and D. H. Brainard, "A shadowy dissociation between discriminability and identity," J. Vision 4, 56a (2004).

C. C. Chen, J. M. Foley, and D. H. Brainard, "Detection of chromoluminance patterns on chromoluminance pedestals I: threshold measurements," Vision Res. 40, 773-788 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Abrams, J. Hillis, and D. H. Brainard, "The relation between color discrimination and color constancy: when is optimal adaptation task dependent?" Neural Comput. (to be published).

D. H. Brainard, "Color constancy," in The Visual Neurosciences, L.Chalupa and J.Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 948-961.

D. H. Brainard, D. G. Pelli, and T. Robson, "Display characterization," in Encylopedia of Imaging Science and Technology, J.P.Hornak ed. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 72-188.

Brown, R. O.

R. O. Brown and D. I. A. MacLeod, "Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors," Curr. Biol. 7, 844-849 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Browne, M.

I. Myung, M. Forster, and M. Browne, "Guest editor's introduction: special issue on model selection," J. Math. Psychol. 44, 1-2 (2000).

Burnham, K. P.

K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model Selection and Multi-Model Inference (Springer, 2002).

Cannon, M.

M. Cannon and S. Fullenkamp, "Spatial interactions in apparent contrast--inhibitory effects among gratings," Vision Res. 31, 1985-1998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chen, J. M. Foley, and D. H. Brainard, "Detection of chromoluminance patterns on chromoluminance pedestals I: threshold measurements," Vision Res. 40, 773-788 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chubb, C.

C. Chubb, G. Sperling, and J. A. Solomon, "Texture interactions determine perceived contrast." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9631-9635 (1989).

Dacey, D. M.

D. M. Dacey, "Parallel pathways for spectral coding in primate retina," Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23, 743-775 (2000).
[CrossRef]

DeBonet, J.

DePriest, D.

G. Sclar, P. Lennie, and D. DePriest, "Contrast adaptation in striate cortex of macaque," Vision Res. 29, 747-755 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Doksum, K.

P. Bickel and K. Doksum, Mathematical Statistics (Holden-Day, 1977).

Durlach, N. I.

A. J. M. Houtsma, N. I. Durlach, and L. D. Braida, "Intensity perception XI. Experimental results on the relation of intensity resolution to loudness matching," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 68(3), 807-813 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D'Zmura, M.

B. Singer and M. D'Zmura, "Color contrast induction," Vision Res. 34, 3111-3126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D'Zmura and B. Singer, "Contast gain control," in Color Vision: From Molecular Genetics to Perception, K.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Edwards, W.

R. D. Luce and W. Edwards, "The derivation of subjective scales from just noticeable differences," Physiol. Rev. 65, 222-236 (1958).

Eskew, R. T.

R. T. Eskew, J. S. McLellan, and F. Giulianini, "Chromatic detection and discrimination," in Color Vision: From Molecular Genetics to Perception, K.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 345-368.

Fechner, G.

G. Fechner, Elements of Psychophysics, Henry Holt Edition in Psychology (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966).

Felleman, D.

D. Felleman and D. Van Essen, "Distributed hierarchial processing in the primate cerebral cortex," Cereb. Cortex 1, 1-47 (1991).

Foldiak, P.

H. B. Barlow and P. Foldiak, "Adaptation and decorrelation in the cortex," in The Computing Neuron, C.Miall, R.Durbin, and G.Mitchison, eds. (Addison-Wesley, 1989), pp. 54-72.

Foley, J.

Foley, J. M.

C. C. Chen, J. M. Foley, and D. H. Brainard, "Detection of chromoluminance patterns on chromoluminance pedestals I: threshold measurements," Vision Res. 40, 773-788 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Legge and J. M. Foley, "Contrast masking in human vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1458-1471 (1980).

Forster, M.

I. Myung, M. Forster, and M. Browne, "Guest editor's introduction: special issue on model selection," J. Math. Psychol. 44, 1-2 (2000).

Friedman, J.

T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J. Friedman, The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference and Prediction, Springer Series in Statistics (Springer,2001).

Fullenkamp, S.

M. Cannon and S. Fullenkamp, "Spatial interactions in apparent contrast--inhibitory effects among gratings," Vision Res. 31, 1985-1998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gegenfurtner, K.

O. Rinner and K. Gegenfurtner, "Time course of chromatic adaptation for color appearance and discrimination," Vision Res. 40, 1813-1826 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geisler, W. S.

W. S. Geisler, "Mechanisms of visual sensitivity: backgrounds and early dark adaptation," Vision Res. 23, 1423-1432 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Giulianini, F.

R. T. Eskew, J. S. McLellan, and F. Giulianini, "Chromatic detection and discrimination," in Color Vision: From Molecular Genetics to Perception, K.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 345-368.

Hastie, T.

T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J. Friedman, The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference and Prediction, Springer Series in Statistics (Springer,2001).

Heeger, D. J.

D. J. Heeger, "Normalization of cell responses in cat striate cortex," Visual Neurosci. 9, 181-197 (1992).

Heeley, D. W.

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, "Cardinal directions of color space." Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Heinemann, E.

E. Heinemann, "The relation of apparent brightness to the threshold for differences in luminance," J. Exp. Psychol. 61, 389-399 (1961).

Hill, N.

F. Wichmann and N. Hill, "The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling," Percept. Psychophys. 63, 1314-1329 (2001).

Hillis, J.

J. Hillis and D. H. Brainard, "Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Uniform backgrounds," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2090-2106 (2005).

J. Hillis and D. H. Brainard, "A shadowy dissociation between discriminability and identity," J. Vision 4, 56a (2004).

A. Abrams, J. Hillis, and D. H. Brainard, "The relation between color discrimination and color constancy: when is optimal adaptation task dependent?" Neural Comput. (to be published).

Houtsma, A. J. M.

A. J. M. Houtsma, N. I. Durlach, and L. D. Braida, "Intensity perception XI. Experimental results on the relation of intensity resolution to loudness matching," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 68(3), 807-813 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hubel, D.

D. Hubel and T. Wiesel, "Functional architecture of macaque monkey visual cortex," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 198, 1-59 (1977).

Jacobs, G. H.

G. H. Jacobs, Comparative Color Vision (Academic, 1981).

Kaiser, P. K.

P. K. Kaiser and R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, 1996).

Krantz, D.

D. Krantz, "Integration of just-noticable differences," J. Math. Psychol. 8, 591-599 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, J.

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R. T. Eskew, J. S. McLellan, and F. Giulianini, "Chromatic detection and discrimination," in Color Vision: From Molecular Genetics to Perception, K.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 345-368.

Mishkin, M.

L. Ungerleider and M. Mishkin, "Two cortical visual systems," in Analysis of Visual Behavior, D.J.Ingle, M.A.Goodale, and R.J. W.Mansfield, eds. (MIT, 1982), pp. 549-586.

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D. H. Brainard, D. G. Pelli, and T. Robson, "Display characterization," in Encylopedia of Imaging Science and Technology, J.P.Hornak ed. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 72-188.

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K. Naka and W. Rushton, "S-potentials from colour units in the retina of fish (Cyprinidae)," J. Physiol. (London) 185, 536-555 (1966).

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J. Nachmias and R. Sansbury, "Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection," Vision Res. 14, 1039-1042 (1974).
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G. Sclar, P. Lennie, and D. DePriest, "Contrast adaptation in striate cortex of macaque," Vision Res. 29, 747-755 (1989).
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B. Singer and M. D'Zmura, "Color contrast induction," Vision Res. 34, 3111-3126 (1994).
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C. Chubb, G. Sperling, and J. A. Solomon, "Texture interactions determine perceived contrast." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9631-9635 (1989).

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G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

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T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J. Friedman, The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference and Prediction, Springer Series in Statistics (Springer,2001).

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L. Ungerleider and M. Mishkin, "Two cortical visual systems," in Analysis of Visual Behavior, D.J.Ingle, M.A.Goodale, and R.J. W.Mansfield, eds. (MIT, 1982), pp. 549-586.

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M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, "Colour constancy influenced by contrast adaptation," Nature 373, 694-698 (1995).
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P. Whittle, "Brightness, discriminability and the 'crispening effect'," Vision Res. 32, 1493-1507 (1992).
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J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, "Cardinal directions of color space." Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
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J. Mollon, "Color vision," Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33, 41-85 (1982).
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M. Webster and J. Mollon, "Changes in colour appearance following postreceptoral adaptation," Nature 349, 235-238 (1991).
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M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, "Colour constancy influenced by contrast adaptation," Nature 373, 694-698 (1995).
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Percept. Psychophys.

F. Wichmann and N. Hill, "The psychometric function: II. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals and sampling," Percept. Psychophys. 63, 1314-1329 (2001).

Physiol. Rev.

R. D. Luce and W. Edwards, "The derivation of subjective scales from just noticeable differences," Physiol. Rev. 65, 222-236 (1958).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C. Chubb, G. Sperling, and J. A. Solomon, "Texture interactions determine perceived contrast." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9631-9635 (1989).

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B

D. Hubel and T. Wiesel, "Functional architecture of macaque monkey visual cortex," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 198, 1-59 (1977).

Sociol. Methodol.

A. E. Rafferty, "Bayesian model selection in social research," Sociol. Methodol. 25, 111-163 (1995).

Vision Res.

H. B. Barlow, D. MacLeod, and A. van Meeteeren, "Adaptation to gratings: no compensatory advantages found," Vision Res. 16, 1043-1045 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Wainright, "Visual adaptation as optimal information transmission," Vision Res. 39, 3960-3974 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Whittle, "Brightness, discriminability and the 'crispening effect'," Vision Res. 32, 1493-1507 (1992).
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A. G. Shapiro, J. L. Beere, and Q. Zaidi, "Time-course of S-cone system adaptation to simple and complex fields," Vision Res. 43, 1135-1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Krauskopf, D. R. Williams, and D. W. Heeley, "Cardinal directions of color space." Vision Res. 22, 1123-1131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Sclar, P. Lennie, and D. DePriest, "Contrast adaptation in striate cortex of macaque," Vision Res. 29, 747-755 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Nachmias and R. Sansbury, "Grating contrast: discrimination may be better than detection," Vision Res. 14, 1039-1042 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chen, J. M. Foley, and D. H. Brainard, "Detection of chromoluminance patterns on chromoluminance pedestals I: threshold measurements," Vision Res. 40, 773-788 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Shapiro and Q. Zaidi, "The effects of prolonged temporal modulation on the differential response of color mechanisms," Vision Res. 32, 2065-2075 (1992).
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M. Cannon and S. Fullenkamp, "Spatial interactions in apparent contrast--inhibitory effects among gratings," Vision Res. 31, 1985-1998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Singer and M. D'Zmura, "Color contrast induction," Vision Res. 34, 3111-3126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Loomis and T. Berger, "Effects of chromatic adaptation on color discrimination and color appearance," Vision Res. 19, 891-901 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Pugh and J. Larimer, "Test of the identity of the site of blue/yellow hue cancellation and the site of chromatic antagonism in the π1 pathway," Vision Res. 20, 779-788 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Walraven, "Perceived color under conditions of chromatic adaptation: evidence for again control by π-mechanisms," Vision Res. 21, 611-620 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Whittle, "Increments and decrements: luminance discrimination," Vision Res. 26, 1677-1691 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. Rinner and K. Gegenfurtner, "Time course of chromatic adaptation for color appearance and discrimination," Vision Res. 40, 1813-1826 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Webster and J. D. Mollon, "The influence of contrast adaptation on color appearance," Vision Res. 34, 1993-2020 (1994).
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Visual Neurosci.

D. J. Heeger, "Normalization of cell responses in cat striate cortex," Visual Neurosci. 9, 181-197 (1992).

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S. Laughlin, "A simple coding procedure enhances a neuron's information capacity," Z. Naturforsch. 36, 910-912 (1981).

Other

H. B. Barlow and P. Foldiak, "Adaptation and decorrelation in the cortex," in The Computing Neuron, C.Miall, R.Durbin, and G.Mitchison, eds. (Addison-Wesley, 1989), pp. 54-72.

A. Abrams, J. Hillis, and D. H. Brainard, "The relation between color discrimination and color constancy: when is optimal adaptation task dependent?" Neural Comput. (to be published).

L. T. Maloney, "Physics-based approaches to modeling surface color perception," in Color Vision: From Genes to Perception, K.T.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 387-416.

D. H. Brainard, "Color constancy," in The Visual Neurosciences, L.Chalupa and J.Werner, eds. (MIT, 2004), Vol. 1, pp. 948-961.

H. Barlow, "Possible principles underlying the transformations of sensory messages," in Sensory Communication, W.Rosenblith, ed. (MIT, 1961), pp. 217-234.

M. D'Zmura and B. Singer, "Contast gain control," in Color Vision: From Molecular Genetics to Perception, K.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

G. H. Jacobs, Comparative Color Vision (Academic, 1981).

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

P. K. Kaiser and R. M. Boynton, Human Color Vision, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, 1996).

R. T. Eskew, J. S. McLellan, and F. Giulianini, "Chromatic detection and discrimination," in Color Vision: From Molecular Genetics to Perception, K.Gegenfurtner and L.T.Sharpe, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 345-368.

T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J. Friedman, The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference and Prediction, Springer Series in Statistics (Springer,2001).

K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model Selection and Multi-Model Inference (Springer, 2002).

P. Bickel and K. Doksum, Mathematical Statistics (Holden-Day, 1977).

R. W. Rodieck, The First Steps In Seeing (Sinauer, 1998).

L. Ungerleider and M. Mishkin, "Two cortical visual systems," in Analysis of Visual Behavior, D.J.Ingle, M.A.Goodale, and R.J. W.Mansfield, eds. (MIT, 1982), pp. 549-586.

G. Fechner, Elements of Psychophysics, Henry Holt Edition in Psychology (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966).

In our hands, the common mechanism hypothesis includes the possibility that appearance and sensitivity are mediated by physiologically distinct processing streams that encode and adapt identically. In general, distinguishing two separate physiological mechanisms that behave identically is not possible with psychophysical data alone, and an experimental approach to this possibility would require both physiological data and a sharp theory linking that data to performance on the two types of psychophysical tasks.

D. H. Brainard, D. G. Pelli, and T. Robson, "Display characterization," in Encylopedia of Imaging Science and Technology, J.P.Hornak ed. (Wiley, 2002), pp. 72-188.

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