Abstract

Some scenarios require performance estimation of an imaging or a computer vision system prior to its actual operation such as in system design, as well as in tasks of high risk or cost. To predict the performance, we propose an image-based approach that accounts for underlying image-formation processes while using real image data. We give a detailed description of image formation from scene photons to image gray levels. This analysis includes all the optical, electrical, and digital sources of signal distortion and noise. On the basis of this analysis and our access to the camera parameters, we devise a simple image-based algorithm. It transforms a baseline high-quality image to render an estimated outcome of the system we wish to operate or design. We demonstrate our approach on thermal imaging systems (infrared spectrum, 3-5 μm).

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Bronskill, J. S. A. Hepburn, and W. K. Au, "A knowledge-based approach to the detection, tracking and classification of target formations in infrared image sequences," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 153-158.
  2. L. E. Hoff, J. R. Evans, and L. E. Bunny, "Detection of targets in terrain clutter by using multi-spectral infrared image processing," Proc. SPIE 1481, 98-109 (1991).
  3. D. Sheffer and D. Ingman, "The informational difference concept in analayzing target recognition issues," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1431-1438 (1997).
  4. R. G. Driggers, R. Vollmerhausen, and T. Edwards, "The target identification performance of infrared imager models as a function of blur and sampling," Proc. SPIE 3701, 26-34 (1999).
  5. J. Johnson, "Analysis of image forming systems," in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium (Warfare Electrical Engineering Department, U.S. Army Research and Development Laboratories, 1958), pp. 249-273.
  6. L. Scott and J. D'Agostino, "NVEOD FLIR92 thermal imaging systems performance model," Proc. SPIE 1689, 194-203 (1992).
  7. W. Wittenstein, "Thermal range model TRM3," Proc. SPIE 3436, 413-424 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. E. Toler and D. S. Grey, "Simulation model for infrared imaging systems," Proc. SPIE 226, 121-128 (1980).
  9. M. Wegener and R. Drake, "High-fidelty synthetic IR imaging model," Proc. SPIE 4027, 323-328 (2000).
  10. C. Wigren, "Model of image generation in optronic sensor systems (IGOSS)," Proc. SPIE 3377, 89-96 (1998).
  11. W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, and O. T. Carmichael, "Learning low-level vision," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 1182-1189.
  12. D. J. Heeger and J. R. Bergen, "Pyramid-based texture analysis/synthesis." Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1995 (www.siggraph.org, 1995), pp. 229-238.
  13. L. Y. Wei and M. Levoy, "Fast texture synthesis using tree-structured vector quantization," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000 (www.siggraph.org, 2000), pp. 479-488.
  14. P. Bao and M. Xiaohu, "Texturing and line art rendering using patch-based image analogies," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (IEEE, 2002), pp. 142-148.
  15. I. Drori, D. Cohen-Or, and H. Yeshurun, "Example-based style synthesis," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 143-150.
  16. A. Hertzmann, C. E. Jacobs, N. Oliver, B. Curless, and D. H. Salesin, "Image analogies," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001 (www.siggraph.org, 2001), pp. 327-340.
  17. C. Oh, N. Nandhakurnar, and J. K. Aggarwal, "Integrated modelling of thermal and visual image generation," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 356-362.
  18. I. Pavlidis, J. Levine, and P. Baukol, "Thermal imaging for anxiety detection," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Computer Vision Beyond the Visible Spectrum (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 104-109.
  19. D. A. Socolinsky, L. B. Wolff, J. D. Neuheisel, and C. K. Eveland, "Illumination invariant face recognition using thermal infrared imagery," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. I-527-534.
  20. G. C. Holst, Electro-Optical Imaging Systems Performance, 3rd ed. (SPIE, 2003).
  21. R. D. Hudson, Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, 1969), Chaps. 1-2, 5-9, 16-19.
  22. J. M. Lloyd, Thermal Imaging Systems (Plenum, 1975), Chaps. 1-3, 5-11.
  23. J. M. Mooney, "Design consideration for IR staring-mode cameras," Proc. SPIE 683, 35-50 (1986).
  24. C. A. Klein, "Hot infrared domes: a case study," Proc. SPIE 1326, 217-230 (1990).
  25. O. Naveh, "Sensitivity of scanning and staring infrared seekers for air-to-air missiles," Proc. SPIE 3061, 692-711 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. D. Nelson, J. F. Johnson, and T. S. Lomheim, "General noise process in hybrid infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Eng. 30, 1682-1700 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. T. Barnett, "Statistical analysis of median subtraction filtering with application to point target detection in infrared backgrounds," Proc. SPIE 1050, 10-18 (1989).
  28. S. Nong and Z. Tianxu, "Segmentation of FLIR images by target enhancement and image model," Proc. SPIE 3545, 274-277 (1998).

2003

I. Drori, D. Cohen-Or, and H. Yeshurun, "Example-based style synthesis," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 143-150.

G. C. Holst, Electro-Optical Imaging Systems Performance, 3rd ed. (SPIE, 2003).

2002

P. Bao and M. Xiaohu, "Texturing and line art rendering using patch-based image analogies," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (IEEE, 2002), pp. 142-148.

2001

A. Hertzmann, C. E. Jacobs, N. Oliver, B. Curless, and D. H. Salesin, "Image analogies," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001 (www.siggraph.org, 2001), pp. 327-340.

D. A. Socolinsky, L. B. Wolff, J. D. Neuheisel, and C. K. Eveland, "Illumination invariant face recognition using thermal infrared imagery," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. I-527-534.

2000

L. Y. Wei and M. Levoy, "Fast texture synthesis using tree-structured vector quantization," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000 (www.siggraph.org, 2000), pp. 479-488.

I. Pavlidis, J. Levine, and P. Baukol, "Thermal imaging for anxiety detection," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Computer Vision Beyond the Visible Spectrum (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 104-109.

M. Wegener and R. Drake, "High-fidelty synthetic IR imaging model," Proc. SPIE 4027, 323-328 (2000).

1999

W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, and O. T. Carmichael, "Learning low-level vision," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 1182-1189.

R. G. Driggers, R. Vollmerhausen, and T. Edwards, "The target identification performance of infrared imager models as a function of blur and sampling," Proc. SPIE 3701, 26-34 (1999).

1998

W. Wittenstein, "Thermal range model TRM3," Proc. SPIE 3436, 413-424 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Wigren, "Model of image generation in optronic sensor systems (IGOSS)," Proc. SPIE 3377, 89-96 (1998).

S. Nong and Z. Tianxu, "Segmentation of FLIR images by target enhancement and image model," Proc. SPIE 3545, 274-277 (1998).

1997

O. Naveh, "Sensitivity of scanning and staring infrared seekers for air-to-air missiles," Proc. SPIE 3061, 692-711 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Sheffer and D. Ingman, "The informational difference concept in analayzing target recognition issues," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1431-1438 (1997).

1995

D. J. Heeger and J. R. Bergen, "Pyramid-based texture analysis/synthesis." Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1995 (www.siggraph.org, 1995), pp. 229-238.

1992

L. Scott and J. D'Agostino, "NVEOD FLIR92 thermal imaging systems performance model," Proc. SPIE 1689, 194-203 (1992).

1991

L. E. Hoff, J. R. Evans, and L. E. Bunny, "Detection of targets in terrain clutter by using multi-spectral infrared image processing," Proc. SPIE 1481, 98-109 (1991).

M. D. Nelson, J. F. Johnson, and T. S. Lomheim, "General noise process in hybrid infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Eng. 30, 1682-1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. A. Klein, "Hot infrared domes: a case study," Proc. SPIE 1326, 217-230 (1990).

1989

J. T. Barnett, "Statistical analysis of median subtraction filtering with application to point target detection in infrared backgrounds," Proc. SPIE 1050, 10-18 (1989).

J. F. Bronskill, J. S. A. Hepburn, and W. K. Au, "A knowledge-based approach to the detection, tracking and classification of target formations in infrared image sequences," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 153-158.

C. Oh, N. Nandhakurnar, and J. K. Aggarwal, "Integrated modelling of thermal and visual image generation," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 356-362.

1986

J. M. Mooney, "Design consideration for IR staring-mode cameras," Proc. SPIE 683, 35-50 (1986).

1980

O. E. Toler and D. S. Grey, "Simulation model for infrared imaging systems," Proc. SPIE 226, 121-128 (1980).

1975

J. M. Lloyd, Thermal Imaging Systems (Plenum, 1975), Chaps. 1-3, 5-11.

1969

R. D. Hudson, Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, 1969), Chaps. 1-2, 5-9, 16-19.

1958

J. Johnson, "Analysis of image forming systems," in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium (Warfare Electrical Engineering Department, U.S. Army Research and Development Laboratories, 1958), pp. 249-273.

Aggarwal, J. K.

C. Oh, N. Nandhakurnar, and J. K. Aggarwal, "Integrated modelling of thermal and visual image generation," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 356-362.

Au, W. K.

J. F. Bronskill, J. S. A. Hepburn, and W. K. Au, "A knowledge-based approach to the detection, tracking and classification of target formations in infrared image sequences," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 153-158.

Bao, P.

P. Bao and M. Xiaohu, "Texturing and line art rendering using patch-based image analogies," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (IEEE, 2002), pp. 142-148.

Barnett, J. T.

J. T. Barnett, "Statistical analysis of median subtraction filtering with application to point target detection in infrared backgrounds," Proc. SPIE 1050, 10-18 (1989).

Baukol, P.

I. Pavlidis, J. Levine, and P. Baukol, "Thermal imaging for anxiety detection," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Computer Vision Beyond the Visible Spectrum (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 104-109.

Bergen, J. R.

D. J. Heeger and J. R. Bergen, "Pyramid-based texture analysis/synthesis." Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1995 (www.siggraph.org, 1995), pp. 229-238.

Bronskill, J. F.

J. F. Bronskill, J. S. A. Hepburn, and W. K. Au, "A knowledge-based approach to the detection, tracking and classification of target formations in infrared image sequences," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 153-158.

Bunny, L. E.

L. E. Hoff, J. R. Evans, and L. E. Bunny, "Detection of targets in terrain clutter by using multi-spectral infrared image processing," Proc. SPIE 1481, 98-109 (1991).

Carmichael, O. T.

W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, and O. T. Carmichael, "Learning low-level vision," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 1182-1189.

Cohen-Or, D.

I. Drori, D. Cohen-Or, and H. Yeshurun, "Example-based style synthesis," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 143-150.

Curless, B.

A. Hertzmann, C. E. Jacobs, N. Oliver, B. Curless, and D. H. Salesin, "Image analogies," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001 (www.siggraph.org, 2001), pp. 327-340.

D'Agostino, J.

L. Scott and J. D'Agostino, "NVEOD FLIR92 thermal imaging systems performance model," Proc. SPIE 1689, 194-203 (1992).

Drake, R.

M. Wegener and R. Drake, "High-fidelty synthetic IR imaging model," Proc. SPIE 4027, 323-328 (2000).

Driggers, R. G.

R. G. Driggers, R. Vollmerhausen, and T. Edwards, "The target identification performance of infrared imager models as a function of blur and sampling," Proc. SPIE 3701, 26-34 (1999).

Drori, I.

I. Drori, D. Cohen-Or, and H. Yeshurun, "Example-based style synthesis," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 143-150.

Edwards, T.

R. G. Driggers, R. Vollmerhausen, and T. Edwards, "The target identification performance of infrared imager models as a function of blur and sampling," Proc. SPIE 3701, 26-34 (1999).

Evans, J. R.

L. E. Hoff, J. R. Evans, and L. E. Bunny, "Detection of targets in terrain clutter by using multi-spectral infrared image processing," Proc. SPIE 1481, 98-109 (1991).

Eveland, C. K.

D. A. Socolinsky, L. B. Wolff, J. D. Neuheisel, and C. K. Eveland, "Illumination invariant face recognition using thermal infrared imagery," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. I-527-534.

Freeman, W. T.

W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, and O. T. Carmichael, "Learning low-level vision," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 1182-1189.

Grey, D. S.

O. E. Toler and D. S. Grey, "Simulation model for infrared imaging systems," Proc. SPIE 226, 121-128 (1980).

Heeger, D. J.

D. J. Heeger and J. R. Bergen, "Pyramid-based texture analysis/synthesis." Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1995 (www.siggraph.org, 1995), pp. 229-238.

Hepburn, J. S. A.

J. F. Bronskill, J. S. A. Hepburn, and W. K. Au, "A knowledge-based approach to the detection, tracking and classification of target formations in infrared image sequences," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 153-158.

Hertzmann, A.

A. Hertzmann, C. E. Jacobs, N. Oliver, B. Curless, and D. H. Salesin, "Image analogies," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001 (www.siggraph.org, 2001), pp. 327-340.

Hoff, L. E.

L. E. Hoff, J. R. Evans, and L. E. Bunny, "Detection of targets in terrain clutter by using multi-spectral infrared image processing," Proc. SPIE 1481, 98-109 (1991).

Holst, G. C.

G. C. Holst, Electro-Optical Imaging Systems Performance, 3rd ed. (SPIE, 2003).

Hudson, R. D.

R. D. Hudson, Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, 1969), Chaps. 1-2, 5-9, 16-19.

Ingman, D.

Jacobs, C. E.

A. Hertzmann, C. E. Jacobs, N. Oliver, B. Curless, and D. H. Salesin, "Image analogies," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001 (www.siggraph.org, 2001), pp. 327-340.

Johnson, J.

J. Johnson, "Analysis of image forming systems," in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium (Warfare Electrical Engineering Department, U.S. Army Research and Development Laboratories, 1958), pp. 249-273.

Johnson, J. F.

M. D. Nelson, J. F. Johnson, and T. S. Lomheim, "General noise process in hybrid infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Eng. 30, 1682-1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Klein, C. A.

C. A. Klein, "Hot infrared domes: a case study," Proc. SPIE 1326, 217-230 (1990).

Levine, J.

I. Pavlidis, J. Levine, and P. Baukol, "Thermal imaging for anxiety detection," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Computer Vision Beyond the Visible Spectrum (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 104-109.

Levoy, M.

L. Y. Wei and M. Levoy, "Fast texture synthesis using tree-structured vector quantization," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000 (www.siggraph.org, 2000), pp. 479-488.

Lloyd, J. M.

J. M. Lloyd, Thermal Imaging Systems (Plenum, 1975), Chaps. 1-3, 5-11.

Lomheim, T. S.

M. D. Nelson, J. F. Johnson, and T. S. Lomheim, "General noise process in hybrid infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Eng. 30, 1682-1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, J. M.

J. M. Mooney, "Design consideration for IR staring-mode cameras," Proc. SPIE 683, 35-50 (1986).

Nandhakurnar, N.

C. Oh, N. Nandhakurnar, and J. K. Aggarwal, "Integrated modelling of thermal and visual image generation," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 356-362.

Naveh, O.

O. Naveh, "Sensitivity of scanning and staring infrared seekers for air-to-air missiles," Proc. SPIE 3061, 692-711 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, M. D.

M. D. Nelson, J. F. Johnson, and T. S. Lomheim, "General noise process in hybrid infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Eng. 30, 1682-1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neuheisel, J. D.

D. A. Socolinsky, L. B. Wolff, J. D. Neuheisel, and C. K. Eveland, "Illumination invariant face recognition using thermal infrared imagery," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. I-527-534.

Nong, S.

S. Nong and Z. Tianxu, "Segmentation of FLIR images by target enhancement and image model," Proc. SPIE 3545, 274-277 (1998).

Oh, C.

C. Oh, N. Nandhakurnar, and J. K. Aggarwal, "Integrated modelling of thermal and visual image generation," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 356-362.

Oliver, N.

A. Hertzmann, C. E. Jacobs, N. Oliver, B. Curless, and D. H. Salesin, "Image analogies," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001 (www.siggraph.org, 2001), pp. 327-340.

Pasztor, E. C.

W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, and O. T. Carmichael, "Learning low-level vision," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 1182-1189.

Pavlidis, I.

I. Pavlidis, J. Levine, and P. Baukol, "Thermal imaging for anxiety detection," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Computer Vision Beyond the Visible Spectrum (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 104-109.

Salesin, D. H.

A. Hertzmann, C. E. Jacobs, N. Oliver, B. Curless, and D. H. Salesin, "Image analogies," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001 (www.siggraph.org, 2001), pp. 327-340.

Scott, L.

L. Scott and J. D'Agostino, "NVEOD FLIR92 thermal imaging systems performance model," Proc. SPIE 1689, 194-203 (1992).

Sheffer, D.

Socolinsky, D. A.

D. A. Socolinsky, L. B. Wolff, J. D. Neuheisel, and C. K. Eveland, "Illumination invariant face recognition using thermal infrared imagery," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. I-527-534.

Tianxu, Z.

S. Nong and Z. Tianxu, "Segmentation of FLIR images by target enhancement and image model," Proc. SPIE 3545, 274-277 (1998).

Toler, O. E.

O. E. Toler and D. S. Grey, "Simulation model for infrared imaging systems," Proc. SPIE 226, 121-128 (1980).

Vollmerhausen, R.

R. G. Driggers, R. Vollmerhausen, and T. Edwards, "The target identification performance of infrared imager models as a function of blur and sampling," Proc. SPIE 3701, 26-34 (1999).

Wegener, M.

M. Wegener and R. Drake, "High-fidelty synthetic IR imaging model," Proc. SPIE 4027, 323-328 (2000).

Wei, L. Y.

L. Y. Wei and M. Levoy, "Fast texture synthesis using tree-structured vector quantization," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000 (www.siggraph.org, 2000), pp. 479-488.

Wigren, C.

C. Wigren, "Model of image generation in optronic sensor systems (IGOSS)," Proc. SPIE 3377, 89-96 (1998).

Wittenstein, W.

W. Wittenstein, "Thermal range model TRM3," Proc. SPIE 3436, 413-424 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, L. B.

D. A. Socolinsky, L. B. Wolff, J. D. Neuheisel, and C. K. Eveland, "Illumination invariant face recognition using thermal infrared imagery," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. I-527-534.

Xiaohu, M.

P. Bao and M. Xiaohu, "Texturing and line art rendering using patch-based image analogies," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (IEEE, 2002), pp. 142-148.

Yeshurun, H.

I. Drori, D. Cohen-Or, and H. Yeshurun, "Example-based style synthesis," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 143-150.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

M. D. Nelson, J. F. Johnson, and T. S. Lomheim, "General noise process in hybrid infrared focal plane arrays," Opt. Eng. 30, 1682-1700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. T. Barnett, "Statistical analysis of median subtraction filtering with application to point target detection in infrared backgrounds," Proc. SPIE 1050, 10-18 (1989).

S. Nong and Z. Tianxu, "Segmentation of FLIR images by target enhancement and image model," Proc. SPIE 3545, 274-277 (1998).

R. G. Driggers, R. Vollmerhausen, and T. Edwards, "The target identification performance of infrared imager models as a function of blur and sampling," Proc. SPIE 3701, 26-34 (1999).

J. M. Mooney, "Design consideration for IR staring-mode cameras," Proc. SPIE 683, 35-50 (1986).

C. A. Klein, "Hot infrared domes: a case study," Proc. SPIE 1326, 217-230 (1990).

O. Naveh, "Sensitivity of scanning and staring infrared seekers for air-to-air missiles," Proc. SPIE 3061, 692-711 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Hoff, J. R. Evans, and L. E. Bunny, "Detection of targets in terrain clutter by using multi-spectral infrared image processing," Proc. SPIE 1481, 98-109 (1991).

L. Scott and J. D'Agostino, "NVEOD FLIR92 thermal imaging systems performance model," Proc. SPIE 1689, 194-203 (1992).

W. Wittenstein, "Thermal range model TRM3," Proc. SPIE 3436, 413-424 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. E. Toler and D. S. Grey, "Simulation model for infrared imaging systems," Proc. SPIE 226, 121-128 (1980).

M. Wegener and R. Drake, "High-fidelty synthetic IR imaging model," Proc. SPIE 4027, 323-328 (2000).

C. Wigren, "Model of image generation in optronic sensor systems (IGOSS)," Proc. SPIE 3377, 89-96 (1998).

Other

W. T. Freeman, E. C. Pasztor, and O. T. Carmichael, "Learning low-level vision," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE Computer Society, 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 1182-1189.

D. J. Heeger and J. R. Bergen, "Pyramid-based texture analysis/synthesis." Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1995 (www.siggraph.org, 1995), pp. 229-238.

L. Y. Wei and M. Levoy, "Fast texture synthesis using tree-structured vector quantization," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000 (www.siggraph.org, 2000), pp. 479-488.

P. Bao and M. Xiaohu, "Texturing and line art rendering using patch-based image analogies," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing (IEEE, 2002), pp. 142-148.

I. Drori, D. Cohen-Or, and H. Yeshurun, "Example-based style synthesis," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 143-150.

A. Hertzmann, C. E. Jacobs, N. Oliver, B. Curless, and D. H. Salesin, "Image analogies," in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2001 (www.siggraph.org, 2001), pp. 327-340.

C. Oh, N. Nandhakurnar, and J. K. Aggarwal, "Integrated modelling of thermal and visual image generation," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 356-362.

I. Pavlidis, J. Levine, and P. Baukol, "Thermal imaging for anxiety detection," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Computer Vision Beyond the Visible Spectrum (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 104-109.

D. A. Socolinsky, L. B. Wolff, J. D. Neuheisel, and C. K. Eveland, "Illumination invariant face recognition using thermal infrared imagery," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 2001), Vol. 1, pp. I-527-534.

G. C. Holst, Electro-Optical Imaging Systems Performance, 3rd ed. (SPIE, 2003).

R. D. Hudson, Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, 1969), Chaps. 1-2, 5-9, 16-19.

J. M. Lloyd, Thermal Imaging Systems (Plenum, 1975), Chaps. 1-3, 5-11.

J. Johnson, "Analysis of image forming systems," in Proceedings of the Image Intensifier Symposium (Warfare Electrical Engineering Department, U.S. Army Research and Development Laboratories, 1958), pp. 249-273.

J. F. Bronskill, J. S. A. Hepburn, and W. K. Au, "A knowledge-based approach to the detection, tracking and classification of target formations in infrared image sequences," in Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE Computer Society, 1989), pp. 153-158.

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