Abstract

We investigated the effect of surround articulation on the perceived lightness of a target disk. Surround articulation was manipulated by varying either the number of wedges in a surround consisting of wedges of alternating luminance or the number of checks in a surround consisting of a radial checkerboard pattern. In most conditions, increased articulation caused incremental targets to appear lighter and decremental targets to appear darker. But increasing the surround articulation in a way that did not increase the number of target-coaligned edges in the display did not affect the target lightness. We propose that the effects of surround articulation depend on the relationship between the orientations and contrast polarities of the target edges and those of edges present within the surround.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2007 (1)

M. E. Rudd and I. K. Zemach, "Contrast polarity and edge integration in achromatic color perception," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(8) (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Vladusich, M. P. Lucassen, and F. W. Cornelissen, "Edge integration and the perception of brightness and darkness," J. Vision 6, 1126-1147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. E. Rudd and I. K. Zemach, "The highest luminance anchoring rule in achromatic color perception: some counterexamples and an alternative theory," J. Vision 5, 983-1003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (8)

S. W. Hong and S. K. Shevell, "Brightness induction: unequal spatial integration with increments and decrements," Visual Neurosci. 21, 353-357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hong and S. K. Shevell, "Brightness contrast and assimilation from patterned inducing backgrounds," Vision Res. 44, 35-43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Rudd and I. K. Zemach, "Quantitative properties of achromatic color induction: an edge integration analysis," Vision Res. 44, 971-981 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bindman and C. Chubb, "Brightness assimilation in bullseye displays," Vision Res. 44, 309-319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bindman and C. Chubb, "Mechanisms of contrast induction in heterogeneous displays," Vision Res. 44, 1601-1613 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zavagno, V. Annan, and G. Caputo, "The problem of being white: testing the highest luminance rule," Vision 16, 149-159 (2004).

M. E. Rudd and D. Popa, "A theory of the neural processes underlying edge integration in human lightness perception [abstract]," J. Vision 4, 345a (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Rudd and D. Popa, "Edge integration and edge interaction in achromatic color computation [abstract]," J. Vision 4, 79a (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Boyaci, L. T. Maloney, and S. Hersh, "The effect of perceived surface orientation on perceived surface albedo in binocularly viewed scenes," J. Vision 3, 541-553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

K. J. Linnell and D. H. Foster, "Scene articulation: dependence of illuminant estimates on number of surfaces," Perception 31, 151-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Logvinenko, "Articulation in the context of edge classification," Perception 31, 201-207 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Maloney and J. A. Schirillo, "Color constancy, lightness constancy, and the articulation hypothesis," Perception 31, 135-139 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

P. Bressan and R. Actis-Grosso, "Simultaneous lightness contrast with double increments," Perception 30, 889-897 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Rudd, "Lightness computation by a neural filling-in mechanism," Proc. SPIE 4299, 400-413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Rudd and K. F. Arrington, "Darkness filling-in: a neural model of darkness induction," Vision Res. 41, 3649-3662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

J. M. Kraft and D. H. Brainard, "Mechanisms of color constancy under nearly natural viewing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 307-312 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schirillo, "Surround articulation. II. Lightness judgments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 804-811 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schirillo, "Surround articulation. I. Brightness judgments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 793-803 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Agostini and A. Galmonte, "Spatial articulation affects lightness," Percept. Psychophys. 61, 1345-1355 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li and A. L. Gilchrist, "Relative area and relative luminance combine to anchor surface lightness values," Percept. Psychophys. 61, 771-785 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. K. Shevell and J. Wei, "Chromatic induction: border contrast or adaptation to surrounding light?" Vision Res. 38, 1561-1566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, and J. Schirillo, "Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring," Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643-654 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Brown and D. I. MacLeod, "Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors," Curr. Biol. 7, 844-849 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Todorovic, "Lightness and junctions," Perception 26, 379-394 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

J. A. Schirillo and S. K. Shevell, "Brightness contrast from inhomogeneous surrounds," Vision Res. 36, 1783-1796 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Agostini and N. Bruno, "Lightness contrast in CRT and paper-and-illuminant displays," Percept. Psychophys. 58, 250-258 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. Cataliotti and A. Gilchrist, "Local and global processes in surface lightness perception," Percept. Psychophys. 57, 125-135 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

E. H. Adelson, "Perceptual organization and the judgment of brightness," Science 262, 2042-2044 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend and B. Spehar, "Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 2. Reflectance variation," Percept. Psychophys. 54, 457-468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Arend and B. Spehar, "Lightness, brightness, and brightness contrast: 1. Illuminance variation," Percept. Psychophys. 54, 446-456 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Agostini and D. R. Proffitt, "Perceptual organization evokes simultaneous lightness contrast," Perception 22, 263-272 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

S. K. Shevell, I. Holiday, and P. Whittle, "Two separate neural mechanisms of brightness induction," Vision Res. 32, 2331-2340 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

A. Valberg and B. Lange-Malecki, "'Colour constancy' in Mondrian patterns: a partial cancellation of physical chromaticity shifts by simultaneous contrast," Vision Res. 30, 371-380 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

C. Chubb, G. Sperling, and J. A. Solomon, "Texture interactions determine perceived contrast," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9631-9635 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

R. C. Reid, Jr., and R. Shapley, "Brightness induction by local contrast and the spatial dependence of assimilation," Vision Res. 28, 115-132 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gilchrist, "Lightness contrast and failures or contrast: a common explanation," Percept. Psychophys. 43, 415-424 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jacobsen and A. Gilchrist, "Hess and Pretori revisited: resolution of some old contradictions," Percept. Psychophys. 43, 7-14 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

E. H. Land, "Recent advances in retinex theory," Vision Res. 26, 7-21 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Land, "An alternative technique for the computation of the designator in the retinex theory of color vision," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 3078-3080 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

R. Shapley and R. C. Reid, "Contrast and assimilation in the perception of brightness," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 5983-5986 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

E. H. Land, "Recent advances in retinex theory and some implications for cortical computations: color vision and the natural image," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80, 5163-5169 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (2)

B. K. P. Horn, "Understanding image intensities," Artif. Intell. 21, 201-231 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land, "The retinex theory of color vision," Sci. Am. 237, 108-128 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

H. Wallach, On Perception (Quadrangle/The New York Times Book, 1976).

J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, and T. H. Taylor, "Quantitative studies in retinex theory. A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the 'color mondrian' experiments," Vision Res. 16, 445-458 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

B. K. P. Horn, "Determining lightness from an image," Comput. Graph. Image Process. 3, 277-299 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. Walraven, "Spatial characteristics of chromatic induction; the segregation of lateral effects from straylight artefacts," Vision Res. 13, 1739-1753 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

E. G. Heinemann, "Simultaneous brightness induction," in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, D.Jameson and L.Hurvich, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1972), pp. 146-169.

1971 (2)

L. E. Arend, J. N. Buehler, and G. R. Lockhead, "Difference information in brightness perception," Percept. Psychophys. 9, 367-370 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Land and J. J. McCann, "Lightness and retinex theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1-11 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (3)

J. W. von Goethe, Theory of Colours (MIT, 1970) (translation of the 1810 German edition).

H. Wassle and F. Heinrich, "Untersuchungen zum Helligkeitskontrast," Vision Res. 10, 361-373 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hess and H. Pretori, "Quantitative investigation of the lawfulness of simultaneous brightness contrast," Percept. Mot. Skills 31, 947-969 (1970) (translation of 1894 paper by H. R. Flock and J. H. Tenney).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. E. Chevreul, The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colours and Their Applications to the Arts (Reinhold, 1967) (translation of the 1839 French edition).

1966 (1)

T. Oyama and Y. Hsia, "Compensatory hue shifts in simultaneous color contrast as a function of separation between inducing and test fields," J. Exp. Psychol. 71, 405-413 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

A. Kozaki, "The effect of co-existent stimuli other than the test stimulus on brightness constancy," Jap. Psychol. Res. 7, 138-147 (1965).

1964 (1)

H. Helson, Adaptation-Level Theory (Harper & Row, 1964).

1963 (3)

H. Helson, "Studies of anomalous contrast and assimilation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 179-184 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kozaki, "A further study in the relationship between brightness constancy and contrast," Jap. Psychol. Res. 5, 129-136 (1963).

H. Wallach, "The perception of neutral colors," Sci. Am. 208, 107-116 (1963).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962 (2)

J. A. S. Kinney, "Factors affecting induced color," Vision Res. 2, 503-525 (1962).
[CrossRef]

H. von Helmholtz, Helmholtz's Treatise on Physiological Optics (Dover, 1962) (translation of 1896 German edition).

1961 (1)

D. Jameson and L. M. Hurvich, "Complexities of perceived brightness," Science 133, 174-179 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1955 (2)

A. L. Diamond, "Foveal simultaneous brightness contrast as a function of inducing field area," J. Exp. Psychol. 50, 144-152 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Heinemann, "Simultaneous brightness induction as a function of inducing and test-field luminances," J. Exp. Psychol. 50, 89-96 (1955).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1953 (2)

A. L. Diamond, "Foveal simultaneous brightness contrast as a function of inducing- and test-field luminance," J. Exp. Psychol. 45, 304-314 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Leibowitz, F. A. Mote, and W. R. Thurlow, "Simultaneous contrast as a function of separation between test and inducing fields," J. Exp. Psychol. 46, 453-456 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1948 (1)

H. Wallach, "Brightness constancy and the nature of achromatic colors," J. Exp. Psychol. 38, 310-324 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1943 (1)

1935 (1)

D. Katz, The World of Colour (Trench, Trubner, 1935).

1929 (1)

A. Gelb, "Die 'Farbenkonstanz' der Sehdinge [Color constancy of visual objects]," Handbuch der normalen und pathologishen Physiologie, W.von Bethe, ed. (Springer, 1929), Vol. 12, 594—678.
[CrossRef]

1924 (1)

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M. E. Rudd and K. F. Arrington, "Darkness filling-in: a neural model of darkness induction," Vision Res. 41, 3649-3662 (2001).
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W. Benary, "Beobachtungen zu einem Experiment uber Helligkeitskontrast," Psychol. Forsch. 5, 131-142 (1924).
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P. Bressan and R. Actis-Grosso, "Simultaneous lightness contrast with double increments," Perception 30, 889-897 (2001).
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N. Bruno, P. Bernardis, and J. Schirillo, "Lightness, equivalent backgrounds, and anchoring," Percept. Psychophys. 59, 643-654 (1997).
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L. E. Arend, J. N. Buehler, and G. R. Lockhead, "Difference information in brightness perception," Percept. Psychophys. 9, 367-370 (1971).
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D. Zavagno, V. Annan, and G. Caputo, "The problem of being white: testing the highest luminance rule," Vision 16, 149-159 (2004).

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A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
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T. Vladusich, M. P. Lucassen, and F. W. Cornelissen, "Edge integration and the perception of brightness and darkness," J. Vision 6, 1126-1147 (2006).
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A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
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X. Li and A. L. Gilchrist, "Relative area and relative luminance combine to anchor surface lightness values," Percept. Psychophys. 61, 771-785 (1999).
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C. Hess and H. Pretori, "Quantitative investigation of the lawfulness of simultaneous brightness contrast," Percept. Mot. Skills 31, 947-969 (1970) (translation of 1894 paper by H. R. Flock and J. H. Tenney).
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S. K. Shevell, I. Holiday, and P. Whittle, "Two separate neural mechanisms of brightness induction," Vision Res. 32, 2331-2340 (1992).
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S. W. Hong and S. K. Shevell, "Brightness contrast and assimilation from patterned inducing backgrounds," Vision Res. 44, 35-43 (2004).
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B. K. P. Horn, "Understanding image intensities," Artif. Intell. 21, 201-231 (1977).
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A. Kirschmann, "Uber die quantitativen Verhaltnisse des simultanen Helligkeits und Farben-kontrastes," Psychol. Stud. (Wundt) 6, 417-491 (1891).

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A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
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H. Leibowitz, F. A. Mote, and W. R. Thurlow, "Simultaneous contrast as a function of separation between test and inducing fields," J. Exp. Psychol. 46, 453-456 (1953).
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A. Gilchrist, C. Kossyfidis, F. Bonato, T. Agostini, J. Cataliotti, X. Li, B. Spehar, V. Annan, and E. Economou, "An anchoring theory of lightness perception," Psychol. Rev. 106, 795-834 (1999).
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K. J. Linnell and D. H. Foster, "Scene articulation: dependence of illuminant estimates on number of surfaces," Perception 31, 151-159 (2002).
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L. E. Arend, J. N. Buehler, and G. R. Lockhead, "Difference information in brightness perception," Percept. Psychophys. 9, 367-370 (1971).
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T. Vladusich, M. P. Lucassen, and F. W. Cornelissen, "Edge integration and the perception of brightness and darkness," J. Vision 6, 1126-1147 (2006).
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R. O. Brown and D. I. MacLeod, "Color appearance depends on the variance of surround colors," Curr. Biol. 7, 844-849 (1997).
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H. Boyaci, L. T. Maloney, and S. Hersh, "The effect of perceived surface orientation on perceived surface albedo in binocularly viewed scenes," J. Vision 3, 541-553 (2003).
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J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, and T. H. Taylor, "Quantitative studies in retinex theory. A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the 'color mondrian' experiments," Vision Res. 16, 445-458 (1976).
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J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, and T. H. Taylor, "Quantitative studies in retinex theory. A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the 'color mondrian' experiments," Vision Res. 16, 445-458 (1976).
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H. Leibowitz, F. A. Mote, and W. R. Thurlow, "Simultaneous contrast as a function of separation between test and inducing fields," J. Exp. Psychol. 46, 453-456 (1953).
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T. Oyama and Y. Hsia, "Compensatory hue shifts in simultaneous color contrast as a function of separation between inducing and test fields," J. Exp. Psychol. 71, 405-413 (1966).
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T. Agostini and D. R. Proffitt, "Perceptual organization evokes simultaneous lightness contrast," Perception 22, 263-272 (1993).
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M. E. Rudd and I. K. Zemach, "Contrast polarity and edge integration in achromatic color perception," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(8) (2007).
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M. E. Rudd and I. K. Zemach, "The highest luminance anchoring rule in achromatic color perception: some counterexamples and an alternative theory," J. Vision 5, 983-1003 (2005).
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M. E. Rudd and I. K. Zemach, "Quantitative properties of achromatic color induction: an edge integration analysis," Vision Res. 44, 971-981 (2004).
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M. E. Rudd and D. Popa, "A theory of the neural processes underlying edge integration in human lightness perception [abstract]," J. Vision 4, 345a (2004).
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M. E. Rudd and D. Popa, "Edge integration and edge interaction in achromatic color computation [abstract]," J. Vision 4, 79a (2004).
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S. W. Hong and S. K. Shevell, "Brightness induction: unequal spatial integration with increments and decrements," Visual Neurosci. 21, 353-357 (2004).
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C. Chubb, G. Sperling, and J. A. Solomon, "Texture interactions determine perceived contrast," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9631-9635 (1989).
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J. J. McCann, S. P. McKee, and T. H. Taylor, "Quantitative studies in retinex theory. A comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the 'color mondrian' experiments," Vision Res. 16, 445-458 (1976).
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T. Vladusich, M. P. Lucassen, and F. W. Cornelissen, "Edge integration and the perception of brightness and darkness," J. Vision 6, 1126-1147 (2006).
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S. K. Shevell and J. Wei, "Chromatic induction: border contrast or adaptation to surrounding light?" Vision Res. 38, 1561-1566 (1998).
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S. K. Shevell, I. Holiday, and P. Whittle, "Two separate neural mechanisms of brightness induction," Vision Res. 32, 2331-2340 (1992).
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D. Zavagno, V. Annan, and G. Caputo, "The problem of being white: testing the highest luminance rule," Vision 16, 149-159 (2004).

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M. E. Rudd and I. K. Zemach, "Contrast polarity and edge integration in achromatic color perception," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(8) (2007).
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M. E. Rudd and I. K. Zemach, "The highest luminance anchoring rule in achromatic color perception: some counterexamples and an alternative theory," J. Vision 5, 983-1003 (2005).
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M. E. Rudd and I. K. Zemach, "Quantitative properties of achromatic color induction: an edge integration analysis," Vision Res. 44, 971-981 (2004).
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Artif. Intell. (1)

B. K. P. Horn, "Understanding image intensities," Artif. Intell. 21, 201-231 (1977).
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Comput. Graph. Image Process. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stimuli used in our experiment: variation of articulation and the number of coaligned edges using wedge and radial checkerboard surrounds. The target and its surround were presented on the right side of the screen, while a matching pattern consisting of a matching disk surrounded by a single ring of uniform luminance having the same size as the target surround was presented on the left side. Examples of (a) wedge surround with an incremental target; (b) radial checkerboard surround with an incremental target; (c) wedge surround with a decremental target; (d) radial checkerboard surround with a decremental target. In all cases, surround configurations having eight radial divisions are shown; 4 and 16 radial divisions were also used. The luminance of the matching ring was the same as the average luminance of the articulated test surround. The radial checkerboard surrounds have an extra edge coaligned with the edge of the target.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of the experiment: effect of variation of articulation within wedge and radial checkerboard surrounds. On the abscissa is plotted the number of wedges in the display. The ordinate shows the luminance of the matching disk needed to match the lightness of the target disk. The horizontal line indicates the luminance of the target disk. (a) Wedge surround, incremental target. (b) Wedge surround, decremental target. (c) Radial checkerboard surround, incremental target. (d) Radial checkerboard surround, decremental target.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the experiment: comparing articulation using a wedge surround with articulation using a radial checkerboard surround. The abscissa shows the two configurations. The ordinate shows the luminance of the matching disk needed to match the lightness of the target disk. The horizontal line shows the luminance of the target disk. (a) Incremental target. (b) Decremental target.

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