Abstract

We evaluated a polarimetry method to enhance retinal blood vessels masked by the epiretinal membrane. Depolarized light images were computed by removing the polarization retaining light reaching the instrument and were compared with parallel polarized light images, average reflectance images, and the corresponding images at 514nm. Contrasts were computed for retinal vessel profiles for arteries and veins. Contrasts were higher in the 514nm images in normal eyes but higher in the depolarized light image in the eyes with epiretinal membranes. Depolarized light images were useful for examining the retinal vasculature in the presence of retinal disease.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, A. Merikansky, and W. Feuer, "Vitreoretinal surgery outcomes. Impact on bilateral visual function," Ophthalmology 104, 1041-1048 (1997).
  5. N. Patton, T. M. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, I. J. Deary, B. Dhillon, R. H. Eikelboom, K. Yogesan, and I. J. Constable, "Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 25, 99-127 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Hammer, S. Leistritz, L. Leistritz, and D. Schweitzer, "Light paths in retinal vessel oxymetry," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 592-598 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Park, K. Twietmeyer, R. Chipman, N. Beaudry, andD. Salyer, "Wavelength dependence of the apparent diameter of retinal blood vessels," Appl. Opt. 44, 1831-1837 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  9. A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, G. W. Hughes, and R. W. Webb, "Reflectometry with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 3697-3710 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. N. Kirkpatrick, A. Manivannan, A. K. Gupta, J. Hipwell, J. V. Forrester, and P. F. Sharp, "Fundus imaging in patients with cataract: role for a variable wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 892-899 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, J. B. Stewart, M. B. Kairala, and S. A. Burns, "Novel algorithms for polarization imaging resulting in improved quantification of retinal blood vessels," Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 94, 59-61 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. M. Bueno, "Polarimetry in the human eye using an imaging linear polariscope," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 553-561 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. A. Chipman, "Polarimetry," in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, pp. 1-28.
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  25. A. E. Elsner, L. Moraes, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, J. Weiter, J. Walker, G. Wing, S. A. Burns, P. Raskauskas, and L. Kelley, "Scanning laser reflectometry of retinal and subretinal tissues," Opt. Express 6, 243-250 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Dogariu and T. Asakura, "Polarization-dependent backscattering patterns from weakly scattering media," J. Opt. (Paris) 24, 271-278 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Target detection in optically scattering media by polarization-difference imaging," Appl. Opt. 35, 1855-1870 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. F. LeRoyBrehonnet, B. LeJeune, P. Y. Gerligand, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, "Analysis of depolarizing optical targets by Mueller matrix formalism," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 385-404 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. K. M. Yemelyanov, S. S. Lin, E. N. Pugh, Jr., and N. Engheta, "Adaptive algorithms for two-channel polarization sensing under various polarization statistics with nonuniform distributions," Appl. Opt. 45, 5504-5520 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. Rizzo, F. Genovesi-Ebert, S. Murri, C. Belting, A. Vento, F. Cresti, and M. L. Manca, "25-gauge, sutureless vitrectomy and standard 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: a comparative pilot study," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 472-479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Patton, T. M. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, I. J. Deary, B. Dhillon, R. H. Eikelboom, K. Yogesan, and I. J. Constable, "Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 25, 99-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Yemelyanov, S. S. Lin, E. N. Pugh, Jr., and N. Engheta, "Adaptive algorithms for two-channel polarization sensing under various polarization statistics with nonuniform distributions," Appl. Opt. 45, 5504-5520 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

R. Park, K. Twietmeyer, R. Chipman, N. Beaudry, andD. Salyer, "Wavelength dependence of the apparent diameter of retinal blood vessels," Appl. Opt. 44, 1831-1837 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, J. B. Stewart, M. B. Kairala, and S. A. Burns, "Novel algorithms for polarization imaging resulting in improved quantification of retinal blood vessels," Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 94, 59-61 (2003).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. M. Bueno, "Polarimetry in the human eye using an imaging linear polariscope," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 553-561 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou and R. N. Weinreb, "Individualized compensation of anterior segment birefringence during scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2221-2228 (2002).

2001 (2)

M. Hammer, S. Leistritz, L. Leistritz, and D. Schweitzer, "Light paths in retinal vessel oxymetry," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 592-598 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura and A. E. Elsner, "Three-dimensional imaging in age-related macular degeneration," Opt. Express 9, 436-443 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1997 (3)

S. G. Demos and R. R. Alfano, "Optical polarization imaging," Appl. Opt. 36, 150-155 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, A. Merikansky, and W. Feuer, "Vitreoretinal surgery outcomes. Impact on bilateral visual function," Ophthalmology 104, 1041-1048 (1997).

F. LeRoyBrehonnet, B. LeJeune, P. Y. Gerligand, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, "Analysis of depolarizing optical targets by Mueller matrix formalism," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 385-404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. E. Elsner, S. Burns, J. Weiter, and F. Delori, "Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Target detection in optically scattering media by polarization-difference imaging," Appl. Opt. 35, 1855-1870 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. N. Kirkpatrick, A. Manivannan, A. K. Gupta, J. Hipwell, J. V. Forrester, and P. F. Sharp, "Fundus imaging in patients with cataract: role for a variable wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 892-899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

D. U. Bartsch and W. R. Freeman, "Laser-tissue interaction and artifacts in confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and tomography," Neurosci. Biobehav Rev. 17, 459-467 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ogura and Y. Honda, "Evaluation of idiopathic epiretinal membranes by a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 77, 534-535 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Dogariu and T. Asakura, "Polarization-dependent backscattering patterns from weakly scattering media," J. Opt. (Paris) 24, 271-278 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1977 (1)

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, "Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography. The normal fundus," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 95, 861-868 (1977).

Alfano, R. R.

Asakura, T.

M. Dogariu and T. Asakura, "Polarization-dependent backscattering patterns from weakly scattering media," J. Opt. (Paris) 24, 271-278 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aslam, T. M.

N. Patton, T. M. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, I. J. Deary, B. Dhillon, R. H. Eikelboom, K. Yogesan, and I. J. Constable, "Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 25, 99-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartsch, D. U.

D. U. Bartsch and W. R. Freeman, "Laser-tissue interaction and artifacts in confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and tomography," Neurosci. Biobehav Rev. 17, 459-467 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaudry, N.

Beausencourt, E.

Belting, C.

S. Rizzo, F. Genovesi-Ebert, S. Murri, C. Belting, A. Vento, F. Cresti, and M. L. Manca, "25-gauge, sutureless vitrectomy and standard 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: a comparative pilot study," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 472-479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bueno, J. M.

J. M. Bueno, "Polarimetry in the human eye using an imaging linear polariscope," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 553-561 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S.

A. E. Elsner, S. Burns, J. Weiter, and F. Delori, "Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, J. B. Stewart, M. B. Kairala, and S. A. Burns, "Novel algorithms for polarization imaging resulting in improved quantification of retinal blood vessels," Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 94, 59-61 (2003).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, L. Moraes, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, J. Weiter, J. Walker, G. Wing, S. A. Burns, P. Raskauskas, and L. Kelley, "Scanning laser reflectometry of retinal and subretinal tissues," Opt. Express 6, 243-250 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, G. W. Hughes, and R. W. Webb, "Reflectometry with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 3697-3710 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, F. C. Delori, and R. H. Webb, "Quantitative reflectometry with the SLO," in Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J.E.Nasemann and R.O. W.Burk, eds. (Quintessenz-Verlag, 1990), pp. 109-121.

Cariou, J.

F. LeRoyBrehonnet, B. LeJeune, P. Y. Gerligand, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, "Analysis of depolarizing optical targets by Mueller matrix formalism," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 385-404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheney, M. C.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, and A. E. Elsner, "Polarimetric imaging and blood vessel quantification," Opt. Express 12, 5178-5190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chipman, R.

Chipman, R. A.

R. A. Chipman, "Polarimetry," in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, pp. 1-28.

Constable, I. J.

N. Patton, T. M. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, I. J. Deary, B. Dhillon, R. H. Eikelboom, K. Yogesan, and I. J. Constable, "Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 25, 99-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cresti, F.

S. Rizzo, F. Genovesi-Ebert, S. Murri, C. Belting, A. Vento, F. Cresti, and M. L. Manca, "25-gauge, sutureless vitrectomy and standard 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: a comparative pilot study," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 472-479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deary, I. J.

N. Patton, T. M. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, I. J. Deary, B. Dhillon, R. H. Eikelboom, K. Yogesan, and I. J. Constable, "Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 25, 99-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delori, F.

A. E. Elsner, S. Burns, J. Weiter, and F. Delori, "Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, "Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography. The normal fundus," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 95, 861-868 (1977).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, F. C. Delori, and R. H. Webb, "Quantitative reflectometry with the SLO," in Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J.E.Nasemann and R.O. W.Burk, eds. (Quintessenz-Verlag, 1990), pp. 109-121.

Demos, S. G.

Dhillon, B.

N. Patton, T. M. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, I. J. Deary, B. Dhillon, R. H. Eikelboom, K. Yogesan, and I. J. Constable, "Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 25, 99-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, M.

M. Dogariu and T. Asakura, "Polarization-dependent backscattering patterns from weakly scattering media," J. Opt. (Paris) 24, 271-278 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, A. W.

Eikelboom, R. H.

N. Patton, T. M. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, I. J. Deary, B. Dhillon, R. H. Eikelboom, K. Yogesan, and I. J. Constable, "Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 25, 99-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, A. E.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, and A. E. Elsner, "Polarimetric imaging and blood vessel quantification," Opt. Express 12, 5178-5190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, J. B. Stewart, M. B. Kairala, and S. A. Burns, "Novel algorithms for polarization imaging resulting in improved quantification of retinal blood vessels," Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 94, 59-61 (2003).

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Miura and A. E. Elsner, "Three-dimensional imaging in age-related macular degeneration," Opt. Express 9, 436-443 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, L. Moraes, E. Beausencourt, A. Remky, J. Weiter, J. Walker, G. Wing, S. A. Burns, P. Raskauskas, and L. Kelley, "Scanning laser reflectometry of retinal and subretinal tissues," Opt. Express 6, 243-250 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. Burns, J. Weiter, and F. Delori, "Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, G. W. Hughes, and R. W. Webb, "Reflectometry with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 31, 3697-3710 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, F. C. Delori, and R. H. Webb, "Quantitative reflectometry with the SLO," in Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J.E.Nasemann and R.O. W.Burk, eds. (Quintessenz-Verlag, 1990), pp. 109-121.

Engheta, N.

Feuer, W.

I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, A. Merikansky, and W. Feuer, "Vitreoretinal surgery outcomes. Impact on bilateral visual function," Ophthalmology 104, 1041-1048 (1997).

Forrester, J. V.

J. N. Kirkpatrick, A. Manivannan, A. K. Gupta, J. Hipwell, J. V. Forrester, and P. F. Sharp, "Fundus imaging in patients with cataract: role for a variable wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 892-899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Francisco, R.

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, "Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography. The normal fundus," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 95, 861-868 (1977).

Freeman, W. R.

D. U. Bartsch and W. R. Freeman, "Laser-tissue interaction and artifacts in confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and tomography," Neurosci. Biobehav Rev. 17, 459-467 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gass, J. D. M.

J. D. M. Gass, Stereoscopic Atlas of Macular Disease, 3rd ed. (Mosby, 1987).

Genovesi-Ebert, F.

S. Rizzo, F. Genovesi-Ebert, S. Murri, C. Belting, A. Vento, F. Cresti, and M. L. Manca, "25-gauge, sutureless vitrectomy and standard 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: a comparative pilot study," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 472-479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gerligand, P. Y.

F. LeRoyBrehonnet, B. LeJeune, P. Y. Gerligand, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, "Analysis of depolarizing optical targets by Mueller matrix formalism," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 385-404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gragoudas, E. S.

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, "Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography. The normal fundus," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 95, 861-868 (1977).

Gupta, A. K.

J. N. Kirkpatrick, A. Manivannan, A. K. Gupta, J. Hipwell, J. V. Forrester, and P. F. Sharp, "Fundus imaging in patients with cataract: role for a variable wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 892-899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, M.

M. Hammer, S. Leistritz, L. Leistritz, and D. Schweitzer, "Light paths in retinal vessel oxymetry," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 592-598 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hipwell, J.

J. N. Kirkpatrick, A. Manivannan, A. K. Gupta, J. Hipwell, J. V. Forrester, and P. F. Sharp, "Fundus imaging in patients with cataract: role for a variable wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 892-899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Honda, Y.

Y. Ogura and Y. Honda, "Evaluation of idiopathic epiretinal membranes by a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 77, 534-535 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, G. W.

Iwasaki, T.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kairala, M. B.

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, J. B. Stewart, M. B. Kairala, and S. A. Burns, "Novel algorithms for polarization imaging resulting in improved quantification of retinal blood vessels," Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 94, 59-61 (2003).

Kelley, L.

Kirkpatrick, J. N.

J. N. Kirkpatrick, A. Manivannan, A. K. Gupta, J. Hipwell, J. V. Forrester, and P. F. Sharp, "Fundus imaging in patients with cataract: role for a variable wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 892-899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leistritz, L.

M. Hammer, S. Leistritz, L. Leistritz, and D. Schweitzer, "Light paths in retinal vessel oxymetry," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 592-598 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leistritz, S.

M. Hammer, S. Leistritz, L. Leistritz, and D. Schweitzer, "Light paths in retinal vessel oxymetry," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 592-598 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeJeune, B.

F. LeRoyBrehonnet, B. LeJeune, P. Y. Gerligand, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, "Analysis of depolarizing optical targets by Mueller matrix formalism," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 385-404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LeRoyBrehonnet, F.

F. LeRoyBrehonnet, B. LeJeune, P. Y. Gerligand, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, "Analysis of depolarizing optical targets by Mueller matrix formalism," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 385-404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. S.

Lotrian, J.

F. LeRoyBrehonnet, B. LeJeune, P. Y. Gerligand, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, "Analysis of depolarizing optical targets by Mueller matrix formalism," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 385-404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

MacGillivray, T.

N. Patton, T. M. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, I. J. Deary, B. Dhillon, R. H. Eikelboom, K. Yogesan, and I. J. Constable, "Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 25, 99-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manca, M. L.

S. Rizzo, F. Genovesi-Ebert, S. Murri, C. Belting, A. Vento, F. Cresti, and M. L. Manca, "25-gauge, sutureless vitrectomy and standard 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: a comparative pilot study," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 472-479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manivannan, A.

J. N. Kirkpatrick, A. Manivannan, A. K. Gupta, J. Hipwell, J. V. Forrester, and P. F. Sharp, "Fundus imaging in patients with cataract: role for a variable wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 892-899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mellem-Kairala, M. B.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Merikansky, A.

I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, A. Merikansky, and W. Feuer, "Vitreoretinal surgery outcomes. Impact on bilateral visual function," Ophthalmology 104, 1041-1048 (1997).

Miura, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, J. B. Stewart, M. B. Kairala, and S. A. Burns, "Novel algorithms for polarization imaging resulting in improved quantification of retinal blood vessels," Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 94, 59-61 (2003).

M. Miura and A. E. Elsner, "Three-dimensional imaging in age-related macular degeneration," Opt. Express 9, 436-443 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moraes, L.

Murri, S.

S. Rizzo, F. Genovesi-Ebert, S. Murri, C. Belting, A. Vento, F. Cresti, and M. L. Manca, "25-gauge, sutureless vitrectomy and standard 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: a comparative pilot study," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 472-479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, Y.

Y. Ogura and Y. Honda, "Evaluation of idiopathic epiretinal membranes by a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 77, 534-535 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Osako, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, R.

Patton, N.

N. Patton, T. M. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, I. J. Deary, B. Dhillon, R. H. Eikelboom, K. Yogesan, and I. J. Constable, "Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 25, 99-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pruett, R. C.

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, "Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography. The normal fundus," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 95, 861-868 (1977).

Pugh, E. N.

Raskauskas, P.

Reiter, K.

Remky, A.

Rizzo, S.

S. Rizzo, F. Genovesi-Ebert, S. Murri, C. Belting, A. Vento, F. Cresti, and M. L. Manca, "25-gauge, sutureless vitrectomy and standard 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: a comparative pilot study," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 472-479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, M. P.

Salyer, D.

Schweitzer, D.

M. Hammer, S. Leistritz, L. Leistritz, and D. Schweitzer, "Light paths in retinal vessel oxymetry," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 592-598 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, I. U.

I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, A. Merikansky, and W. Feuer, "Vitreoretinal surgery outcomes. Impact on bilateral visual function," Ophthalmology 104, 1041-1048 (1997).

Sharp, P. F.

J. N. Kirkpatrick, A. Manivannan, A. K. Gupta, J. Hipwell, J. V. Forrester, and P. F. Sharp, "Fundus imaging in patients with cataract: role for a variable wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 892-899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, R. B.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smiddy, W. E.

I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, A. Merikansky, and W. Feuer, "Vitreoretinal surgery outcomes. Impact on bilateral visual function," Ophthalmology 104, 1041-1048 (1997).

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

Stewart, J. B.

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, J. B. Stewart, M. B. Kairala, and S. A. Burns, "Novel algorithms for polarization imaging resulting in improved quantification of retinal blood vessels," Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 94, 59-61 (2003).

Twietmeyer, K.

Tyo, J. S.

Usui, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vento, A.

S. Rizzo, F. Genovesi-Ebert, S. Murri, C. Belting, A. Vento, F. Cresti, and M. L. Manca, "25-gauge, sutureless vitrectomy and standard 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: a comparative pilot study," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 472-479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J.

Webb, R. H.

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, F. C. Delori, and R. H. Webb, "Quantitative reflectometry with the SLO," in Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J.E.Nasemann and R.O. W.Burk, eds. (Quintessenz-Verlag, 1990), pp. 109-121.

Webb, R. W.

Weber, A.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, and A. E. Elsner, "Polarimetric imaging and blood vessel quantification," Opt. Express 12, 5178-5190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

Q. Zhou and R. N. Weinreb, "Individualized compensation of anterior segment birefringence during scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2221-2228 (2002).

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, and R. N. Weinreb, "Spatially resolved birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer assessed with a retinal laser ellipsometry," Appl. Opt. 31, 3730-3735 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiter, J.

Wing, G.

Yemelyanov, K. M.

Yogesan, K.

N. Patton, T. M. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, I. J. Deary, B. Dhillon, R. H. Eikelboom, K. Yogesan, and I. J. Constable, "Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 25, 99-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhou and R. N. Weinreb, "Individualized compensation of anterior segment birefringence during scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2221-2228 (2002).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (1)

F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. Francisco, and R. C. Pruett, "Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography. The normal fundus," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 95, 861-868 (1977).

Br. J. Ophthamol. (2)

Y. Ogura and Y. Honda, "Evaluation of idiopathic epiretinal membranes by a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 77, 534-535 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Kirkpatrick, A. Manivannan, A. K. Gupta, J. Hipwell, J. V. Forrester, and P. F. Sharp, "Fundus imaging in patients with cataract: role for a variable wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Br. J. Ophthamol. 79, 892-899 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Rizzo, F. Genovesi-Ebert, S. Murri, C. Belting, A. Vento, F. Cresti, and M. L. Manca, "25-gauge, sutureless vitrectomy and standard 20-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: a comparative pilot study," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 472-479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. Hammer, S. Leistritz, L. Leistritz, and D. Schweitzer, "Light paths in retinal vessel oxymetry," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48, 592-598 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (3)

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhou and R. N. Weinreb, "Individualized compensation of anterior segment birefringence during scanning laser polarimetry," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 2221-2228 (2002).

J. Opt. (Paris) (1)

M. Dogariu and T. Asakura, "Polarization-dependent backscattering patterns from weakly scattering media," J. Opt. (Paris) 24, 271-278 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. M. Bueno, "Polarimetry in the human eye using an imaging linear polariscope," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 553-561 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neurosci. Biobehav Rev. (1)

D. U. Bartsch and W. R. Freeman, "Laser-tissue interaction and artifacts in confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and tomography," Neurosci. Biobehav Rev. 17, 459-467 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

I. U. Scott, W. E. Smiddy, A. Merikansky, and W. Feuer, "Vitreoretinal surgery outcomes. Impact on bilateral visual function," Ophthalmology 104, 1041-1048 (1997).

Opt. Express (3)

Prog. Retin Eye Res. (1)

N. Patton, T. M. Aslam, T. MacGillivray, I. J. Deary, B. Dhillon, R. H. Eikelboom, K. Yogesan, and I. J. Constable, "Retinal image analysis: concepts, applications and potential," Prog. Retin Eye Res. 25, 99-127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

F. LeRoyBrehonnet, B. LeJeune, P. Y. Gerligand, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, "Analysis of depolarizing optical targets by Mueller matrix formalism," Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 385-404 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stud. Health Technol. Inform. (1)

A. E. Elsner, M. Miura, J. B. Stewart, M. B. Kairala, and S. A. Burns, "Novel algorithms for polarization imaging resulting in improved quantification of retinal blood vessels," Stud. Health Technol. Inform. 94, 59-61 (2003).

Vision Res. (1)

A. E. Elsner, S. Burns, J. Weiter, and F. Delori, "Infrared imaging of sub-retinal structures in the human ocular fundus," Vision Res. 36, 191-205 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. A. Chipman, "Polarimetry," in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M.Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, pp. 1-28.

J. D. M. Gass, Stereoscopic Atlas of Macular Disease, 3rd ed. (Mosby, 1987).

A. E. Elsner, S. A. Burns, F. C. Delori, and R. H. Webb, "Quantitative reflectometry with the SLO," in Laser Scanning Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography, J.E.Nasemann and R.O. W.Burk, eds. (Quintessenz-Verlag, 1990), pp. 109-121.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of GDx-N.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the polarimetry algorithm that is used to compute different polarization content. Gray scale for one pixel is calculated for each of 20 polarization angles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vessel profiles across one artery in the depolarized light image of a normal subject. (Left) Eleven bisector lines were selected by a computer algorithm that finds adjacent parallel lines that are perpendicular to the vessel defined by selecting pixels on either side of the vessel. (Right) An average profile was calculated from the grayscale profile of 11 bisector lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retinal images of 66   year old Japanese man with a normal retina. (a) SLO image at 514 nm , (b) depolarized light images, (c) average reflectance image, (d) parallel polarized light image. SLO image at 514 nm , average reflectance image, and parallel polarized light image demonstrating the reflection at the center of the major retinal artery. This reflection was significantly reduced in the depolarized light images. Bar indicates the sample region for average vessel profiles of 11 bisector lines of retinal artery (A) and retinal vein (V). Bright spot in the center of each polarimetry image is an artifact due to internal reflections in the GDx-N.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Computed data for blood vessel profiles of a retinal artery and a retinal vein, in Fig. 3. Each profile was plotted as a percentage of maximum grayscale unit in each profile, as a function of location in profile.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Retinal images of 70   year old Japanese man with an ERM. (a) SLO image at 514 nm , (b) depolarized light images, (c) average reflectance image, (d) parallel polarized light image. ERM could be clearly visualized as the highly reflected area in the SLO image at 514 nm . In the depolarized light image, the retinal vessels could be clearly visualized in the area of the ERM. In the average reflectance image and parallel polarized light image, the retinal vessels were somewhat obscured by the ERM. Bar indicates the sample region for average vessel profiles of 11 bisector lines of retinal artery (A) and retinal vein (V). Bright spot in the center of each polarimetry image is an artifact due to internal reflections in the GDx-N.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Computed data for blood vessel profiles of a retinal artery and a retinal vein, in Fig. 5. Each profile was plotted as a percentage of maximum grayscale unit in each profile, as a function of location in profile.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Michelson contrast of retinal arteries and veins in normal retinas. Contrast is greatest in SLO images at 514 nm . Error bars indicate standard deviation of Michelson contrast.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Michelson contrast of retinal arteries and veins in the eyes with ERMs. Contrast is greatest in the depolarized light image. Error bars indicate standard deviation of Michelson contrast.

Equations (1)

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C = ( L max L min ) ( L max + L min ) ,

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