Abstract

To overcome the inconvenience and imprecision of conventional software performing microperimetry with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) in clinical settings, we developed a “smart microperimetry” program. It takes advantage of modern computer technology, especially processing speed and high rate of data transfer. It allows continuous on-line processing of the image of the retina and instantaneous correction of stimulus placement according to involuntary eye movements. Thus, the program provides gaze-contingent display of the stimulus and senses the conditions for image tracking so that stimulation during large eye movements, blinks, and temporarily flawed image quality can be prevented. These features have greatly increased the efficiency and precision of SLO data in comparison with those obtained by older programs.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, "Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 19, 2991-2997 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. A. Mainster, G. T. Timberlake, R. H. Webb, and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: clinical applications," Ophthalmology 89, 852-857 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  3. K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Nachmias, "Two-dimensional motion of the retinal image during monocular fixation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 901-908 (1959).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Isokoski and R. Raisamo, "Speed-accuracy measures in a population of six mice," in Proceedings of APCHI2002 (5th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction) (Science Press, Beijing, 2002), pp. 765-777.
  7. E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, and G. Timberlake, "Feature-based registration of retinal images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging MI-6, 272-278 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kube, S. Schmidt, F. Toonen, B. Kirchhof, and S. Wolf, "Fixation stability and macular light sensitivity in patients with diabetic maculopathy: a microperimetric study with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Ophthalmologica 219, 16-20 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Xu, R. Schuchard, D. Ross, and P. Benkeser, "Tracking retinal motion with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 42, 373-380 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. H. Solouma, A. B. Youssef, Y. A. Badr, and Y. M. Kadah, "A new real-time retinal tracking system for image-guided laser treatment," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1059-1067 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 1, 4621-4632 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. A. T. Bahill, A. Brockenbrough, and B. T. Troost, "Variability and development of a normative data base for saccadic eye movements," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 21, 117-127 (1981).
  16. L. Culham, F. W. Fitzke, G. T. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, "Assessment of fixation stability in normal subjects and patients using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 551-561 (1993).
  17. C. Bellmann, C. M. Feely, M. D. Crossland, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Fixation stability using central and pericentral fixation targets in patients with age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 111, 2265-2270 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.
  19. T. Warabi, M. Kase, and T. Kato, "Effect of aging on the accuracy of visually guided saccadic eye movement," Ann. Neurol. 16, 449-454 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. A. Abel, B. T. Troost, and L. F. Dell'Osso, "The effects of age on normal saccadic characteristics and their variability," Vision Res. 23, 33-37 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. Von Noorden and G. Mackensen, "Phenomenology of eccentric fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 642-659 (1962).
    [PubMed]
  22. D. C. Fletcher and R. A. Schuchard, "Preferred retinal loci. Relationship to macular scotomas in a low vision population," Ophthalmology 104, 632-638 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  23. H. Lei and R. A. Schuchard, "Using two preferred retinal loci for different lighting conditions in patients with central scotomas," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1812-1818 (1997).
  24. M. D. Crossland, L. E. Culham, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Preferred retinal locus development in patients with macular disease," Ophthalmology 112, 1579-1585 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. D. Crossland, M. Sims, R. F. Galbraith, and G. S. Rubin, "Evaluation of a new quantitative technique to assess the number and extent of preferred retinal loci in macular disease," Vision Res. 44, 1537-1546 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. F. Møller, M. L. Laursen, and A. K. Sjolie, "Fixation topography in normal test persons," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 577-582 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Strasburger and I. Rentschler, "Contrast-dependent dissociation of visual recognition and detection fields," Eur. J. Neurosci. 8, 1787-1791 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. MacKeben, A. Colenbrander, and A. Gofen, Use Your PC to Quickly Map Remaining Vision After Foveal Vision Loss. Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 307-316.

2005 (5)

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kube, S. Schmidt, F. Toonen, B. Kirchhof, and S. Wolf, "Fixation stability and macular light sensitivity in patients with diabetic maculopathy: a microperimetric study with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Ophthalmologica 219, 16-20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, R. Schuchard, D. Ross, and P. Benkeser, "Tracking retinal motion with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 42, 373-380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Crossland, L. E. Culham, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Preferred retinal locus development in patients with macular disease," Ophthalmology 112, 1579-1585 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Møller, M. L. Laursen, and A. K. Sjolie, "Fixation topography in normal test persons," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 577-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

M. D. Crossland, M. Sims, R. F. Galbraith, and G. S. Rubin, "Evaluation of a new quantitative technique to assess the number and extent of preferred retinal loci in macular disease," Vision Res. 44, 1537-1546 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reinhard, W. Inhoffen, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "A new SLO microperimetry using gaze-contingent stimulus placement," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2993 (2004).

C. Bellmann, C. M. Feely, M. D. Crossland, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Fixation stability using central and pericentral fixation targets in patients with age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 111, 2265-2270 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

G. T. Timberlake, M. K. Sharma, D. V. Gobert, and J. H. Maino, "Distortion and size calibration of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) laser-beam raster," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 772-777 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 1, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. H. Solouma, A. B. Youssef, Y. A. Badr, and Y. M. Kadah, "A new real-time retinal tracking system for image-guided laser treatment," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1059-1067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. C. Fletcher and R. A. Schuchard, "Preferred retinal loci. Relationship to macular scotomas in a low vision population," Ophthalmology 104, 632-638 (1997).
[PubMed]

H. Lei and R. A. Schuchard, "Using two preferred retinal loci for different lighting conditions in patients with central scotomas," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1812-1818 (1997).

1996 (1)

H. Strasburger and I. Rentschler, "Contrast-dependent dissociation of visual recognition and detection fields," Eur. J. Neurosci. 8, 1787-1791 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

L. Culham, F. W. Fitzke, G. T. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, "Assessment of fixation stability in normal subjects and patients using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 551-561 (1993).

1987 (1)

E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, and G. Timberlake, "Feature-based registration of retinal images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging MI-6, 272-278 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

T. Warabi, M. Kase, and T. Kato, "Effect of aging on the accuracy of visually guided saccadic eye movement," Ann. Neurol. 16, 449-454 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

L. A. Abel, B. T. Troost, and L. F. Dell'Osso, "The effects of age on normal saccadic characteristics and their variability," Vision Res. 23, 33-37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

M. A. Mainster, G. T. Timberlake, R. H. Webb, and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: clinical applications," Ophthalmology 89, 852-857 (1982).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

A. T. Bahill, A. Brockenbrough, and B. T. Troost, "Variability and development of a normative data base for saccadic eye movements," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 21, 117-127 (1981).

1980 (1)

1962 (1)

G. Von Noorden and G. Mackensen, "Phenomenology of eccentric fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 642-659 (1962).
[PubMed]

1959 (1)

Abel, L. A.

L. A. Abel, B. T. Troost, and L. F. Dell'Osso, "The effects of age on normal saccadic characteristics and their variability," Vision Res. 23, 33-37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apfelstedt-Sylla, E.

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Augliere, R. A.

E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, and G. Timberlake, "Feature-based registration of retinal images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging MI-6, 272-278 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Badr, Y. A.

N. H. Solouma, A. B. Youssef, Y. A. Badr, and Y. M. Kadah, "A new real-time retinal tracking system for image-guided laser treatment," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1059-1067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bahill, A. T.

A. T. Bahill, A. Brockenbrough, and B. T. Troost, "Variability and development of a normative data base for saccadic eye movements," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 21, 117-127 (1981).

Bellmann, C.

C. Bellmann, C. M. Feely, M. D. Crossland, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Fixation stability using central and pericentral fixation targets in patients with age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 111, 2265-2270 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benkeser, P.

Z. Xu, R. Schuchard, D. Ross, and P. Benkeser, "Tracking retinal motion with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 42, 373-380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brockenbrough, A.

A. T. Bahill, A. Brockenbrough, and B. T. Troost, "Variability and development of a normative data base for saccadic eye movements," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 21, 117-127 (1981).

Carroll, J.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colenbrander, A.

M. MacKeben, A. Colenbrander, and A. Gofen, Use Your PC to Quickly Map Remaining Vision After Foveal Vision Loss. Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 307-316.

Crossland, M. D.

M. D. Crossland, L. E. Culham, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Preferred retinal locus development in patients with macular disease," Ophthalmology 112, 1579-1585 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Crossland, M. Sims, R. F. Galbraith, and G. S. Rubin, "Evaluation of a new quantitative technique to assess the number and extent of preferred retinal loci in macular disease," Vision Res. 44, 1537-1546 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bellmann, C. M. Feely, M. D. Crossland, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Fixation stability using central and pericentral fixation targets in patients with age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 111, 2265-2270 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culham, L.

L. Culham, F. W. Fitzke, G. T. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, "Assessment of fixation stability in normal subjects and patients using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 551-561 (1993).

Culham, L. E.

M. D. Crossland, L. E. Culham, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Preferred retinal locus development in patients with macular disease," Ophthalmology 112, 1579-1585 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dell'Osso, L. F.

L. A. Abel, B. T. Troost, and L. F. Dell'Osso, "The effects of age on normal saccadic characteristics and their variability," Vision Res. 23, 33-37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietz, K.

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Doble, N.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, A. E.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 1, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feely, C. M.

C. Bellmann, C. M. Feely, M. D. Crossland, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Fixation stability using central and pericentral fixation targets in patients with age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 111, 2265-2270 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. D.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 1, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fitzke, F. W.

L. Culham, F. W. Fitzke, G. T. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, "Assessment of fixation stability in normal subjects and patients using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 551-561 (1993).

Fletcher, D. C.

D. C. Fletcher and R. A. Schuchard, "Preferred retinal loci. Relationship to macular scotomas in a low vision population," Ophthalmology 104, 632-638 (1997).
[PubMed]

Galbraith, R. F.

M. D. Crossland, M. Sims, R. F. Galbraith, and G. S. Rubin, "Evaluation of a new quantitative technique to assess the number and extent of preferred retinal loci in macular disease," Vision Res. 44, 1537-1546 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobert, D. V.

G. T. Timberlake, M. K. Sharma, D. V. Gobert, and J. H. Maino, "Distortion and size calibration of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) laser-beam raster," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 772-777 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gofen, A.

M. MacKeben, A. Colenbrander, and A. Gofen, Use Your PC to Quickly Map Remaining Vision After Foveal Vision Loss. Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 307-316.

Hammer, D. X.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 1, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, H. J.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, G. W.

M. A. Mainster, G. T. Timberlake, R. H. Webb, and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: clinical applications," Ophthalmology 89, 852-857 (1982).
[PubMed]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, "Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 19, 2991-2997 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inhoffen, W.

J. Reinhard, W. Inhoffen, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "A new SLO microperimetry using gaze-contingent stimulus placement," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2993 (2004).

Isokoski, P.

P. Isokoski and R. Raisamo, "Speed-accuracy measures in a population of six mice," in Proceedings of APCHI2002 (5th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction) (Science Press, Beijing, 2002), pp. 765-777.

Kabanarou, S. A.

M. D. Crossland, L. E. Culham, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Preferred retinal locus development in patients with macular disease," Ophthalmology 112, 1579-1585 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bellmann, C. M. Feely, M. D. Crossland, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Fixation stability using central and pericentral fixation targets in patients with age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 111, 2265-2270 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kadah, Y. M.

N. H. Solouma, A. B. Youssef, Y. A. Badr, and Y. M. Kadah, "A new real-time retinal tracking system for image-guided laser treatment," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1059-1067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kase, M.

T. Warabi, M. Kase, and T. Kato, "Effect of aging on the accuracy of visually guided saccadic eye movement," Ann. Neurol. 16, 449-454 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, T.

T. Warabi, M. Kase, and T. Kato, "Effect of aging on the accuracy of visually guided saccadic eye movement," Ann. Neurol. 16, 449-454 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchhof, B.

T. Kube, S. Schmidt, F. Toonen, B. Kirchhof, and S. Wolf, "Fixation stability and macular light sensitivity in patients with diabetic maculopathy: a microperimetric study with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Ophthalmologica 219, 16-20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kube, T.

T. Kube, S. Schmidt, F. Toonen, B. Kirchhof, and S. Wolf, "Fixation stability and macular light sensitivity in patients with diabetic maculopathy: a microperimetric study with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Ophthalmologica 219, 16-20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lakmann, R.

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Laursen, M. L.

F. Møller, M. L. Laursen, and A. K. Sjolie, "Fixation topography in normal test persons," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 577-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lei, H.

H. Lei and R. A. Schuchard, "Using two preferred retinal loci for different lighting conditions in patients with central scotomas," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1812-1818 (1997).

MacKeben, M.

M. MacKeben, A. Colenbrander, and A. Gofen, Use Your PC to Quickly Map Remaining Vision After Foveal Vision Loss. Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 307-316.

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Mackensen, G.

G. Von Noorden and G. Mackensen, "Phenomenology of eccentric fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 642-659 (1962).
[PubMed]

Magill, J. C.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 1, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maino, J. H.

G. T. Timberlake, M. K. Sharma, D. V. Gobert, and J. H. Maino, "Distortion and size calibration of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) laser-beam raster," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 772-777 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mainster, M. A.

M. A. Mainster, G. T. Timberlake, R. H. Webb, and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: clinical applications," Ophthalmology 89, 852-857 (1982).
[PubMed]

Marshall, J.

L. Culham, F. W. Fitzke, G. T. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, "Assessment of fixation stability in normal subjects and patients using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 551-561 (1993).

Messias, A.

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Møller, F.

F. Møller, M. L. Laursen, and A. K. Sjolie, "Fixation topography in normal test persons," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 577-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nachmias, J.

Peli, E.

E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, and G. Timberlake, "Feature-based registration of retinal images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging MI-6, 272-278 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pomerantzeff, O.

Putnam, N. M.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raisamo, R.

P. Isokoski and R. Raisamo, "Speed-accuracy measures in a population of six mice," in Proceedings of APCHI2002 (5th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction) (Science Press, Beijing, 2002), pp. 765-777.

Reinhard, J.

J. Reinhard, W. Inhoffen, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "A new SLO microperimetry using gaze-contingent stimulus placement," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2993 (2004).

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Rentschler, I.

H. Strasburger and I. Rentschler, "Contrast-dependent dissociation of visual recognition and detection fields," Eur. J. Neurosci. 8, 1787-1791 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero-Borja, F.

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, D.

Z. Xu, R. Schuchard, D. Ross, and P. Benkeser, "Tracking retinal motion with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 42, 373-380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, G. S.

M. D. Crossland, L. E. Culham, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Preferred retinal locus development in patients with macular disease," Ophthalmology 112, 1579-1585 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Crossland, M. Sims, R. F. Galbraith, and G. S. Rubin, "Evaluation of a new quantitative technique to assess the number and extent of preferred retinal loci in macular disease," Vision Res. 44, 1537-1546 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bellmann, C. M. Feely, M. D. Crossland, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Fixation stability using central and pericentral fixation targets in patients with age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 111, 2265-2270 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, S.

T. Kube, S. Schmidt, F. Toonen, B. Kirchhof, and S. Wolf, "Fixation stability and macular light sensitivity in patients with diabetic maculopathy: a microperimetric study with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Ophthalmologica 219, 16-20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scholl, H. P.

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Schuchard, R.

Z. Xu, R. Schuchard, D. Ross, and P. Benkeser, "Tracking retinal motion with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 42, 373-380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuchard, R. A.

H. Lei and R. A. Schuchard, "Using two preferred retinal loci for different lighting conditions in patients with central scotomas," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1812-1818 (1997).

D. C. Fletcher and R. A. Schuchard, "Preferred retinal loci. Relationship to macular scotomas in a low vision population," Ophthalmology 104, 632-638 (1997).
[PubMed]

Seeliger, M.

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Sharma, M. K.

G. T. Timberlake, M. K. Sharma, D. V. Gobert, and J. H. Maino, "Distortion and size calibration of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) laser-beam raster," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 772-777 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sims, M.

M. D. Crossland, M. Sims, R. F. Galbraith, and G. S. Rubin, "Evaluation of a new quantitative technique to assess the number and extent of preferred retinal loci in macular disease," Vision Res. 44, 1537-1546 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjolie, A. K.

F. Møller, M. L. Laursen, and A. K. Sjolie, "Fixation topography in normal test persons," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 577-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solouma, N. H.

N. H. Solouma, A. B. Youssef, Y. A. Badr, and Y. M. Kadah, "A new real-time retinal tracking system for image-guided laser treatment," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1059-1067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strasburger, H.

H. Strasburger and I. Rentschler, "Contrast-dependent dissociation of visual recognition and detection fields," Eur. J. Neurosci. 8, 1787-1791 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timberlake, G.

E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, and G. Timberlake, "Feature-based registration of retinal images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging MI-6, 272-278 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Timberlake, G. T.

G. T. Timberlake, M. K. Sharma, D. V. Gobert, and J. H. Maino, "Distortion and size calibration of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) laser-beam raster," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 772-777 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Culham, F. W. Fitzke, G. T. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, "Assessment of fixation stability in normal subjects and patients using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 551-561 (1993).

M. A. Mainster, G. T. Timberlake, R. H. Webb, and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: clinical applications," Ophthalmology 89, 852-857 (1982).
[PubMed]

Toonen, F.

T. Kube, S. Schmidt, F. Toonen, B. Kirchhof, and S. Wolf, "Fixation stability and macular light sensitivity in patients with diabetic maculopathy: a microperimetric study with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Ophthalmologica 219, 16-20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trauzettel-Klosinski, S.

J. Reinhard, W. Inhoffen, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "A new SLO microperimetry using gaze-contingent stimulus placement," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2993 (2004).

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Troost, B. T.

L. A. Abel, B. T. Troost, and L. F. Dell'Osso, "The effects of age on normal saccadic characteristics and their variability," Vision Res. 23, 33-37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Bahill, A. Brockenbrough, and B. T. Troost, "Variability and development of a normative data base for saccadic eye movements," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 21, 117-127 (1981).

Venkateswaran, K.

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Von Noorden, G.

G. Von Noorden and G. Mackensen, "Phenomenology of eccentric fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 642-659 (1962).
[PubMed]

Warabi, T.

T. Warabi, M. Kase, and T. Kato, "Effect of aging on the accuracy of visually guided saccadic eye movement," Ann. Neurol. 16, 449-454 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 1, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mainster, G. T. Timberlake, R. H. Webb, and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: clinical applications," Ophthalmology 89, 852-857 (1982).
[PubMed]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, "Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 19, 2991-2997 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, B. H.

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

White, M. A.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 1, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, S.

T. Kube, S. Schmidt, F. Toonen, B. Kirchhof, and S. Wolf, "Fixation stability and macular light sensitivity in patients with diabetic maculopathy: a microperimetric study with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Ophthalmologica 219, 16-20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu, R. Schuchard, D. Ross, and P. Benkeser, "Tracking retinal motion with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 42, 373-380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Youssef, A. B.

N. H. Solouma, A. B. Youssef, Y. A. Badr, and Y. M. Kadah, "A new real-time retinal tracking system for image-guided laser treatment," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1059-1067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zrenner, E.

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

G. Von Noorden and G. Mackensen, "Phenomenology of eccentric fixation," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 53, 642-659 (1962).
[PubMed]

Ann. Neurol. (1)

T. Warabi, M. Kase, and T. Kato, "Effect of aging on the accuracy of visually guided saccadic eye movement," Ann. Neurol. 16, 449-454 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and O. Pomerantzeff, "Flying spot TV ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 19, 2991-2997 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, J. C. Magill, M. A. White, A. E. Elsner, and R. H. Webb, "Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker," Appl. Opt. 1, 4621-4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Vision Sci. (1)

L. Culham, F. W. Fitzke, G. T. Timberlake, and J. Marshall, "Assessment of fixation stability in normal subjects and patients using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Clin. Vision Sci. 8, 551-561 (1993).

Eur. J. Neurosci. (1)

H. Strasburger and I. Rentschler, "Contrast-dependent dissociation of visual recognition and detection fields," Eur. J. Neurosci. 8, 1787-1791 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

F. Møller, M. L. Laursen, and A. K. Sjolie, "Fixation topography in normal test persons," Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244, 577-582 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

N. H. Solouma, A. B. Youssef, Y. A. Badr, and Y. M. Kadah, "A new real-time retinal tracking system for image-guided laser treatment," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49, 1059-1067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, and G. Timberlake, "Feature-based registration of retinal images," IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging MI-6, 272-278 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (3)

J. Reinhard, W. Inhoffen, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "A new SLO microperimetry using gaze-contingent stimulus placement," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 2993 (2004).

A. T. Bahill, A. Brockenbrough, and B. T. Troost, "Variability and development of a normative data base for saccadic eye movements," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 21, 117-127 (1981).

H. Lei and R. A. Schuchard, "Using two preferred retinal loci for different lighting conditions in patients with central scotomas," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 38, 1812-1818 (1997).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Venkateswaran, A. Roorda, and F. Romero-Borja, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. (1)

Z. Xu, R. Schuchard, D. Ross, and P. Benkeser, "Tracking retinal motion with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 42, 373-380 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vision (1)

N. M. Putnam, H. J. Hofer, N. Doble, L. Chen, J. Carroll, and D. R. Williams, "The locus of fixation and the foveal cone mosaic," J. Vision 5, 632-639 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmologica (1)

T. Kube, S. Schmidt, F. Toonen, B. Kirchhof, and S. Wolf, "Fixation stability and macular light sensitivity in patients with diabetic maculopathy: a microperimetric study with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Ophthalmologica 219, 16-20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (4)

M. A. Mainster, G. T. Timberlake, R. H. Webb, and G. W. Hughes, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: clinical applications," Ophthalmology 89, 852-857 (1982).
[PubMed]

C. Bellmann, C. M. Feely, M. D. Crossland, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Fixation stability using central and pericentral fixation targets in patients with age-related macular degeneration," Ophthalmology 111, 2265-2270 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Crossland, L. E. Culham, S. A. Kabanarou, and G. S. Rubin, "Preferred retinal locus development in patients with macular disease," Ophthalmology 112, 1579-1585 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Fletcher and R. A. Schuchard, "Preferred retinal loci. Relationship to macular scotomas in a low vision population," Ophthalmology 104, 632-638 (1997).
[PubMed]

Optom. Vision Sci. (1)

G. T. Timberlake, M. K. Sharma, D. V. Gobert, and J. H. Maino, "Distortion and size calibration of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) laser-beam raster," Optom. Vision Sci. 80, 772-777 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (2)

L. A. Abel, B. T. Troost, and L. F. Dell'Osso, "The effects of age on normal saccadic characteristics and their variability," Vision Res. 23, 33-37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Crossland, M. Sims, R. F. Galbraith, and G. S. Rubin, "Evaluation of a new quantitative technique to assess the number and extent of preferred retinal loci in macular disease," Vision Res. 44, 1537-1546 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. MacKeben, A. Colenbrander, and A. Gofen, Use Your PC to Quickly Map Remaining Vision After Foveal Vision Loss. Perimetry Update 1998/1999, M.Wall and J.M.Wild, eds. (Kugler, 1999), pp. 307-316.

J. Reinhard, A. Messias, K. Dietz, M. MacKeben, R. Lakmann, H. P. Scholl, E. Apfelstedt-Sylla, B. H. Weber, M. Seeliger, E. Zrenner, and S. Trauzettel-Klosinski, "Quantifying fixation in patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy," submitted to Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

Matrox Imaging, ActiveMIL Version 8 User Guide (no. 10781-301-0800) (Matrox Electronic Systems, 2005), Chap. 7, pp. 191-220.

P. Isokoski and R. Raisamo, "Speed-accuracy measures in a population of six mice," in Proceedings of APCHI2002 (5th Asia Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction) (Science Press, Beijing, 2002), pp. 765-777.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic showing the connections among the devices controlling the SLO that aid the acquisition and real-time processing of data produced by it.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

One of several possible configurations of five patches that can be searched by the pattern-matching routine simultaneously. The x , y coordinates of the shifts caused by eye movements are then compared in a “voting” process. Note the image of a large fixation cross produced by the He Ne laser in the center of the macula.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Work screen divided into four quadrants: Upper left, moving image of the retina. Colored dots show the tested locations, and the colors indicate whether a flashing light spot was detected (green) or not detected (red) in this location. Upper right, snapshot of the patient’s central retina that does not move with the patient’s eye movements. The colored vertical strip between the two upper quadrants indicates whether the current conditions for tracking of the image of the retina are favorable. Lower right, shows a fixation mark that is sent via the scan converter to the He Ne laser in the SLO. The He Ne laser scans the image onto the patient’s retina, which is visible in the images in the upper quadrants. Lower left, controls for the various features of the smart microperimetry program.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dwell-time histogram with bin size of 1.5 ° . Three-dimensional graph showing the retinal x and y coordinates indicating where the feature (a fixation mark) was located on the retina of (a) a normally sighted subject and (b) a patient with juvenile macular dystrophy (M. Stargardt). The z axis (height of bars) shows cumulatively in how many frames the image of the fixation mark was found during 10 s long recordings. Note that in the normally sighted subject [(a)], all values fit into one bin, so that the normal instability of fixation does not show here. The two clusters of bars (b) show that this patient used two preferred retinal loci (PRLs). Scatter within the bar clusters indicates lack of precision of the fixational eye movements in the patient.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two standardized grid patterns, one radial (left) and one rectangular (right). Each dot marks a location on the retina where the stimulus will be automatically placed during microperimetry. The sequence of stimulated locations is randomized to prevent anticipatory eye movements. Other grids can be independently scripted by the user as necessary.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summarizing All Improvements Made by SMP over Conventional Micro-perimetry

Metrics